Page images
PDF
EPUB

Demens! nec Zephyros audis spirare secundos?
Illa dolos dirumque nefas in pectore versat,
Certa mori, varioque irarum fluctuat aestu.
Non fugis hinc praeceps, dum praecipitare potestas ? 565
Jam mare turbari trabibus, saevasque videbis
Collucere faces, jam fervere litora flammis,
Si te his attigerit terris Aurora morantem.
Eja age, rumpe moras. Varium et mutabile semper
Femina.' Sic fatus nocti se immiscuit atrae. 570

Tum vero Aeneas, subitis exterritus umbris,
Corripit e somno corpus, sociosque fatigat:-
'Praecipites vigilate, viri, et considite transtris ;
Solvite vela citi! Deus, aethere missus ab alto,
Festinare fugam, tortosque incidere funes,

575
Ecce! iterum stimulat. Sequimur te, sancte deorum,
Quisquis es, imperioque iterum paremus ovantes.
Adsis 0, placidusque juves, et sidera coelo
Dextra feras.' Dixit: vaginaque eripit ensem
Fulmineum, strictoque ferit retinacula ferro. 580
Idem omnes siinul ardor habet: rapiuntque, ruuntque ;
Litora deseruere; latet sub classibus aequor;
Annixi torquent spumas, et caerula verrunt.

Et jam prima novo spargebat lumine terras
Tithoni croceum linquens Aurora cubile:

585 Regina e speculis ut primum albescere lucem

Vidit, et aequatis classem procedere velis, present supineness.—564. Compare the two constructions certa mori, and certus eundi, verse 554, and see note on verse 110.—565. Praecipitare te. See A. 1, 234.-566. Trabibus = navibus.569. Varium .... Femina. See Ecl. 3, 80. In such expressions, the attribute (rarium) is applied to the subject (femina), as possessed by it in a high degree, when compared with all other existences. Femina mutabilis est, woman is changeable,' the predicate drawing no comparison. Mutabile est femina, woman, compared with other existences, is noted for changeableness."

572. Fatigat incitat, exercet. -— 576. Iterum, referring to the obedience before shewn, verse 288, &c. Sancte deorum, ' holy among the holy gods;' unless we join sancte deorum quisquis es.-581. Habet, "inspires.' like the Greek éxsı.-582. Deseruere, they have left-latet, is concealed. Classibus, a poetical exaggeration for navibus.

584, 585, repeated A. 9, 460: verse 585 is a favourite with Virgil; it occurs previously, G. 1, 448. The mythological allusion is to the marriage of Aurora, the dawn-goddess, with Tithonus, son of Laomedon. -586. The sleepless queen at gray twilight looks forth from a watchtower, and sees the fileet making way from Carthage.—587. Aequatis velis and aequatae spirant aurae (A. 5, 844) explain each other. The

[ocr errors]

6

6

Litoraque et vacuos sensit sine remige portus;
Terque quaterque manu pectus percussa decorum
Flaventesque abscissa comas, ' Pro Jupiter! ibit 590
Hic,' ait, et nostris illuserit advena regnis ?
Non arma expedient, totaque ex urbe sequentur ?
Deripientque rates alii navalibus? Ite,
Ferte citi flammas, date tela, impellite remos.
Quid loquor ? aut ubi sum ? Quae mentem insania mutat?
Infelix Dido! nunc te facta impia tangunt?

596
Tum decuit, quum sceptra dabas.—En dextra fidesque,
Quem secum patrios aiunt portare Penates!
Quem subiisse humeris confectum aetate parentem!
Non potui abreptum divellere corpus, et undis 600
Spargere ? non socios, non ipsum absumere ferro
Ascanium, patriisque epulandum ponere mensis ?-
Verum anceps pugnae fuerat fortuna.-Fuisset;
Quem metui moritura? Faces in castra tulissem,
Implessemque foros flammis, natumque patremque 605
Cum genere exstinxem, memet super ipsa dedissem.
Sol, qui terrarum flammis opera omnia lustras,
Tuque, harum interpres curarum et conscia Juno,
Nocturnisque Hecate triviis ululata per urbes,
Et Dirae ultrices, et di morientis Elissae,

610
Accipite haec, meritumque malis advertite numen,
Et nostras audite preces. Si tangere portus

metaphor is from an equipoised balance. Winds which impel the sails directly, winds right aft, or blowing in exactly the right direction. -589. Pectus percussa, another instance of the accusative of limitation. See verse 558.-590. This soliloquy is full of the highest dramatic power. Ibit, compared with illuserit (verse 591), indicates his going as the result of a previous mocking, which is the more bitter, because he was an advena, and she was queen (regnis).—596. Facta impia; that is, * Aeneas's desertion.'-—-597. Decuit tangere.—598. Quem, ejus quem. For the facts, see A. 2, 720, &c.—600. Abreptum, “ torn away from his companions.'—602. Following the example of Procne. See Ecl. 6, 79.

-603. Fuerat. A supposed objection, put strongly in the indicative. See 4. 2, 55. Fuisset. Dido grants the possibility of failure. Compare with this Macbeth, 1, 7, where Macbeth says: “If we fail' (fuerat); his wife answers: “ We fail!' (fuisset).—604. Castra; that is, castra nautica,

the vessels high and dry on the beach.'-606. Exstinxêm. See a similar contraction, A. 1, 201. Super insuper. With dedissem supply in flammas or ignes.-608. See verse 59. —609. Hecate. See verse 511. From the three offices of Diana, she was worshipped where three roads met (triviis). Ululata. See A. 3, 14, 690.—610. Dirae. See verse 469. Di ultores. Elissae. See verse 335.–611. Malis, sc. meis.

Infandum caput, ac terris adnare necesse est,
Et sic fata Jovis poscunt, hic terminus haeret:
At bello audacis populi vexatus et armis,

615
Finibus extorris, complexu avulsus lüli,
Auxilium imploret, videatque indigna suorum
Funera; nec, quum se sub leges pacis iniquae
Tradiderit, regno aut optata luce fruatur;
Sed cadat ante diem, mediaque inhumatus arena. 620
Haec precor; hanc vocem extremam cum sanguine fundo.
Tum vos, O Tyrii, stirpem et genus omne futurum
Exercete odiis; cinerique haec mittite nostro
Munera. Nullus amor populis, nec foedera sunto.
Exoriare aliquis nostris ex ossibus ultor,

625
Qui face Dardanios, ferroque, sequare colonos,
Nunc, olim, quocunque dabunt se tempore vires.
Litora litoribus contraria, fluctibus undas
Imprecor, arma armis; pugnent ipsique nepotesque.'
Haec ait, et partes animum versabat in omnes,

630
Invisam quaerens, quamprimum abrumpere lucem.
Tum breviter Barcen nutricem affata Sychaei;
Namque suam patria antiqua cinis ater habebat:
‘Annam, cara mihi nutrix, huc siste sororem:
Dic, corpus properet fluviali spargere lympha, 635

613. Necesse est (ex futis), or fatale est.—614. Hic, &c. “This boundary is (all that is) fixed;' the rest is in your power.—615, &c. This imprecation prophesies the future wars of Aeneas in Italy (A. 7, 601, &c.), and his death, which, according to tradition (see Livy, 1, 2), took place in battle.--616, 617. During the absence of Aeneas while applying to Evander for assistance, Turnus attacked his camp, and slew many of his soldiers.—620. Ante diem, sc. fatalem, said of premature death. Three years after concluding a peace with the Latins, Aeneas, while fighting against the Tyrrhenians, perished in the Numicius, but his body was never found. -622, &c.* This prophesies the deadly hate between the Romans and Carthaginians, in which there is (verses 625 and 627) a special reference to Hannibal.—625. Aliquis; an instance of the vocative of this word.—627. Olim, any time but the presentwhether past or future, to be judged from the context: here, future time. Sometimes, also, from its twofold force, it is nearly equivalent to our indefinite," at times.' See A. 5, 125. Quocunque .. vires, at whatever time means (shall) present themselves.'—629. Nepotesque. The last syllable elided before haec.

630. See verse 286.—633. Suam, sc. nutricem.—634. The position of the words here seems to demand cara mihi. Others construe siste with mihi.-635. Dic ut properet. Fluviali lympha. To be washed in pure flowing or springing water was a necessary preparation for a sacrifice.

[ocr errors]

6

Et pecudes secum et monstrata piacula ducat.
Sic veniat; tuque ipsa pia tege tempora vitta.
Sacra Jovi Stygio, quae rite incepta paravi,
Perficere est animus, finemque imponere curis,
Dardaniique rogum capitis permittere flammae.' 640
Sic ait. Illa gradum studio celerabat anilem.

At trepida, et coeptis immanibus effera Dido,
Sanguineam volvens aciem, maculisque trementes
Interfusa genas, et pallida morte futura,
Interiora domus irrumpit limina, et altos

645
Conscendit furibunda rogos, ensemque recludit
Dardanium, non hos quaesitum munus in usus.
Hic, postquam Iliacas vestes notumque cubile
Conspexit, paulum lacrimis et mente morata,
Incubuitque toro, dixitque novissima verba :- 650
‘Dulces exuviae, dum fata deusque sinebat,
Accipite hanc animam, meque his exsolvite curis.
Vixi, et, quem dederat cursum Fortuna, peregi;
Et nunc magna mei sub terras ibit imago.
Urbem praeclaram statui; mea moenia vidi; 655
Ulta virum, poenas inimico a fratre recepi:
Felix heu! nimium felix, si litora tantum
Nunquam Dardaniae tetigissent nostra carinae !'
Dixit; et, os impressa toro, ' Moriemur inultae !
Sed moriamur!' ait. “Sic, sic juvat ire sub umbras. 660
Hauriat hunc oculis ignem crudelis ab alto
Dardanus, et nostrae secum ferat omina mortis.'

Dixerat: atque illam media inter talia ferro
Collapsam aspiciunt comites, ensemque cruore
Spumantem, sparsasque manus.

It clamor ad alta 665
Atria: concussam bacchatur fama per urbem:

а

636. Monstrata, sc. a sacerdote : cf. verse 498.—638. Jovi Stygio, equivalent to Stygio 'Orco, verse 699; regi Stygio, A. 6, 252 (so also Proserpine, A. 6, 138, is called Juno inferna). Pluto, the supreme god of the regions enclosed by the Styx. See Á. 6, 295.

646. Rogos, described verse 504, &c.—649. Mente, in deep thought on her griefs.—650. Novissima verba ; ave or vale. See A. 1, 219; 6, 231. – 651. Bring dulces next to dum in the translation. - 654. Magna imago, a natural transference of the greatness of the living to the xidway of the dead. — 661. Hauriat infers eager delight, as we say,

to drink in with the eyes.'— 662. Dardanus, adjective = Dardanius (Aeneas).

663. Her attendants arrive only to see lier fall upon the ground.

Lamentis, gemituque, et femineo ululatu
Tecta fremunt: resonat magnis plangoribus aether:
Non aliter, quam si immissis ruat hostibus omnis
Carthago, aut antiqua Tyros, flammaeque furentes 670
Culmina perque hominum volvantur perque deorum.

Audiit exanimis, trepidoque, exterrita, cursu,
Unguibus ora soror foedans et pectora pugnis,
Per medios ruit, ac morientem nomine clamat:-
' Hoc illud, germana, fuit? me fraude petebas? 675
Hoc rogus iste mihi, hoc ignes araeque parabant?
Quid primum deserta querar? comitemne sororem
Sprevisti moriens ? Eadem me ad fata vocasses:
Idem ambas ferro dolor, atque eadem hora tulisset.
His etiam struxi manibus, patriosque vocavi 680
Voce deos, sic te ut posita, crudelis, abessem ?
Exstinxti te meque, soror, populumque, patresque
Sidonios, urbemque tuam. Date, vulnera lymphis
Abluam, et, extremus si quis super halitus errat,
Ore legam.' Sic fata, gradus evaserat altos, 685
Semianimemque sinu germanam amplexa fovebat
Cum gemitu, atque atros siccabat veste cruores.
Illa, graves oculos conata attollere, rursus
Deficit: infixum stridit sub pectore vulnus.
Ter sese attollens cubitoque annixa levavit,

690
Ter revoluta toro est, oculisque errantibus, alto
Quaesivit coelo lucem, ingemuitque reperta.

Tum Juno omnipotens, longum miserata dolorem,
Difficilesque obitus, Irim demisit Olympo,

667. Femineo -- the ő is unelided. — 671. That is : per domos et templa.

672. Anna's distraction, when, hearing the wailing so characteristic of a nation from the East, she suspected, and then found the cause, is described with matchless power.—-675. Hoc, referring to the present deed; illud, to her being sent away. Me, mihi, emphatic and full of reproach; me, who loved you so well. — 679. Tulisset = abstulisset. 680. Alluding to her execution of Dido's commands, verse 494. 681. See A. 2, 644. — 682. Exstinati. See verse 606. -- 683. In prose would be: date lymphas, quibus abluam.-685. Ore legam, an affecting usage of the Romans. 686. Sēmyanimem, four syllables. Amplexa fovebat. See A. 1, 680.-689. Stridit, alluding to the blood issuing out with gurgling sound.-692. Reperta luce. Some read repertam.

693. Juno interferes instead Proserpine, because she was Dido's tutelary goddess.—694. Iris, the personification of the rainbow, was the messenger of Juno, as Mercury (who performed similar offices to

« PreviousContinue »