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Demens! nec Zephyros audis spirare secundos?
Tum vero Aeneas, subitis exterritus umbris,
Et jam prima novo spargebat lumine terras
585 Regina e speculis ut primum albescere lucem
Vidit, et aequatis classem procedere velis, present supineness.—564. Compare the two constructions certa mori, and certus eundi, verse 554, and see note on verse 110.—565. Praecipitare te. See A. 1, 234.-566. Trabibus = navibus.—569. Varium .... Femina. See Ecl. 3, 80. In such expressions, the attribute (rarium) is applied to the subject (femina), as possessed by it in a high degree, when compared with all other existences. Femina mutabilis est, woman is changeable,' the predicate drawing no comparison. Mutabile est femina, woman, compared with other existences, is noted for changeableness."
572. Fatigat incitat, exercet. -— 576. Iterum, referring to the obedience before shewn, verse 288, &c. Sancte deorum, ' holy among the holy gods;' unless we join sancte deorum quisquis es.-581. Habet, "inspires.' like the Greek éxsı.-582. Deseruere, they have left-latet, is concealed. Classibus, a poetical exaggeration for navibus.
584, 585, repeated A. 9, 460: verse 585 is a favourite with Virgil; it occurs previously, G. 1, 448. The mythological allusion is to the marriage of Aurora, the dawn-goddess, with Tithonus, son of Laomedon. -586. The sleepless queen at gray twilight looks forth from a watchtower, and sees the fileet making way from Carthage.—587. Aequatis velis and aequatae spirant aurae (A. 5, 844) explain each other. The
Litoraque et vacuos sensit sine remige portus;
metaphor is from an equipoised balance. Winds which impel the sails directly, winds right aft, or blowing in exactly the right direction. -589. Pectus percussa, another instance of the accusative of limitation. See verse 558.-590. This soliloquy is full of the highest dramatic power. Ibit, compared with illuserit (verse 591), indicates his going as the result of a previous mocking, which is the more bitter, because he was an advena, and she was queen (regnis).—596. Facta impia; that is, * Aeneas's desertion.'-—-597. Decuit tangere.—598. Quem, ejus quem. For the facts, see A. 2, 720, &c.—600. Abreptum, “ torn away from his companions.'—602. Following the example of Procne. See Ecl. 6, 79.
-603. Fuerat. A supposed objection, put strongly in the indicative. See 4. 2, 55. Fuisset. Dido grants the possibility of failure. Compare with this Macbeth, 1, 7, where Macbeth says: “If we fail' (fuerat); his wife answers: “ We fail!' (fuisset).—604. Castra; that is, castra nautica,
the vessels high and dry on the beach.'-606. Exstinxêm. See a similar contraction, A. 1, 201. Super insuper. With dedissem supply in flammas or ignes.-608. See verse 59. —609. Hecate. See verse 511. From the three offices of Diana, she was worshipped where three roads met (triviis). Ululata. See A. 3, 14, 690.—610. Dirae. See verse 469. Di ultores. Elissae. See verse 335.–611. Malis, sc. meis.
Infandum caput, ac terris adnare necesse est,
613. Necesse est (ex futis), or fatale est.—614. Hic, &c. “This boundary is (all that is) fixed;' the rest is in your power.—615, &c. This imprecation prophesies the future wars of Aeneas in Italy (A. 7, 601, &c.), and his death, which, according to tradition (see Livy, 1, 2), took place in battle.--616, 617. During the absence of Aeneas while applying to Evander for assistance, Turnus attacked his camp, and slew many of his soldiers.—620. Ante diem, sc. fatalem, said of premature death. Three years after concluding a peace with the Latins, Aeneas, while fighting against the Tyrrhenians, perished in the Numicius, but his body was never found. -622, &c.* This prophesies the deadly hate between the Romans and Carthaginians, in which there is (verses 625 and 627) a special reference to Hannibal.—625. Aliquis; an instance of the vocative of this word.—627. Olim, any time but the presentwhether past or future, to be judged from the context: here, future time. Sometimes, also, from its twofold force, it is nearly equivalent to our indefinite," at times.' See A. 5, 125. Quocunque .. vires, at whatever time means (shall) present themselves.'—629. Nepotesque. The last syllable elided before haec.
630. See verse 286.—633. Suam, sc. nutricem.—634. The position of the words here seems to demand cara mihi. Others construe siste with mihi.-635. Dic ut properet. Fluviali lympha. To be washed in pure flowing or springing water was a necessary preparation for a sacrifice.
Et pecudes secum et monstrata piacula ducat.
At trepida, et coeptis immanibus effera Dido,
Dixerat: atque illam media inter talia ferro
It clamor ad alta 665
636. Monstrata, sc. a sacerdote : cf. verse 498.—638. Jovi Stygio, equivalent to Stygio 'Orco, verse 699; regi Stygio, A. 6, 252 (so also Proserpine, A. 6, 138, is called Juno inferna). Pluto, the supreme god of the regions enclosed by the Styx. See Á. 6, 295.
646. Rogos, described verse 504, &c.—649. Mente, in deep thought on her griefs.—650. Novissima verba ; ave or vale. See A. 1, 219; 6, 231. – 651. Bring dulces next to dum in the translation. - 654. Magna imago, a natural transference of the greatness of the living to the xidway of the dead. — 661. Hauriat infers eager delight, as we say,
to drink in with the eyes.'— 662. Dardanus, adjective = Dardanius (Aeneas).
663. Her attendants arrive only to see lier fall upon the ground.
Lamentis, gemituque, et femineo ululatu
Audiit exanimis, trepidoque, exterrita, cursu,
Tum Juno omnipotens, longum miserata dolorem,
667. Femineo -- the ő is unelided. — 671. That is : per domos et templa.
672. Anna's distraction, when, hearing the wailing so characteristic of a nation from the East, she suspected, and then found the cause, is described with matchless power.—-675. Hoc, referring to the present deed; illud, to her being sent away. Me, mihi, emphatic and full of reproach; me, who loved you so well. — 679. Tulisset = abstulisset. 680. Alluding to her execution of Dido's commands, verse 494. 681. See A. 2, 644. — 682. Exstinati. See verse 606. -- 683. In prose would be: date lymphas, quibus abluam.-685. Ore legam, an affecting usage of the Romans. 686. Sēmyanimem, four syllables. Amplexa fovebat. See A. 1, 680.-689. Stridit, alluding to the blood issuing out with gurgling sound.-692. Reperta luce. Some read repertam.
693. Juno interferes instead Proserpine, because she was Dido's tutelary goddess.—694. Iris, the personification of the rainbow, was the messenger of Juno, as Mercury (who performed similar offices to