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Polyphemus; they pass in their southward course the river Pantagia, with a rocky mouth—the towns Megara and Thapsus, all south of Leontini, on the east coast of Sicily; then further south, the Bay of Syracuse (sinu Sicanio)-and, at the entrance of the Syracusan harbour, the island Ortygia, in which the Alpheus, a river of Elis, in the Peloponnesus, according to the legend, emerges from the sea, and mingles with the waters of the Arethusa (Ed. 10, 1)-the promontory of Plemmyrium, on the other side of the harbour, 655-697. Thereafter they pass the river Helorus, north of Pachynum ; they round Pachynum itself; then on the south of the island, proceeding westwards, they sail along by the towns Camarina, with its lake, which the oracle of Apollo forbade the inhabitants to drain (nunquam concessa moveri)—Gela, with its fertile plains (campi Geloi)—Agrigentum, on Mount Acragas, famous for the success of its horses in the great games of Greece—and Selinus, abounding with wild palms, 698-705. Rounding Lilybaeum, the western promontory of Sicily, they proceed a short way north to Drepanum, near Eryx, where Anchises dies, 706-715. Thus ends the narrative of Aeneas, 716-718.

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'POSTQUAM res Asiae Priamique evertere gentem
Immeritam visum Superis, ceciditque superbum
Ilium, et omnis humo fumat Neptunia Troja;
Diversa exsilia et desertas quaerere terras
Auguriis agimur divûm, classemque sub ipsa
Antandro, et Phrygiae molimur montibus Idae,
Incerti, quo fata ferant, ubi sistere detur;
Contrahimusque viros. Vix prima inceperat aestas,
Et pater Anchises dare fatis vela jubebat;
Litora quum patriae lacrimans portusque relinquo,
Et campos ubi Troja fuit. Feror exsul in altum
Cum sociis natoque, Penatibus, et magnis dis.

* Terra procul vastis colitur Mavortia campis,
Thraces arant, acri quondam regnata Lycurgo;

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FIRST YEAR, 1-12.— 1. Asiae. See A. 2, 557.—3. Neptunia. See A. 2, 625.-4. Diversa, referring to himself and Antenor. See A. I, 242.--6. Antandro. Antandros was a maritime town at the foot of Ida.-9. Dare fatis vela. The ordinary phrase is dare ventis vela.10. Quum et tum, as also in A. 6, 91. So often qui = et is.—11. Fuit. See A. 2, 325.-12. Penatibus, &c. Either et has a mere emphatic force, the Penates and the magni di being the same, or the latter refers to Vesta, given to Aeneas by Hector, and the former to the gods saved by Panthus, A. 2, 256, 320. The line is spondaic.

SECOND YEAR, 13-68. – 13. Thrace was consecrated to Mars.
14. Regnata, a poetic use of an intransitive verb. Lycurgus expelled

15

Hospitium antiquum Trojae, sociique Penates,
Dum fortuna fuit. Feror huc, et litore curvo
Moenia prima loco, fatis ingressus iniquis;
Aeneadasque meo nomen de nomine fingo.

'Sacra Dionaeae matri divisque ferebam,
Auspicibus coeptorum operum; superoque nitentem 20
Coelicolûm regi mactabam in litore taurum.
Forte fuit juxta tumulus, quo cornea summo
Virgulta, et densis hastilibus horrida myrtus.
Accessi, viridemque ab humo convellere silvam
Conatus, ramis tegerem ut frondentibus aras, 25
Horrendum et dictu video mirabile monstrum.
Nam, quae prima solo ruptis radicibus arbos
Vellitur, huic atro liquuntur sanguine guttae,
Et terram tabo maculant. Mihi frigidus horror
Membra quatit, gelidusque coit formidine sanguis. 30
Rursus et alterius lentum convellere vimen
Insequor, et causas penitus tentare latentes :
Ater et alterius sequitur de cortice sanguis.
Multa movens animo, nymphas venerabar agrestes,
Gradivumque patrem, Geticis qui praesidet arvis, 35
Rite secundarent visus, omenque levarent.
Tertia sed postquam majore hastilia nisu
Aggredior, genibusque adversae obluctor arenae-
Eloquar, an sileam ?-gemitus lacrimabilis imo
Auditur tumulo, et vox reddita fertur ad aures :- 40

Quid miserum, Aenea, laceras ? jam parce sepulto;
Parce pias scelerare manus. Non me tibi Troja
Externum tulit; aut cruor hic de stipite manat.
Heu ! fuge crudeles terras, fuge litus avarum.

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Bacchus. See Hom. Il. 6, 130.–15. Hospitium and Penates are in apposition with terra. Socii Penates (publici), • allied countries.'17. Ingressus, sc. Thraciam.

19. Dionacae. According to some, Venus was daughter of the nymph Dione.- 20. Nitentem, sleek' pinguem.-21. Kegi, Jovi.—23. The ancients formed javelins of myrtle-wood: cf. G. 2, 447.–32. Insequor = pergo. -35. Gradivum, a name for Mars, from his martial step, gradior.-36. Venerabar ut secundarent ; secundare, to turn to good.42, &c. Construe non with externum. The idea involved in this latter word probably recurs in the next clause, externus cruor. Or stipite may be emphatic: “it is not from the tree, but from me.'—43. Tulit

genuit.44. Crudeles and ararum allude to the deed of Polymestor. Sec Euripides, Ilec. 49, &c.

Nam Polydorus ego. Hic confixum ferrea texit 45
Telorum seges, et jaculis increvit acutis.”
Tum vero, ancipiti mentem formidine pressus,
Obstupui, steteruntque comae, et vox faucibus haesit.
Hunc Polydorum, auri quondam cum pondere magno,
Infelix Priamus furtim mandarat alendum

50
Threïcio regi; quum jam diffideret armis
Dardaniae, cingique urbem obsidione videret.
Ille, ut opes fractae Teucrûm, et Fortuna recessit,
Res Agamemnonias victriciaque arma secutus,
Fas omne abrumpit; Polydorum obtruncat, et auro 55
Vi potitur. Quid non mortalia pectora cogis,
Auri sacra fames! Postquam pavor ossa reliquit,
Delectos populi ad proceres, primumque parentem,
Monstra deûm refero, et, quae sit sententia, posco.
Omnibus idem animus scelerata excedere terra, 60
Linqui pollutum hospitium, et dare classibus austros.
Ergo instauramus Polydoro funus, et ingens
Aggeritur tumulo tellus; stant Manibus arae,
Caeruleis moestae vittis, atraque cupresso,
Et circum Iliades crinem de more solutae;

65
Inferimus tepido spumantia cymbia lacte,
Sanguinis et sacri pateras; animamque sepulcro
Condimus, magna supremum voce ciemus.

45. Polydorus, a son of Priam. Confixum me.-46. Jaculis, the ablative, expresses the form in which the plant has sprung from the earth.47. Ancipiti, having caused me to hesitate about what part to take.' ---48. See Á. 2, 774.-51. Regi. His name was Polymnestor, or Polymestor.–56. Potitur. This present indicative and infinitive, and the imperfect subjunctive of this verb, are sometimes found, especially in the poets, of the third conjugation. Cogis. Add this to the list of verbs governing two accusatives, the one being that of the person, and the other of the deed forced, generally expressed by a pronoun. See A. 4, 412.—57. Sacra diis inferis, exsecranda.—61. This is not a reversing of the ordinary expression, dare classem ventis : dare classibus austros (that is, ventos), to give the winds to the fleet,' is to unfurl the sails, and thus enable the feet to feel its motive agent.' After excedere, and with dare, we should expect linquere. But such changes are not rare. -62. Ergo, &c. This description of a funeral is according to Roman usage. See A. 1, 73.–64. Cupresso; in many countries, the emblem of mourning. See A. 6, 216.-66. Inferimus is the proper term for this sacrifice, hence called inferiae.-67. Animam condimus (that is, sepelimus): in the creed of the ancients, the soul wandered round the body until the latter was buried.-68. Supremum. See A. 1, 219; 2, 644.

'Inde, ubi prima fides pelago, placataque venti
Dant maria, et lenis crepitans vocat auster in altum, 70
Deducunt socii naves, et litora complent.
Provehimur portu, terraeque urbesque recedunt.

'Sacra mari colitur medio gratissima tellus
Nereïdum matri, et Neptuno Aegaeo:
Quam pius Arcitenens, oras et litora circum

75
Errantem, Mycono e celsa Gyaroque revinxit,
Immotamque coli dedit, et contemnere ventos.
Huc feror; haec fessos tuto placidissima portu
Accipit. Egressi veneramur Apollinis urbem,
Rex Anius, rex idem hominum Phoebique sacerdos, 80
Vittis et sacra redimitus tempora lauro,
Occurrit: veterem Anchisen agnoscit amicum.
Jungimus hospitio dextras, et tecta subimus.
Templa dei saxo venerabar structa vetusto :-

84
“Da propriam, Thymbraee, domum; da moenia fessis,
Et genus, et mansuram urbem! Serva altera Trojae
Pergama, reliquias Danaûm atque immitis Achilli.
Quem sequimur? quove ire jubes ? ubi ponere sedes?
Da, pater, augurium, atque animis illabere nostris.”

* Vix ea fatus eram; tremere omnia visa repente, 90 Liminaque laurusque dei; totusque moveri Mons circum, et mugire adytis cortina reclusis. Submissi petimus terram, et vox fertur ad aures:“Dardanidae duri, quae vos a stirpe parentum Prima tulit tellus, eadem vos ubere laeto

95 Accipiet reduces. Antiquam exquirite matrem.

69-189. Account of the Third and Fourth Years.-69-70. These two verses are a most elegant periphrasis for 'when the weather became favourable for embarkation.'—71. Deducunt. For another compound with an opposite meaning, see verse 135.

74. Doris, the mother of the Nereids, and Neptune (equivalent to the Greek Poseidon), were deities of the Mediterranean, and especially the Aegean Sea. Matri, Neptuno ; i and ō unelided.—75. Arcitenens. Apollo was famed as an archer.-80. Anius, a son of Apollo. According to a Greek tradition, Aeneas married his daughter.-83. Hospitio

utpote hospites.-85. Propriam stabilem, perpetuam, as in A. 1, 73. Thymbraee. See G. 4, 323.-88. Quem sequimur ? :

= quem nobis das ducem?

91. Liminaquē, with è long by the arsis.-92. Cortina here signifies the slab, resting on the tripod, from which the servants of Apollo pronounced their oracular responses. In this passage the god himself speaks.

Hic domus Aeneae cunctis domirabitur oris,
Et nati natorum, et qui nascentur ab illis."
Haec Phoebus: mixtoque ingens exorta tumultu
Laetitia ; et cuncti, quae sint ea moenia, quaerunt; 100
Quo Phoebus vocet errantes, jubeatque reverti.
Tum genitor, veterum volvens monumenta virorum,
“ Audite, O proceres," ait, “et spes discite vestras.
Creta Jovis magni medio jacet insula ponto;
Mons Idaeus ubi, et gentis cunabula nostrae. 105
Centum urbes habitant magnas, uberrima regna ;
Maximus unde pater, si rite audita recordor,
Teucrus. Rhoeteas primum est advectus ad oras,
Optavitque locum regno. Nondum Ilium et arces
Pergameae steterant: habitabant vallibus imis. 110
Hinc mater cultrix Cybelae, Corybantiaque aera,
Idaeumque nemus: hinc fida silentia sacris,
Et juncti currum dominae subiere leones.
Ergo agite, et, divûm ducunt qua jussa, sequamur:
Placemus ventos, et Gnosia regna petamus.

115
Nec longo distant cursu: modo Jupiter adsit,
Tertia lux classem Cretaeis sistet in oris."
Sic fatus, meritos aris mactavit honores,
Taurum Neptuno, taurum tibi, pulcher Apollo,
Nigram Hiemi pecudem, Zephyris felicibus albam. 120

* Fama volat, pulsum regnis cessisse paternis
Idomenea ducem, desertaque litora Cretae;
Hoste vacare domos, sedesque astare relictas.
Linquimus Ortygiae portus, pelagoque volamus,

Bacchatamque jugis Naxon, viridemque Donusam, 125 97. Hic, in tellure jam dicta.—105. Ida is the highest mountain in Crete, 7674 feet above sea-level, and now called Psilorati.-106. Homer, too, speaks of the hundred cities, calling Crete izatóutonis.—107. Maximus pater, the first of our ancestors.'-110. Habitabant Trojani. 111. Aeneas here traces the Phrygian worship of Cybele, with the brazen cymbals of her priests, her mysterious rites, and the tradition of her lion-yoked chariot-even the name of the mountain Ida-to Crete. - 112. Nemūs has ūs long by the arsis. — 117. Lux 120. Hiemi, 'to the tempests.'

121. There was a tradition that the Cretans had expelled Idomeneus, a brave prince, who had aided the Greeks in the Trojan war, because he had sacrificed his son to Neptune, in consequence of a vow for his safe return, and that he settled in Calabria.--125. Bacchatam jugis in cujus montibus Bacchanalia celebrantur. Naxon, &c., all under the influence of legimus. See Ecl. 8, 7.

dies.

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