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360

365

Thesauros, ignotum argenti pondus et auri.
His commota fugam Dido sociosque parabat.
Conveniunt, quibus aut odium crudele tyranni
Aut metus acer erat; naves, quae forte paratae,
Corripiunt onerantque auro. Portantur avari
Pygmalionis opes pelago; dux foemina facti.
Devenere locos, ubi nunc ingentia cernis
Moenia surgentemque novae Carthaginis arcem,
Mercatique solum, facti de nomine Byrsam,
Taurino quantum possent circumdare tergo.
Sed vos qui tandem, quibus aut venistis ab oris,
Quove tenetis iter?' Quaerenti talibus ille
Suspirans imoque trahens a pectore vocem:

O dea, si prima repetens ab origine pergam,
Et vacet annales nostrorum audire laborum :
Ante diem clauso componet vesper Olympo.
Nos Troja antiqua, si vestras forte per aures
Trojae nomen iit, diversa per aequora vectos
Forte sua Libycis tempestas appulit oris.
Sum pius Aeneas, raptos qui ex hoste Penates

370

375

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and G. 2, 313.-360. Fugam sociosque parabat, by zeugma : viding for her flight, and procuring associates' (in her enterprise). -361. Before quibus supply omnes. Crudele, excessive.'-362. Forte paratae (sunt), happened to be ready.'—364. Opes, which he had intended to grasp.-365. Locos ad locos. (Nunc) cernis, wilt (presently) perceive = cernere licet, or cernere potes, WAGNER.–367. Mercati (sc. sunt). Byrsam. Virgil here follows the common fable, deriving Byrsa from Búgoc, hide ;' but the Punic word BOTSRAH=Hebrew BATSUR, locus munitus, means simply a citadel' or 'fortified place.'368. Tergo for the common ablative tergore (corio).-369. Tandem. See note on verse 331.

374. Ante - antequam. Componet. Wagner would read componat, but Forbiger rightly retains the common reading, componet. A beautiful image is here presented. According to popular belief, the Sun-god retired for repose after the toil of running his daily course, Vesper leading him to his couch, and the gates of heaven being closed till the return of a new day. Olympus coelum : cf. Ed. 5, 56.–375. Construe: tempestas, sua forte (that is, casu, qualem tempestas afferre solet) appulit oris Libycis nos vectos per diversa aequora (ab) antiqua Trojasi forte nomen Trojae it per vestras aures (that is, has reached your ears ?).—376. Diversa, different' from those we intended to cross,

out of our course,' or, 'remote.' This whole passage originates from Hom. Od. 9, 259, &c.—378. Sum pius Aeneas. Aeneas had merited this honourable epithet (pius), in patrem, in patriam, and in deos ; it is used here in the last sense, as is shewn by the words, raptos qui ex hoste Penates classe vcho mecum. As to raptos Penates, see

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Classe veho mecum, fama super aethera notus.
Italiam quaero patriam et genus ab Jove summo. 380
Bis denis Phrygium conscendi navibus aequor,
Matre dea monstrante viam, data fata secutus ;
Vix septem convulsae undis Euroque supersunt.
Ipse ignotus, egens, Libyae deserta peragro,
Europa atque Asia pulsus.' Nec plura querentem 385
Passa Venus medio sic interfata dolore est :

Quisquis es, haud, credo, invisus coelestibus auras
Vitales carpis, Tyriam qui adveneris urbem.
Perge modo atque hinc te reginae ad limina perfer.
Namque tibi reduces socios classemque relatam 390
Nuncio et in tutum versis aquilonibus actam,
Ni frustra augurium vani docuere parentes.
Aspice bis senos laetantes agmine cycnos,
Aetheria quos lapsa plaga Jovis ales aperto

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verses 6, 68; and A. 2, 293.—379. Famā notus is not so much a personal boast as a reference to the celebrity of those engaged in the Trojan war.- -380. Italiam, &c. In this verse, et is omitted by some, thus making genus ab Jove summo a further statement of what Aeneas was. Wagner, however, rightly considers that his personal description terminates at notus, and that this verse merely states the object he had before him—the reaching Italy, the land of his forefathers, the gentis cunabula nostrae of A. 3, 105, which see.--381. Phrygium aequor

, the sea washing the shores of the Troad in Phrygia Minor. Aeneas embarked from Troas in Phrygia.-382. Data fata secutus, having followed the oracular directions granted (me).' Fata is thus used frequently in the sense of oracles :' cf. A. 4, 614; 5, 703; 6, 45 and 376: Cic. Div. 1, 44, 100: Liv. 5, 15, 4; 29, 10, 8; also Fata Sibyllina, apud Cic. Cat. 3, 4, 9.-383. In this verse, vix may be construed either with septem, and mean 'seven only;' or with the participle, convulsae, ' with difficulty saved :' the former, however, is decidedly preferable ; 'ex harum, undis Euroque convulsarum, numero yix septem supersunt, WAGNER. Convulsae quassatae, shattered.'-— 384. Ignotus, . not known to be Aeneas. 385. Nec = et non, as frequently. construes: et interfata (est) eum querentem, non passa (eum queri) plura; and Forbiger: either, non passa querentem, for non passa eum queri plura; or interfata querentem, non passa (sc. queri plura).

388. Carpis vitales auras = vivis, you live. Virgil, as well as Lucretius, mostly uses aurae in the plural to denote the air we breathe. Qui adveneris has the force of quoniam advenisti, and gives her ground for stating that he is haud invisus coelestibus, “a favourite with heaven.' -392. Vani, 'being misled, misleading (one).' Thus: vani referring to haruspices, Cic. Div. 1, 19, 36.-393. Senos = sex, 'six.' Laetantes, rejoicing,' after having escaped the pursuit of the eagle (Jovis ales). Cycnos. The swan was sacred to Venus.—394. The eagle was the fabled bearer of the thunderbolt; hence he is styled Jovis ales : cf. A. 12, 247.

Wagner

395

400

Turbabat coelo; nunc terras ordine longo
Aut capere aut captas jam despectare videntur:
Ut reduces illi ludunt stridentibus alis,
Et coetu cinxere polum cantusque dedere,
Haud aliter puppesque tuae pubesque tuorum
Aut portum tenet, aut pleno subit ostia velo.
Perge modo, et, qua te ducit via, dirige gressum.'

Dixit, et avertens rosea cervice refulsit,
Ambrosiaeque comae divinum vertice odorem
Spiravere; pedes vestis defluxit ad imos,
Et vera incessu patuit dea. Ille, ubi matrem
Agnovit, tali fugientem est voce secutus :
'Quid natum toties, crudelis tu quoque, falsis
Ludis imaginibus ? cur dextrae jungere dextram
Non datur, ac veras audire et reddere voces ?'
Talibus incusat, gressumque ad moenia tendit.

405

410

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In A. 9, 564, he is styled Jovis armiger; and regia ales, in Ov. M. 4, 362. Aperto, open,' affording no refuge from the enemy's attack, FORBIGER. ---395. Turbabat, ‘was (lately) disturbing,' throwing into disorder.' Nunc .... videntur, now in a long train they seem either to take their stations on the ground, or to look down on those already chosen' (that is, hover over the spot where they are about to alight). This corresponds with verse 400, aut portum tenet (= terras capere), aut pleno subit ostia velo (= despectare). The omen presents itself to Aeneas in three aspects : Venus first points to the twelve swans moving along

in a straight line' (agmine). A moment after, while she is still speaking, they begin to sink gradually to the earth; and when the goddess utters the words, nunc .... videntur, some of them have already alighted; the remainder are hovering over, and preparing to follow their example. The next moment, all are on the ground, clustering together, and expressing by their notes the joy they feel at their wonderful escape. So it is with the twelve ships of Aeneas : the storm that scattered them is the eagle ; having escaped this, some of them, at the moment Venus is speaking, are already safe in harbour; others are entering under full sail, looking at their companions safely riding at anchor; the next moment all are safe in, when shouts of joy and mutual greetings take place.—397. Redăces, returning safely.' Stridentibus alis, with rustling wings.'-398. Coetu cinxêre polum, 'in a body wheeled through the air.' Observe the change of tense: the perfect tenses mark what has preceded their present joyous return to Elie earth.-401. Modo brings back the mind to verse 389.

404. Cf. verse 337. Here the disguise is dropped.-405. Vera ... dea, 'by her majestic gait her divinity was displayed :' the a in deă is not elided. In thesis, as here, this often occurs when the sense is completed; and also where a long final vowel is sho ned before another, as in Ecl. 2, 65.-407. Falsis imaginibus, 'assumed appearances.'-409. Veras, in your real character. -410. Gressum.

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415

420

At Venus obscuro gradientes aëre saepsit,
Et multo nebulae circum dea fudit amictu,
Cernere ne quis eos, neu quis contingere posset,
Molirive moram, aut veniendi poscere causas.
Ipsa Paphum sublimis abit sedesque revisit
Laeta suas, ubi templum illi centumque Sabaeo
Ture calent arae sertisque recentibus halant.

Corripuere viam interea, qua semita monstrat.
Jamque ascendebant collem, qui plurimus urbi
Imminet, adversasque aspectat desuper arces.
Miratur molem Aeneas, magalia quondam,
Miratur portas strepitumque et strata viarum.
Instant ardentes Tyrii : pars ducere muros,
Molirique arcem et manibus subvolvere saxa;
Pars optare locum tecto et concludere sulco;
Jura magistratusque legunt sanctumque senatum;
Hic portus alii effodiunt; hic alta theatri
Fundamenta locant alii, immanesque columnas
Rupibus excidunt, scenis decora alta futuris:
Qualis apes aestate nova per florea rura

425

430

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Their gait was gressus, that of Venus, incessus.—412. Circum dea fudit, by tmesis for dea circumfudit. This approach of Aeneas to Carthage is a close imitation of that of Ulysses to the palace of Alcinous in the first book of the Odyssey.—416. Sabaco ture, “Sabaean frankincense." The Sabaei occupied a district in the south-west of Arabia Felix, whence the best frankincense was obtained. See G. 1, 57; and 2, 117. There was no blood shed in the worship of Venus.

418. Corripuêre viam = iter celeravêre. Rapere often occurs in the same sense.-419. The succession of spondees in this verse form a good example of onomatopeia. Plurimus, lofty,' or 'huge and lofty: ' cf. G. 3, 52.-420. Aspectat, commands a view of :' cf. Tacitus, Agr. 1, Britannia Hiberniam aspicit.—421. Molem, magalia quondam,

massive edifices where huts hitherto stood.' The magalia, being constructed of mud, were stationary, whereas the mapalia of Sallust (J. 18) were of wood, and movable: cf. A. 4, 259, 260; and G. 3, 340. Mugulia is a diminutive of the Punic magar or magūr, a villa.422. Strepitum, the din.' Strata viarum = stratas vias, streets,' “ paved ways.' --- 423. Instant (sc. operi); ply the work. Ducere and the following are what are styled historic infinitives,' used to convey the idea of animated progression.—425. Optare, 'choose." Concludere sulco = fossam ducere.-426. Legunt, by zeugma: 'they' enact laws, elect magistrates, and constitute a sacred senate.' Many rashly consider this line as an interpolation.–430. Qualis ; that is, talis labor eos exercet, qualis exercet apes.

in spring-time." All this passage occurs, with little variation, in G. 4, 162–169 : cf. also A. 6, 707-709; and Hom. Il. 2, 87: cf. also G. 4, 210-221, in which

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Aestate nova,

435

440

Exercet sub sole labor; quum gentis adultos
Educunt fetus, aut quum liquentia mella
Stipant et dulci distendunt nectare cellas,
Aut onera accipiunt venientum, aut agmine facto
Ignavum fucos pecus a praesepibus arcent;
Fervet opus, redolentque thymo fragrantia mella.
'O fortunati, quorum jam moenia surgunt!'
Aeneas ait, et fastigia suspicit urbis.
Infert se saeptus nebula-mirabile dictu-
Per medios miscetque viris; neque cernitur ulli.

Lucus in urbe fuit media laetissimus umbrae,
Quo primum, jactati undis et turbine, Poeni
Effodere loco signum, quod regia Juno
Monstrarat, caput acris equi; sic nam fore bello
Egregiam et facilem victu per saecula gentem.
Hic templum Junoni ingens Sidonia Dido
Condebat, donis opulentum et numine divae,
Aerea cui gradibus surgebant limina, nexaeque
Aere trabes; foribus cardo stridebat ahenis
Hoc primum in luco nova res oblata timorem

445

450

Virgil compares the internal economy of the hive to that of the kings of the Medes, the Parthians, and the Egyptians. The simile in the text is exceedingly happy when we consider the fondness of becs for colonisation, and the industry and order in their management of their affairs.-431. Sub sole, ' in the sunshine: ' cf. Ecl. 2, 13.-432. Liquentia = stillantia. The first syllable of līquentia is long here and in A. 9, 679, but short in A. 5, 238, 776.—433. Stipant, they stow away closely. 434. Agmine facto, in a marshalled band.–438. Aeneas saw all this while crossing the hill, but he was now at the foot of it; hence suspicit. Fastigia properly means gable-peaks, but here may be rendered

the lofty buildings.'—439. Infert se, he moves onward.'—440. Ulli is the dative of the agent, 'by any one.'

441. In conformity with this legend, the Carthaginian coins bore a horse's head. Laetissimus umbrae, luxuriant in shade.'—442. Construe primum with signum, “omen;' and cf. primum omen, A. 3, 537.445. Facilem victu, abounding in the resources of easy affluence,

certain to flourish.' It has been conjectured that we should read haud for et; that is, haud facilem victu, 'invincible, deriving victu from vinco. If victu be taken as a substantive, the meaning will be that first given.-446. Sidonia, “Sidonian.' Sidon was an older city than Tyre. When Joshua took possession of Palestine, Sidon was rich and powerful. It is now called Saida.--447. Donis, offerings.' Numine divae, 'with a statue of the goddess,' HEYNE ; or in consequence her superior divinity,' which attracted votaries to her shrine, WAGNER. -448. By synapheia, elide -que at the end of this verse. — 449. Aere trabes. The posts were either brazen, or more

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