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Bella gero.


Et quisquam numen Junonis adorat
Praeterea, aut supplex aris imponet honorem ?'

Talia flammato secum dea corde volutans,
Nimborum in patriam, loca feta furentibus austris,
Aeoliam venit. Hic vasto rex Aeolus antro
Luctantes ventos tempestatesque sonoras
Imperio premit ac vinclis et carcere frenat.
Illi indignantes magno cum murmure montis
Circum claustra fremunt. Celsa sedet Aeolus arce,
Sceptra tenens, mollitque animos et temperat iras.
Ni faciat, maria ac terras coelumque profundum
Quippe ferant rapidi secum verrantque per auras.
Sed pater omnipotens speluncis abdidit atris,
Hoc metuens, molemque et montes insuper altos



whereas the ablative regards an interval between two fixed points of time, and is generally accompanied by abhinc.—48. Bella gero. Pallas could destroy at a blow, I'must wage a tedious war.'—49. Practerea =posthac. To account for the use of the different tenses, adorat and imponet, observe that praeterea adorat is a strong future, more emphatic than adorabit. Heyne reads adoret imponat; but in interrogations the subjunctive expresses doubt, the indicative, wonder and indignation, as in this passage. Honorem, 'sacrifice.' Altare is an altar' to one of the dii superi only; ara, to any deity or hero.

50. Volutans, 'intently (earnestly) revolving.' Observe how well adapted to the laughtiness of Juno's character is the abrupt termination of her speech. — 51. Nimborum, cloud collecting storms.' Austris. "South winds' in the Mediterranean are the fiercest; but the poets generally make an indiscriminate use of the name of any one violent wind for that of any other.-52. Aeoliam ; that is, Lipara, the principal of the Aeolian Islands, now the Lipari. In consequence of his having had a taste for meteorological observations, Aeolus, son of Hippotas, obtained the title of King of the Winds. Construe: premit (in) antro.53. Luctantes, struggling' to escape. Observe in this line an example of onomatopeia (adaptation of the sound to the sense), which Virgil, in imitation of Homer, has cultivated with more success than any other Latin poet. There are some fine examples of it in the translations by Pope and Dryden.—54. Car

This word defines the meaning of vinclis (= vinculis), which is not to be taken as = compedibus, which the most daring poet would • not apply to the winds: simple 'imprisonment' only is intended.

Frenat, curbs.' — 55. Indignantes, 'impatient of control.' Magno cum murmure montis; that is, 'with a loud rumbling noise :' cum is pleonastic. Such figurative use of this phrase often occurs, and sufficiently decides against the construing of claustra with montis: cf. verse 245.—58. Ni=nisi : when a fact is stated, nisi is joined with the indicative mood; when a contingency, with the subjunctive-ni faciat, unless he do this.'—59. Quippe, certainly.'–61. Hoc metuens must be distinguished from id metuens (see verse 23): id metuens is predicated


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Imposuit regemque dedit, qui foedere certo
Et premere et laxas sciret dare jussus habenas.
Ad quem tum Juno supplex his vocibus usa est:

'Acole-namque tibi divum pater atque hominum rex Et mulcere dedit fluctus et tollere vento

Gens inimica mihi Tyrrhenum navigat aequor,
Ilium in Italiam portans victosque Penates :
Incute vim ventis submersasque obrue puppes ;
Aut age diversos et disjice corpora ponto.

Sunt mihi bis septem praestanti corpore Nymphae;
Quarum, quae forma pulcherrima Desopea,
Connubio jungam stabili propriamque dicabo,
Omnes ut tecum, meritis pro talibus, annos
Exigat, et pulchra faciat te prole parentem.'

75 Aeolus haec contra: “Tuus, O regina, quid optes, Explorare labor; mihi jussa capessere fas est.

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of one who fears a coming evil, but is uncertain when it will occur ; whereas hoc metuens refers to something about to take place immediately, the pronoun hic thus retaining its fundamental meaning, necessarily regarding what is either present' or just at hand:' the id metuens may be paraphrased ob talem metum; and hoc metuens, ob hunc metum. Molem et altos montes = molem altorum montium (by hendiadys); or the et may be explanatory, "a mighty mass, even lofty mountains.' Insuper imposuit = superimposuit.62. Foedere certo, by fixed laws,' which may be understood to refer to the immutable laws of nature.—63. Premere, 'to rein in.' Jussus, 'when ordered to do so (by Jupiter):' cf. verse 77.

66. Dedit mulcere, a Hellenism dedit potestatem mulcendi.-68. Tium. The city of Troy was also called Ilium, Dardania, and Teucria, from the names of some of its kings. Nium portans; that is, seeking a dwellingplace in Italy, with the intention of founding a new kingdom there, so that it might seem to be the kingdom of Troy continued. Victos,

conquered, because unable to defend Troy. Penates ; properly, the tutelary gods’ of a particular nation; Lares, those of a family; and Genii, those of single individuals.—69. Submersas obrue = submerge et obrue.70. Dirersos; mark the gender, meaning (not the ships, but). the crew.—72. Deiopēa, probably one of the Aurae, or nymphs of the air.—73. Connubio. With Heyne, pronounce con--byo. Throughout his works, Virgil displays a thorough knowledge and observance of Roman forms and usages, as well as much antiquarian research. Of the former, we have here an instance in the use of connubio, which was the technical term for a marriage legal in all its conditions. Propriam, "an inalienable possession. Dicabo, will dedicate.'74. Meritis pro talibus, ' for such services rendered

76. Tuus, &c., 'thy province it is, o queen, to consider duly what thou wishest; my duty, to execute thy commands instantly.' In these words Aeolus would secure himself against censure from other parties.


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Tu mihi, quodcumque hoc regni, tu sceptra Jovemque
Concilias; tu das epulis accumbere divum,
Nimborumque facis tempestatumque potentem.' 80

Haec ubi dicta, cavum conversa cuspide montem
Impulit in latus; ac venti, velut agmine facto
Qua data porta, ruunt et terras turbine perflant.
Incubuere mari, totumque a sedibus imis
Una Eurusque Notusque ruunt, creberque procellis 85
Africus et vastos volvunt ad litora fluctus.
Insequitur clamorque virum stridorque rudentum.
Eripiunt subito nubes coelumque diemque
Teucrorum ex oculis; ponto nox incubat atra.
Intonuere poli et crebris micat ignibus aether; 90
Praesentemque viris intentant omnia mortem.
Extemplo Aeneae solvuntur frigore membra;
Ingemit et, duplices tendens ad sidera palmas,
Talia voce refert: 'O terque quaterque beati,
Quis ante ora patrum Trojae sub moenibus altis 95

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--78. Tu mihi, &c., “thou, by thy influence, hast procured for me all this dominion; thou, my sceptre and the favour of Jupiter.'. Observe here the emphatic repetition of tu.79. Tu.. divům, “it is thy gift that I recline at the banquet of the gods.' Epulum ='a religious feast;' epulae ='a sumptuous entertainment,' 'a banquet.' -80. Potentem, substantively, the ruler.'

81. Cuspide, sceptre.'—82. In latus, 'on the side.' Agmine facto, as in marshalled band:' cf. agmen aquarum, G. 1, 322.-83. Porta,

a vent.' Ruunt, though neuter here, is active in verse 85.-84. Incubuēre, rushed with violence :' cf. G. 2, 377; Hor. Od. 1, 330; Juv. 6, 292.-—Verses 85 and 86 are fine examples of onomatopeia. Ruunt

- eruunt, “harrow up from its profoundest depths.' Ruo is transitive also in A. 1, 35; 11, 211; and G. 2, 308.—87. Virum = virorum. Stridor rudentum, 'the whistling of the cordage.' Observe the recurrence of the letter r in each word of this verse, expressing the horror of the scene.-89. Teucrorum = Trojanorum : cf. verse 38, note.90. Poli, the heavens from pole to pole.' The extremities of the supposed axis on which the heavens were believed to revolve, were called poli.-92. Aeneae solvuntur frigore membra, are unnerved by terror.' The excessive emotion of Aeneas must not be judged by our standard: the ancients, from religious feelings, regarded death by shipwreck as most dreadful, for by it they were deprived of sepulture. Aeneas wishes he had fallen in battle, the danger being in this case one against which human exertion must be unavailing.-93. Duplices, both, or perhaps better, clasped.-94. Terque quaterquez, exquisitely - f. G. 2, 399; A. 12, 155; Hor. Od, 1, 13, 17, and 31, 13; Sat, 2, 7, 76.–95. Quis contigit, “to whom it happened : quis = quibus.

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Contigit oppetere! 0 Danaum fortissime gentis,
Tydide, mene Iliacis occumbere campis
Non potuisse tuaque animam hanc effundere dextra!
Saevus ubi Aeacidae telo jacet Hector, ubi ingens
Sarpedon, ubi tot Simoïs correpta sub undis 100
Scuta virum galeasque et fortia corpora volvit!'

Talia jactanti stridens Aquilone procella
Velum adversa ferit fluctusque ad sidera tollit.
Franguntur remi; tum prora avertit et undis
Dat latus; insequitur cumulo praeruptus aquae mons.
Hi summo in fluctu pendent; his unda dehiscens 106
Terram inter fluctus aperit; furit aestus arenis.
Tres Notus abreptas in saxa latentia torquet:
Saxa vocant Itali, mediis quae in fluctibus, Aras—

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96. Oppetere and obire mortem thus differ : the former is, 'to meet death with fortitude;' the latter, simply to die.-97. Tydide, Diomede,' with whom, according to Homer (Il. 5, 239, &c.), Aeneas engaged in single combat, and would have been slain but for the intervention of Venus and Apollo. — 99. Saevus, dreadful in his fury,' implies no reproach, but indicates a quality esteemed honourable in war. This application of the epithet to Hector by his intimate friend Aeneas, shews plainly that Roman writers did not use it in the sense of crudelis, but in reference to enthusiastic energy, valour in war, or anything else in which vehemence of action was necessary or consistent. In this sense it is nearly = fortis, magnus, potens ; devós, ásvós, árnus, &c. Aeacidae, 'Achilles,' grandson of Aeacus, by his father Peleus. Jacet, 'is laid low.' The present is thus often used for the perfect when the remembrance of the event is still fresh in the mind : cf. fumat in A. 3, 3.–100. Sarpēdon, king of Lycia, one of the tributaries of Priam, and slain by Patroclus: cf. Hom. 11. 2, 876; 6, 198; 16, 419, &c.—101. Scuta: Scutum is properly "an oblong wooden shield;' clypeus, ' a round brass shield;' and parma, 'a round leather shield.'

102. Jactanti, " whilst earnestly uttering. Procella, “a squall.:103. Ferit, 'shivers.'-104. Avertit (sese) = avertitur. The helm having lost its power, the vessel · luffs ' (up, round), and exposes her lee-side to the waves.-105. Cumulo .... mons, 'a broken-crested mountainwave in a vast billow.'—106. Hi.... his. Heyne makes hi refer to those' on one side of the vessel in which Aeneas was; his, to those on the other; but Wagner and others more accurately make them refer to the crews of different ships of the squadron.—107. Terram aperit, discloses the bottom. Arenis is the sand’ at the bottom, not that on the shore; that is, the boiling surge rages with intermingled sand.'-108. Tres, supply nares. Notus is here used in a general sense, for a south wind' would not propel the ships towards the west. So in verse 110, Eurus is employed with similar latitude. - 109. Construe: Saxa, in mediis fluctibus, quae Itali rooant Aras. The reference is thought to be to two small rocks in the vicinity

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Dorsum immane mari summo. Tres Eurus ab alto 110
In brevia et syrtes urguet, miserabile visu,
Illiditque vadis atque aggere cingit arenae.
Unam, quae Lycios fidumque vehebat Oronten,
Ipsius ante oculos ingens a vertice pontus
In puppim ferit : excutitur pronusque magister 115
Volvitur in caput; ast illam ter fluctus ibidem
Torquet agens circum, et rapidus vorat aequore vortex.
Apparent rari nantes in gurgite vasto,
Arma virum tabulaeque et Troïa gaza per undas.
Jam validam Ilionei navem, jam fortis Achatae, 120
Et qua vectus Abas et qua grandaevus Aletes,
Vicit hiems: laxis laterum compagibus omnes
Accipiunt inimicum imbrem rimisque fatiscunt.

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of the island of Aegimurus, now called Zimbra, or Zowa-moore, a small island outside the Bay of Carthage. The name Arae may have originated from their resemblance to “altars ;' others think they were so called from their having been the scene of a treaty between Rome and Carthage, at the end of the first Punic War. But the Aegates, where the Carthaginian fleet was defeated by Lutatius Catulus, is more probably the scene of the conclusion of this treaty. This verse is regarded by Servius as an interpolation.—110. Dorsum immane, 'a vast ridge? or reef, in apposition to saxa. — -111. In breria ct syrtes, on shoals and quicksands. There is no allusion here to the Syrtes of ancient geography, the reference is merely general. They were too remote from Carthage and Arae to be specially intended. — 113. Lycios, a people of Asia Minor, who followed the fortunes of Aeneas after their leader, Pandarus, had been slain by Diomede. The name Orontes seems to be one invented by Virgil, as no such appellation occurs in Homer.—114. Ingens a vertice pontus : cf. G. 2, 310; a vertice = desuper. — 115. Excutitur, &c., the helmsman (Leucaspis) is washed overboard.'—116. Ter is indefinite here: similar examples may be seen in verse 94 ; 3, 421; 4, 690; 10, 873. — 117. Vorat, “ingulfs.' – 118. Rari, “all about,' here and there.'—119. Arma, “shields of osier covered with skins,' hence capable of floating: cf. Livy, 1, 37. With arma and gaza repeat apparent. Tabulae, being coupled with gaza, may mean paintings,' though it is generally rendered planks. Gaza, riches,' is a Shemitic word occurring in all the languages of the family, either as a common or a proper noun.

It is the name of the ancient treasure' city of the Philistines. — 120. Ilioneus and Abas are names which occur in Homer (1l. , 148, &c.; 14, 489, &c.), but not these characters. In Homer, they are made to fall in the Trojan war. --121. Grandaevus is first used by Virgil.–122. Hiems, the storm.? Compagibus, 'the seams.?

?-123. Inimicum imbrem, the fatal element.' Imber is used in this sense, sea-water,' by Ennius and Lucretius, and also by succeeding poets, as Statius. Rimisque fatiscunt ; that is, solvuntur ut rimas agant.



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