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Ipsa haeret scopulis, et, quantum vertice ad auras 445
Aetherias, tantum radice in Tartara tendit:
Haud secus assiduis hinc atque hinc vocibus heros
Tunditur, et magno persentit pectore curas;
Mens immota manet; lacrimae volvuntur inanes.
Tum vero infelix, fatis exterrita, Dido

450
Mortem orat; taedet coeli convexa tueri.
Quo magis inceptum peragat, lucemque relinquat,
Vidit, turicremis quum dona imponeret aris-
Horrendum dictu !--latices nigrescere sacros,
Fusaque in obscoenum se vertere vina cruorem. 455
Hoc visum nulli, non ipsi effata sorori.
Praeterea, fuit in tectis de marmore templum
Conjugis antiqui, miro quod honore colebat,
Velleribus niveis, et festa fronde revinctum:
Hinc exaudiri voces, et verba vocantis

460
Visa viri, nox quum terras obscura teneret;
Solaque culminibus ferali carmine bubo
Saepe queri, et longas in fletum ducere voces.
Multaque praeterea vatum praedicta piorum
Terribili monitu horrificant. Agit ipse furentem 465
In somnis ferus Aeneas; semperque relinqui
Sola sibi, semper longam incomitata videtur
Ire viam, et Tyrios deserta quaerere terra.
Eumenidum veluti demens videt agmina Pentheus,

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445. Quantum--tendit, occurs G. 2, 291.-449. Lacrimae, probably of Dido and her sister, though some do wish to understand it of Aeneas.

452. In this verse, Virgil expresses the effect before the cause which produces it. The idea implied is connected with that in the preceding verse, and serves as a transition to the recital of the fatal auguries which finally determine Dido. — 454. Latices. See A. 1, 686. 456. A sure sign of despair. _Visum, “preternatural appearance,' portent.' Effuta (est).—457. Templum, a small chapel dedicated to the manes of Sychaeus.—459. Velleribus niveis, snow-white fillets of wool.' Fronde sertis.—460. Exaudiri, and the other infinitives that follow, may be under the influence of visu, but it seems preferable to regard them as historical infinitives (see Zumpt, 8 599), voces and rerba being the nominatives to exaudiri (visa voces et verba) vocantis viri.462. Virgil alone uses a feminine adjective (sola) with bubo, well known as a bird of ill omen.—468. Ire viam. For the government of accusatives, generally accompanied with an adjective (longam), by intransitive verbs of a cognate meaning, see Zumpt, $ 384.—469, &c. Virgil compares the fury of Dido to that of Pentheus, king of Thebes, whom the Furies (Eumenides, Dirae) persecuted for his opposition to the worship of Bacchus. For Orestes (whose fate was a favourite dramatic

Et solem geminum, et duplices se ostendere Thebas: 470
Aut Agamemnonius scenis agitatus Orestes,
Armatam facibus matrem, et serpentibus atris,
Quum fugit, ultricesque sedent in limine Dirae.

Ergo, ubi concepit Furias, evicta dolore,
Decrevitque mori, tempus secum ipsa modumque 475
Exigit, et, moestam dictis aggressa sororem,
Consilium vultu tegit, ac spem fronte serenat:

'Inveni, germana, viam-gratare sorori-
Quae mihi reddat eum, vel eo me solvat amantem.
Oceani finem juxta, solemque cadentem,

480
Ultimus Aethiopum locus est, ubi maximus Atlas
Axem humero torquet stellis ardentibus aptum:
Hinc mihi Massylae gentis monstrata sacerdos,
Hesperidum templi custos, epulasque draconi
Quae dabat, et sacros servabat in arbore ramos, 485
Spargens humida mella, soporiferumque papaver.
Haec se carminibus promittit solvere mentes
Quas velit, ast aliis duras immittere curas;
Sistere aquam fluviis; et vertere sidera retro;
Nocturnosque ciet Manes: mugire videbis

490 Sub pedibus terram, et descendere montibus ornos. Testor, cara, deos et te, germana, tuumque

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subject), see A. 3, 331.-471. Scenis agitatus, often represented on the stage.? Of these numerous pieces there only

remain the Eumenides of Aeschylus and the Orestes of Euripides. The Tragedy of the Romans is totally lost.--473. Orestes entered the temple of Apollo, by the advice of Pylades, in order to escape the Furies; but on attempting to leave it, he was again assailed by them: hence sedent in limine Dirae.

477. Spem serenat, spem serenam ostendit.

481. Aethiopum, properly the southern Africans, but here put for Africans generally. Atlas. See verse 247. — 482. Axem humero torquet, 'causes heaven to rotate on his shoulders ;' that is, supports heaven,' which revolves on his shoulders. Stellis aptum = cui stellae sunt aptae, 'fastened,' 'fixed,' studded,' spangled, adorned, according to the old use of aptus.-483. Massylae. See verse 132. It would seem that this priestess was originally a Massylian, then a keeper of the dragon that guarded the golden fruit of the Hesperides, thus placed by Virgil in the far west, and now in Carthage. 485. Sacros ramos, which bore golden apples, sacred to Venus. 486. This verse explains epulas in 484. Soporiferum is the general epithet of the poppy: the serpent of the Hesperides did not sleep at all.-487. With solvere understand curis amoris.—490. From videbis, we might infer that mugire refers to motion, and not to sound. Yet see such expressions as visae ululare, A. 6, 257.492. Testor me accingier. See Zumpt, $ 605.

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Dulce caput, magicas invitam accingier artes.
Tu secreta pyram tecto interiore sub auras
Erige, et arma viri, thalamo quae fixa reliquit 495
Impius, exuviasque omnes, lectumque jugalem,
Quo perii, superimponas: abolere nefandi
Cuncta viri monumenta juvat, monstratque sacerdos.'

Haec effata, silet; pallor simul occupat ora.
Non tamen Anna novis praetexere funera sacris 500
Germanam credit; nec tantos mente furores
Concipit, aut graviora timet, quam morte Sychaei.
Ergo jussa parat.

At regina, pyra penetrali in sede sub auras
Erecta ingenti taedis atque ilice secta,

505
Intenditque locum sertis, et fronde coronat
Funerea: super, exuvias, ensemque relictum,
Effigiemque toro locat, haud ignara futuri.
Stant arae circum, et crines effusa sacerdos
Ter centum tonat ore deos, Erebumque Chaosque 510
Tergeminamque Hecaten, tria virginis ora Dianae.
Sparserat et latices simulatos fontis Averni,
Falcibus et messae ad lunam quaeruntur aënis
Pubentes herbae, nigri cum lacte veneni :
Quaeritur et nascentis equi de fronte revulsus, 515
Et matri praereptus amor.

493. Invitam. Virgil here gives Dido a Roman feeling, which was averse to magical incantations. See A. 1, 73. Accingier (for accingi); see A. 1, 210. Here it has a deponent sense, “to prepare to employ, governing the accusative artes.-494. Tecto interiore, in the impluvium.' --498. Juvat, others read jubet.

500. Praetexere funera, to veil her death under'. ..., seek death under pretence of -502. Graviora quam (quae acciderant, or fecerat Dido in) morte Sychaci. Morte quum mortuus esset.

505. Construe ingenti with taedis.--506. The magic rites, under pretext of which Dido was to destroy herself, are here described. Compare Ecl. 8, 64, &c.—510. The Massylian priestess (verse 483) calls loudly on the gods of the lower world-either three hundred, or a hundred thrice called ; in either case, a large indefinite number-Chaos, the primordial deity, type of confusion ; his son Erebus, the hell-god; Hecate, or Diana, worshipped in three aspects-Diana, Luna, Proserpine, or Hecate.—512. Averni. See p. 141, line 10.–513. Aënis. Iron was not admitted in magical operations.---514. Herbae cum lacte; herbae quae habent lac, succum. For herbae venenatae. Even in prose, lac is used for the juice of certain plants.—516. The allusion here is to the hippomanes, which was said to grow on the forehead of foals, and if taken off before the mother could devour it (matri praereptus), to be

Ipsa, mola manibusque piis, altaria juxta,
Unum exuta pedem vinclis, in veste recincta,
Testatur moritura deos, et conscia fati
Sidera: tum, si quod non aequo foedere amantes 520
Curae numen habet justumque memorque, precatur.

Nox erat, et placidum carpebant fessa soporem
Corpora per terras, silvaeque et saeva quierant
Aequora ; quum medio volvuntur sidera lapsu,
Quum tacet omnis ager. Pecudes, pictaeque volucres, 525
Quaeque lacus late liquidos, quaeque aspera dumis
Rura tenent, somno positae sub nocte silenti,
Lenibant curas et corda oblita laborum:
At non infelix animi Phoenissa ; nec unquam
Solvitur in somnos, oculisve aut pectore noctem 530
Accipit: ingeminant curae; rursusque resurgens
Saevit amor, magnoque irarum fluctuat aestu.

Sic adeo insistit, secumque ita corde volutat:-
' En! quid ago? rursusne procos irrisa priores
Experiar? Nomadumque petam connubia supplex, 535
Quos ego sim toties jam dedignata maritos ?

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effectual, dissolved, as a love-potion (amor).—517. Mola, sc. in ignem conjecta.--518. Usages in sacrifices. Vinclis," the strings of the sandals,' for uno pede nuda; that is, ' having one foot stripped of its sandal,' as sorceresses are usually represented on sculptures and vases. Recinctu = soluta zona,

• uncinctured,' • ungirdled :' cf. Ov. M. 7, 182. 519. Conscia fati, 'conscious of her approaching doom.'—520. Tum, si quod precatur. Construe: tum, precatur (numen) si quod (“whatover ') numen, justum et memor, habet curae amantes non aequo foedere,

then she invokes the deity, whatever deity, just and attentive (to human affairs), regards lovers whose affection is unrequited.' 521. Observe the construction-habere amantes curae (dat.).

522. For a similar contrast, see A. 2, 250.-523. Per terras, 'throughout the world.' Quierant = quiescebant, were still.' Quiescere is properly an inceptive, to be putting one's self in a state of repose ; Jience quievisse, “to be still,' * calm, at rest.'—524. Lapsu : 526. Quaeque quaeque specify two different classes of volucres. 527. Sub, 'under the dominion of.-528. This line has been rejected by some. The whole passage from Nox to laborum admits of a variety of connection and punctuation. That given here seems to render the meaning clear.--529. Phoenissa lenibat dolorem.-530. Noctem = quietem noctis et somnum, ' night's soothing influence.'-532. Irarum, &c., repeated verse 564.

533. Sic insistit = talibus cogitationibus indulget. Adeo adds a notion of unexpectedness to the word with which it is joined ; here sic adeo, to such a degree even as this.'--534. Ago is more vivid than agam. Irrisa ab Aenea.--535. Nomadum. See verse 320.-536. Quos, quippe

cursu.

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Iliacas igitur classes, atque ultima Teucrûm
Jussa, sequar ? quiane auxilio juvat ante levatos,

Et bene apud memores veteris stat gratia facti? 3. Quis me autem, fac velle, sinet, ratibusque superbis 540

Invisam accipiet? nescis, heu ! perdita, necdum
Laomedonteae sentis perjuria gentis ?
Quid tum ? sola fuga nautas comitabor ovantes ?
An Tyriis omnique manu stipata meorum,
Inferar? et, quos Sidonia vix urbe revelli,

545
Rursus agam pelago, et ventis dare vela jubebo?
Quin morere, ut merita es; ferroque averte dolorem !
Tu, lacrimis evicta meis, tu prima furentem
His, germana, malis oneras, atque objicis hosti.
Non licuit thalami expertem sine crimine vitam 550
Degere, more ferae, tales nec tangere curas !
Non servata fides, cineri promissa Sychaeo!'

Tantos illa suo rumpebat pectore questus.
Aeneas, celsa in puppi, jam tus eundi,
Carpebat somnos, rebus jam rite paratis.

555
Huic se forma dei vultu redeuntis eodem
Obtulit in somnis, rursusque ita visa monere est:
Omnia Mercurio similis, vocemque, coloremque
Et crines flavos, et membra decora juventa :
'Nate dea, potes hoc sub casu ducere somnos? 560
Nec, quae te circum stent deinde pericula, cernis

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eos; hence sim.537. Ultima, “the most humiliating.'—538. Sequar is an instance of zeugma: 'follow' the fleet, obey' the commands, &c. Juvat me eos levatos esse.–539. Bene stat, “is firmly established, is firm and constant.'

540. Fac, “suppose' (Trojanos) velle. 542. Laomedonteae perjuria. See A. 5, 81l. Here allusion is to the fraud practised on Apollo and Neptune, who had agreed to build the walls of Troy for Laomedon, when the latter refused to give them the stipulated reward. Laomedon acted similarly towards Hercules. Dido insinuates that all the race were equally perjured.—544. Manu stipata. See a similar construction with comitatus, A. 1, 312.-545. Inferar = inradam or insequar. Sidonia. See verse 75, and A. 1, 361.–548. Dido recurs to the arguments of Anna, whom she regards as the cause of her woes.—552. Sychaeo used as an adjective.

553. İlla, contrasted with Aeneas, brings out the two opposing pictures, of the queen's position, and that of Aeneas, on that dreadful night.-556. Vultu eodem. See verse 259, &c.—558. Omnia, the accusative of limitation. Like Mercury-In what respect ?-In all respects. See verse 216, and Ecl. 1, 55. Coloremque has the last syllable elided before et. -561. Deinde, de ita agendo, as the consequence of your

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