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Prospiciens : "Nate," exclamat, “ fuge, nate ; propin-

;
quant :
Ardentes clipeos atque aera micantia cerno.”

'Hic mihi nescio quod trepido male numen amicum
Confusam eripuit mentem. Namque, avia cursu 736
Dum sequor, et nota excedo regione viarum,
Heu ! misero conjux fatone erepta Creusa
Substitit? erravitne via ? seu lassa resedit?
Incertum : nec post oculis est reddita nostris. 740
Nec prius amissam respexi, animumye reflexi,
Quam tumulum antiquae Cereris sedemque sacratam
Venimus. Hic demum, collectis omnibus, una
Defuit; et comites, natumque, virumque fefellit.
Quem non incusavi amens hominumque deorumque ?
Aut quid in eversa vidi crudelius urbe ?

746
Ascanium, Anchisenque patrem, Teucrosque Penates
Commendo sociis, et curva valle recondo :
Ipse urbem repeto, et cingor fulgentibus armis.
Stat casus renovare omnes, omnemque reverti

750 Per Trojam, et rursus caput objectare periclis.

‘Principio muros, obscuraque limina portae,
Qua gressum extuleram, repeto ; et vestigia retro
Observata sequor per noctem, et lumine lustro.
Horror ubique animos, simul ipsa silentia terrent. 755
Inde domum, si forte pedem, si forte, tulisset,

735. Nescio quod and quid. A form of expression used adjectively, to denote some vague, uncertain object, and having no influence on the verb. The meaning is not—'I am ignorant of the deity who ;' otherwise we should have eriperet— But some deity-I know not who.' Male amicum; infestum. See a similar junction, verse 23.—737. Regione,

direction, the primitive acceptation of this word.—738. Misero fato erepta must qualify the whole of the hypotheses stated by Aeneas. However she was lost, it was the work of fate. Hence the ne is placed in a rare, though not in an unprecedented part of the sentence. The marks of interrogation, placed here for the first time, give liveliness to the expression of the hero's grief, and are demanded by the indicatives.--744. Fefelit. Fallere, in the sense of escaping the notice of, generally infers intention on the part of the subject to the verb ; but not always, as here.—745. Deorumque. The que elided before aut.750. Stat; constituit. This return of Aeneas is admirably contrived to bring before us the utter ruin of Troy, and its condition as possessed by the Greeks.

754. Observata sequor ; observo et sequor. Lumine lustro omnia. See verse 173.755. Terrent seems to involve the idea of stringit, which governs animos meos. — 756. The second si forte seems to express

771

Me refero : irruerant Danai, et tectum omne tenebant.
Ilicet ignis edax summa ad fastigia vento
Volvitur ; exsuperant flammae; furit aestus ad auras.
Procedo, et Priami sedes, arcemque, reviso.

760
Et jam porticibus vacuis, Junonis asylo,
Custodes lecti, Phoenix et dirus Ulixes
Praedam asservabant: huc undique Troïa gaza
Incensis erepta adytis, mensaeque deorum,
Crateresque auro solidi, captivaque vestis

765
Congeritur. Pueri et pavidae longo ordine matres
Stant circum.
Ausus quin etiam voces jactare per umbram,
Implevi clamore vias, moestusque Creusam
Nequidquam ingeminans iterumque iterumque vocavi.
Quaerenti, et tectis urbis sine fine furenti,
Infelix simulacrum, atque ipsius umbra Creüsae
Visa mihi ante oculos, et nota major imago.
Obstupui, steteruntque comae, et vox faucibus haesit.
Tum sic affari, et curas his demere dictis :-

775
“Quid tantum insano juvat indulgere dolori,
O dulcis conjux ? non haec sine numine divum
Eveniunt: nec te comitem portare Creüsam
Fas, aut ille sinit superi regnator Olympi.
Longa tibi exsilia, et vastum maris aequor arandum:
Et terram Hesperiam venies, ubi Lydius, arva 781
Inter opima virûm, leni fluit agmine Thybris.
Illic res laetae, regnumque et regia conjux
Parta tibi : lacrimas dilectae pelle Creüsae.
Non ego Myrmidonum sedes, Dolopumve, superbas 785
Aspiciam, aut Graiis servitum matribus ibo,

wonder at his own credulousness. -757. Irruerant tenebant. Mark the force of these tenses.—762. Phoenix, the aged tutor of Achilles, was on guard in the galleries of Juno's temple, a sacred asylum.--765. Solidi, ex solido.-766. Pueri. Trojans, now the slaves of the 4 Greeks.772. Infelix, me reddens infelicem.—773. Visa mihi. See verse 624. With notă supply imagine : cf. Ov. F. 2, 503.-774. Stetěrunt. This line occurs again, A. 3, 48.---779. Fas = fatum.780. Tibi sunt, Exsilia, supply obeunda sunt, since arandum applies to the second term only in the sense of sulcandum. — 781. Hesperiam. See A. 1, 530. Lydius Thybris. Tiberis, the Tiber, of which Thybris is a poetic form, rises in Tuscany, traditionally peopled by Lydians, from Asia Minor.-783. Regia conjux. Lavinia, daughter of King Latinus.—784. Creüsae, genitive. See A. 1, 462.—785. See verse 7.—786. Matribus = matronis.

6

Dardanis, et divae Veneris nurus :
Sed me magna deûm Genetrix his detinet oris.
Jamque vale, et nati serva communis amorem.”
Haec ubi dicta dedit, lacrimantem et multa volentem
Dicere deseruit, tenuesque recessit in auras. 791
Ter conatus ibi collo dare brachia circum ;
Ter frustra comprensa manus effugit imago,
Par levibus ventis, volucrique simillima somno.
Sic demum socios consumpta nocte reviso.

795
Atque hic ingentem comitum affluxisse novorum
Invenio admirans numerum ; matresque virosque,
Collectam exsilio pubem, miserabile vulgus.
Undique convenere, animis opibusque parati,
In quascumque velim pelago deducere terras.

800
Jamque jugis summae surgebat Lucifer Idae,
Ducebatque diem; Danaïque obsessa tenebant
Limina portarum ; nec spes opis ulla dabatur:

Cessi, et sublato montes genitore petivi.' 788. Deum Genetrix; Cybele.—791. Cf. the disappearance of Eurydice, G. 4, 499.—792. Conatus sum.—792-794. These three verses occur again at A. 6, 700, &c.

798. Exsilio, the dative case. Pubem in apposition to viros. -799. Opibus, the talents and all the resources they possessed, but not riches, properly so called.-800. Deducere ; this was the proper term applied to him who headed a Roman colony.—801. Lucifer, Venus, Hesperus, are the same planet, sometimes seen in the west in the evening, at others, as here, seen in the east, near sunrise.--802. Ducebat = adducebat.—804. Montes, 'Ida :' the plural is used also in verses 635, 636 ; and A. 3, 6.

L I B E R II I.

In the Third Book, Aeneas proceeds to give an account of his seven

years' wanderings after the destruction of Troy. FIRST YEAR.*-Aeneas and his followers build, during winter, a fleet

at Antandros, at the foot of the mountain-range of Ida (A. 2, 694),

and set sail in the beginning of the next summer, verses 1-12. SECOND YEAR. They first visit Thrace, a country of Europe, to the north-west of Troy, much given to the worship of Mars (terra Mavortia), and build a town (moenia prima, referring to the town

* Nam te jam septima portataestas, A. 1, 755-6. Heyne's arrangement of the years is here followed. It has been deemed advisable to give in this Argu. ment brief geographical notices of the numerous places mentioned, that the notes may not be overcrowded. The places mentioned by Virgil are printed in italics.

called Aenos by the geographer Mela), 13-68. THIRD AND FOURTH YEARS. — They leave Thrace (whose fields are

called Getica, from the Getae ; see G. 4, 463), deterred by a frightful incident which occurs there. They sail southwards through the Aegean Sea, or Archipelago (Neptuno Aegaeo), to Delos (called also Ortygia, from some legend connected with ogtúrts, quails), which, as tradition tells, was once a floating island, but on the occasion of the birth of Apollo and Diana, was fastened to the neighbouring islands of Gyaros and Myconos; and here, consulting the priest of Apollo, they receive an ambiguous answer, 69-98. Anchises interprets it as advising them to sail to the island of Crete (called Gnosia regna, from Gnosus, a town in the north of the island), where in the centre was the mountain-range of Ida (mons Idaeus), 99-120. They leave Delos, passing Naxos—rich in vines, where the worship of Bacchus prevailed-Donusa, Olearos (or Antiparos, as opposite Paros), and Paros (A. 1, 593)—all islands in the Archipelago, 121-130. Arrived in Crete, whence had come the Corybantes, and where lived the Curetes, the armed priests of the goddess Cybele, who was worshipped on a mountain in Phrygia bearing her name, they founded the city Pergameum, and intended finally to settle there ; but alarmed by a pestilence, they meditated a second voyage to Delos, 131-146. Aeneas is warned by the gods in a vision to leave Crete (Dictaea arva, from Dicte, a mountain-range in the east of the island), and to settle in Italy (called Corythus, from an Italian hero of that name, a king of Tuscany; and terra Ausonia, from the Ausones, an indigenous race inhabiting the middle regions of Italy, called also Aurunci and Opici, of whom the Volscians were probably a tribe)

tidings which Anchises hears joyfully, 147-189. FIFTH YEAR. — They once more set sail, but lose their way in a

storm, 190-208. They take shelter at two islands in the open sea (Ionio mari in magno) to the west of Messenia in the Peloponnesus, called Strophades, in consequence of a legend regarding the Harpies, who are a great source of annoyance to the wandering Trojans, 209–267. Sailing northwards, they pass Zacynthus, the modern Zante-Dulichium (Ecl. 6, 76)—Same, or Cephalenia, the modern Cephalonia – Neritos, in the immediate neighbourhood of Ithaca, though its precise site is unknown - Ithaca, the wellknown island of Laërtes and his son Ulysses-Leucate, off Acarnania, now Santa Maura-all islands in the Ionian Sea, off the coast of Greece, 268-274. They land at Actium (parvae urbi), a town in Acarnania, famous for a temple of Apollo, and there celebrate

games, 275-288. Sixth YEAR.—They again set sail, passing Corcyra, now Corfu, then inhabited by the Sicilian Phacaces, and the coast

Epirus, the country north of Acarnania, anchoring at Pelodes, the harbour of Buthrotum, a town of Epirus, 289-293. Aeneas here, to his great

surprise, finds Andromache and Helenus, who had named the country (which lay west of Dodona, so celebrated for its oracle of Jupiter ; see verse 466, and Ecl. 9, 13) Chaonia, from the Trojan Chaon, and had revived in rivers near Buthrotum the Trojan names of the Xunthus and the Simożs, having also a Scaean gate (A. 2, 612), 294–355. Aeneas consults Helenus, who had great fame as a prophet, and receives a response, assuring him of ultimate success, but warning him that he has a long voyage before him, as he must pass the Sicilian Sea (Trinacria unda, Sicily being called Trinacria from its three promontories)—Lake Avernus, in Campania, an entrance to the lower world (inferni lacus)—and an island in the Tuscan Sea (Salis Ausonii), whose site is now unknown, inhabited by the sorceress Circe, named Aeaea (from Aea, a town of Colchis, whence she came); and he directs him to shun the lower parts of Italy, as the Locri, from the town Naryx, on the coast of Greece, opposite the island of Euboea, had planted a colony among the Brutii; Idomeneus of Lyctus, in Crete, had settled among the Sallentini in Messapia; and Philoctetes of Meliboea, in Thessaly, had founded Petelia among the Brutii, 356-402. Helenus also gives him directions how to approach Italy so as to propitiate the gods, 403-409. He advises him, on reaching the Straits of Messina, to stand across towards the coast of Sicily, veer about, and sail southwards and round the island, thus avoiding the rock Scylla, on the Italian, and the whirlpool Charybdis, on the Sicilian side of the straits, even though the course by Pachynum, the southern promontory, was much longer, 410-432. He especially counsels him to propitiate Juno; and when he comes to Cumae, a town in Campania, near Naples, to consult the Sibyl, 433-462. After receiving presents, interchanging farewells, and predicting the alliance of Rome and Epirus, which probably refers to the foundation of the town of Nicopolis by Augustus, after the battle of Actium, constituted by him an allied town (cognatasque urbes), Aeneas sets sail, passing the Ceraunii montes, which stretch along the northern part of the coast of Epirus. After spending a portion of the night on land, they get a favourable wind, reach Italy next day, and enter the Portus Veneris, the harbour of Hydruntum, in Messapia, on a hill near which was a temple of Minerva, 463-548. They leave this, passing Tarentum, in Japygia, traditionally said to be founded by Hercules—the promontory Lacinium (now Capo delle Colonne, from the remaining pillars of a ruined temple of Juno)—the town of Caulon, situated on a height-and Scylaceum, whose bay, now that of Squillace, is exposed to dangerous winds (navifragum)—all in the country of the Brutii; thence rounding the south of Italy, they see the distant smoke and flame of Aetna, and approaching too near Scylla and Charybdis, hear their dreadful roar, which urges them to take refuge near Aetna, in the land of the Cyclops, 549-569. Aetna's fires are described and accounted for, 570-587. Adventures of Achemenides, one of the followers of Ulysses, 588-654. The Trojans take him on board, and with difficulty escape from the Cyclops

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