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visits the temple of Juno, and sees depicted there the Trojan wars, 437-493. Dido visits the temple, 494-508. A deputation from the twelve missing ships of the Trojans waits on Dido, to complain of the outrages by her people, and to bewail the loss of Aeneas, 509560. Dido consoles and offers them a settlement, 561-578. Aeneas, emerging from the cloud, addresses Dido, who replies benignantly, and prepares to entertain him and his followers, 579-642. Aeneas sends for Ascanius, 643-656. Venus substitutes Cupid for Ascanius, 657-698. The banquet in Dido's palace, 699-747. Dido requests Aeneas to narrate the downfall of Troy, and his wanderings,

748-756. It may be seen from this outline that Virgil does not, as a historian

would, introduce the subject with the fall of Troy, and conduct Aeneas, in the order of time, through his adventures till their conclusion. But, following the example afforded by both the great Epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, he dashes at once into the midst of the subject-a plan praised by Horace (A. P. 148), and observed in the Epic poems of modern times, as in Milton's Paradise Lost; Camoens' Lusiad; Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered; and Goethe's Faust.

Ille ego, qui quondam gracili modulatus avena
Carmen, et, egressus silvis, vicina coëgi
Ut quamvis avido parerent arva colono,
Gratum opus agricolis; at nunc horrentia Martis

Arma virumque cano, Trojae qui primus ab oris
Italiam, fato profugus, Laviniaque venit

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The first four verses, printed in smaller type, have been rejected by many commentators as unworthy of Virgil, and beneath the dignity of epic poetry. Some of the best ancient authorities, however, are pledged for their existence in the very manuscript intrusted to the poet's literary executors, Tucca and Varius. Wagner supports their claim by elaborate arguments, and presumes that they formed part of those copies of the poem which were intended for private circulation, but not for readers in general. With this theory Forbiger also agrees. Spenser, in his introduction to the Faery Queen, closely imitates the sentiment expressed in these verses.

1. Arma=bella, “the wars' with Turnus, that followed the arrival of Aeneas in Italy. Virum, the hero,' Aeneas. In a few words is thus stated the subject of the poem, which the first seven verses expand into a general argument. Qui primus, &c., 'who, an exile from the shores of Troy, first came (to) Italy and the Lavinian coasts. Antenor, another Trojan chief, had arrived previously, but at the other side, on the shores of the Adriatic (verse 242). Primus may also be understood as = olim or antiquitus ; that is, “who in ancient times came,' &c.—2. Italiam, for in or ad Italiam, a poetical construction; Zumpt, $ 401. Laviniaque is pronounced in four syllables

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Litora; multum ille et terris jactatus et alto,
Vi superum, saevae memorem Junonis ob iram ;
Multa quoque et bello passus, dum conderet urbem,
Inferretque deos Latio : genus unde Latinum
Albanique patres atque altae moenia Romae.

Musa, mihi causas memora, quo numine laeso,
Quidve dolens, regina deum tot volvere casus

-ri-nya-quě. See METRICAL INDEX. This name does not imply a prolepsis, since the imperial city of Latinus was called Lavinium, before the omen, recorded in A. 7, 59, had caused a preference for the name of Laurentum. Italian-Laviniaque litora is an instance of epexegesis, by which the whole is first mentioned ; then the particular part referred to is connected to it by a copulative : compare the example in verse 569, Hesperiam Saturniaque arva.-3. With jactatus in this verse, and with passus in verse 5, many supply est or fuit; but Forbiger thinks they should remain mere participles, considering ille as ornative; as parallel passages he refers to A. 5, 457 ; 9, 479 and 796; 10, 385; and 12, 5. Besides, Silus (8, 474) imitates this verse thus: Tum Pius Aeneas, terris jactatus et undis . 4. Vi superum (syncop.

superorum), by the power of the gods.' The reference is not to Juno merely, but to all the gods whose intervention at different times forms part of the machinery of the poem. Memorem, ever mindful,' is generally rendered in this verse "unrelenting,' which gives a very good sense, though it does not convey the force of memor.5. Dum conderet, 'while he was founding.' Thus occasionally dum is construed with a subjunctive when the clause beginning with it is joined to the preceding clause by a casual connective, in which case it is nearly quum. Urbem= Lavinium, in Latium, on the Numicus, now Rio Torto, which Virgil, for the nearer accommodation of the legend to national prejudice, names after the Princess Lavinia: cf. A. 12, 194.-6. Deos,

his gods' (the Penates of Troy), originally removed from Samothrace by Dardanus; that is, became the founder of a new religion in Latium. Unde, from which events.'—7. Altae, “ lofty,' in allusion to the site of Rome; or perhaps rather 'imperial.' Romae. Rome was founded on the 21st of April, 753 B. C., 430 years after the fall of Troy.

8. Musa, 'Calliope,' the epic muse. Quo numine laeso, 'what deity being offended ?' or, what displeasure could the queen of the gods have conceived?' The answer to this general question being mentally supplied, it is followed immediately by the particular one, quidve dolens. The interrogation here, as often elsewhere, is a species of ironical negative : e.g., one man accuses another of some injustice, and the one accused replies, 'what injustice have I done?' not for the purpose of inquiry, but denial. Other instances of this use occur in Ecl. 6, 78: G. 2, 269; 4, 506: A. 3, 337 ; and 4, 428. Heyne not only mistakes the meaning, but by inserting a comma after quo, renders the Latin incorrect, which in such case would require qui.—9. Tot volvere casus, to struggle with so many misfortunes,' to endure such an ordeal of calamities ;' volvere very beautifully expresses the continuation of the sufferings, the figure being taken from the ever-rolling waves.' Heyne explains it by the word subire, "to undergo,' endure."

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Insignem pietate virum, tot adire labores,
Impulerit. Tantaene animis coelestibus irae ?

Urbs antiqua fuit, Tyrii tenuere coloni,
Carthago, Italiam contra Tiberinaque longe
Ostia, dives opum, studiisque asperrima belli :
Quam Juno fertur terris magis omnibus unam
Posthabita coluisse Samo; hic illius arma,
Hic currus fuit ; hoc regnum dea gentibus esse,
Si qua fata sinant, jam tum tenditque fovetque.
Progeniem sed enim Trojano a sanguine duci
Audierat, Tyrias olim quae verteret arces ;



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The infinitive is a Hellenism, which in Latin prose would be ut volvat. -10. Pietate. The word pietas expresses every species of natural affection' proper to the human heart, not excluding the love that animates the creature towards the Creator; and thus it here means devotion to the gods.' Tot adire, 'to confront or encounter so many perils.'-11. Impulerit

, doomed (or compelled '); Tantaene .... irae? does wrath so dire dwell in heavenly minds ?' Nouns expressing affections of the mind, when used in the plural, are intensive, as metus, odia, gaudia, irae. With irae understand insunt.

12. Urbs antiqua fuit, &c. The causes of Juno's cherished hostility are here stated: 1. Her fears for Carthage; 2. The judgment of Paris (the chief motive); 3. The preferment of Ganymede to her own daughter Hebe, as cupbearer to the gods; 4. Her detestation of the entire Trojan race (genus invisum, verse 28). Fuit, was,' once existed,' but not when the poet wrote. Tyrii, 'from Tyre,' in Phoenicia. Coloni, 'emigrants,' hence Colonia.–13. Contra longe, situated in the distance directly opposite.'–14. Dives opum, “rich in resources, in all the elements of power. Studiisque asperrima belli, and fierce in the pursuits of war;' that is, indefatigable in military enterprise.-15. Quam unam, which one particularly. Unus with the comparative, as here, is very uncommon ; with the superlative (see A. 2, 426) it gives the strongest expression of superiority.-16. Posthabita Samo, literally: “Samos being esteemed after (it); that is, 'Samos being lower in her esteem,''

being held as secondary to it. Coluisse, "to have patronised' (by dwelling there). The gods were supposed to ‘inhabit' those places which they had under their patronage: ef. Ed. 2, 60, and 3, 61. The final vowel of Samo is preserved by the arsis. In this island, on the banks of the Imbrasus, Juno is said to have been born. Hic illius arma, for the scansion of this line see METRICAI. INDEX.-17. Regnum gentibus, 'the seat of empire,' as Rome was afterwards.-18. Si qua, “if by any means.' Jam tum,' even then’ (so long before the building of Rome). Tenditque fovetque, earnestly strives and intensely desires.'—19. Progeniem duci, 'that a race (the Roman) was being derived.' Sed enim = dande pág, an elliptical phrase ; sed inferring an objection to a previous statement, while enim introduces the reason of the objection : sed metuebat de regno Carthaginis, audierat enim, &c.-20. Tyrias arces, ' Carthage,'having been founded by Tyrian emigrants. Olim, “in after-ages. This word is used of




Hinc populum late regem belloque superbum
Venturum excidio Libyae; sic volvere Parcas.
Id metuens veterisque memor Saturnia belli,
Prima quod ad Trojam pro caris gesserat Argis;
Nec dum etiam causae irarum saevique dolores
Exciderant animo; manet alta mente repostum
Judicium Paridis spretaeque injuria formae,
Et genus invisum, et rapti Ganymedis honores :
His accensa super, jactatos aequore toto
Troas, reliquias Danaum atque immitis Achilli,
Arcebat longe Latio ; multosque per annos
Errabant, acti fatis, maria omnia circum.
Tantae molis erat Romanam condere gentem.



Late regem

distant time, either past or future, or of indefinite time when neither past nor future is specified. Verteret everteret, would overwhelm in ruin.'— 21. Hinc = ex hac progenie, “from this source or race.' Populum, “the Romans.'

sýguzgcím; reger = regnantem. Superbum, 'triumphing,' or illustrious.'-22. Excidio, the dative = oud. excidium. Volvere. In this word Forbiger supposes a metaphor: that the tide of destiny is thus rolling onward; or simply, 'that thus were the Fates meditating.' (volvere animo), “such was the course of fate.'—23. Metuens, dreading,' while timens would mean apprehending.' Veteris, 'protracted.' Saturnia, 'Juno,' daughter of Saturn. The construction is : Saturnia, metuens id, memorque veteris belli, quod prima gesserat ad Trojam pro caris Argis .... arcebat Troas, &c., taking verses 25-28, both inclusive, as a parenthesis.—24. Prima prius, olim; or praecipué. Argis= Argivis. Argi, -ōrum, pl., was the capital of Argolis ; Argos, -eos, sing., was the capital of all Peloponnesus. Argi, next to Sicyon, was the most ancient city of Greece.-26. Altā= alte. Repostum, syncop. form for repositum.—28. Invisum, odious,'' abhorred, as being descended from Dardanus. Rapti is construed with Ganymedis, and not with honores.-29. His accensa super, "exasperated, moreover, at these things;' that is, not only fearing the overthrow of her favourite city, and mindful of the late war, but also exasperated at the decision of Paris, and the honours bestowed upon Ganymede : .. super = insuper ; or it may be taken as a preposition, and rendered, on account of these things.' Aequore toto, over the whole sea. Aequor is applicable to any level surface.-30. Troas = Teños, acc. plur. Reliquias, 'the remnant, such as were left by' the Danas, ' and especially' (atque) by the merciless Achilles. Achilli

, genitive of Achilles. Greek proper names in -es have the gen. in -i, and the acc, in-en; those in -eus have the gen. in -ei and the acc. in -ea, FORBIGER.-31. Arcebat marks well the continued action at the time the poem opens : "she continued to keep;' so, in verse 32, errabant, they continued to wander:' this is the primary and proper use of the imperfect.-32. Acti fatis. All misfortunes sent by an angry deity were styled fata : thus in A. 4, 110, a doubt respecting Jove's will is expressed by fatis incerta feror.-33. Tantae molis erat, of so vast difficulty was it to found the Roman State.'


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Vix e conspectu Siculae telluris in altum
Vela dabant laeti et spumas salis aere ruebant,
Quum Juno, aeternum servans sub pectore vulnus,
Haec secum ; ‘Mene incepto desistere victam,

Italia Teucrorum avertere regem ?
Quippe vetor fatis! Pallasne exurere classem
Argivum atque ipsos potuit submergere ponto,
Unius ob noxam et furias Ajacis Oïlei ?
Ipsa, Jovis rapidum jaculata e nubibus ignem,
Disjecitque rates evertitque aequora ventis ;
Illum, expirantem transfixo pectore flammas,
Turbine corripuit scopuloque infixit acuto.
Ast ego, quae divum incedo regina Jovisque
Et soror et conjux, una cum gente tot annos


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34. Vix e conspectu Siculae. Here commences the action of the poem with an event which occurred in the seventh year after Aeneas fled from Troy, the preceding events being introduced afterwards in episode, in accordance with the conventional law of epopee; the precept is set forth by Horace in A. P. 148, Semper ad eventum festinat, &c.: cf. A. 3, 697-715.—-35. Vela dabant, were unfurling their sails to the wind.'

Aere =

navibus aeratis. Ruebant, were furrowing (or cleaving).' Ruo frequently occurs as a transitive verb.—36. Aeternum vulnus, * poignant grief and undying resentment' = saevi dolores in verse 25.–37. Haec secum (loquitur), thus soliloquises. Mene . 'that I foiled should desist .. an abrupt form of interrogation, indicating strong emotion. Some complete the construction by supplying decet, “is it becoming ?' or, putant, do they think?' This very much enervates the passage: it is decidedly better to consider it as a strong burst of indignation.—38. Regem = ducem. The Trojans were called Teucri, from Teucrus, a Cretan prince, who, at a very early period, migrated to the north of Asia Minor, and was supposed to be one of the founders of the Trojan dynasty ; see 3, 108. -39. Quippe vetor fatis! 'forsooth, I am forbidden by the fates !' -40. Argivum Argivorum. Argivi was applied generally to all the Greeks; the Locrians, however, are specially meant here, as those whom Ajax had led against Troy.—41. Furias = furiosam libidinem. Furiae is often applied to crimes of great enormity, which were supposed to be prompted by the Furies. Filiï is understood as governing Oilei. For the scansion of this verse, see METRICAL INDEX. –42. Ipsa, “she in person' (without another's aid as minister of her vengeance). Jaculata. This verb (jaculare) is the usual and proper one employed in reference to the hurling of a thunderbolt, the sound corresponding to the vehemence of the action.44. Expirantem . . . . flammas, transfixed by the thunderbolt, and breathing forth the lightning flames.'—46. Ast, an archaic form at, but used here for the sake of lengthening the syllable. Incedo, walk majestic,' poetically used for sum.--47. Tot annos differs from tot annis, the accusative signifying continuation of time, per being understood;

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