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Frigida sub terra tumidum quem bruma tegebat,
Nunc, positis novus exuviis, nitidusque juventa,
Lubrica convolvit, sublato pectore, terga,
Arduus ad solem, et linguis micat ore trisulcis. 475
Una ingens Periphas, et equorum agitator Achillis,
Armiger Automedon; una omnis Scyria pubes
Succedunt tecto, et flammas ad culmina jactant.
Ipse inter primos correpta dura bipenni
Limina perrumpit, postesque a cardine vellit 480
Aeratos ; jamque excisa trabe firma cavavit
Robora, et ingentem lato dedit ore fenestram.
Apparet domus intus, et atria longa patescunt;
Apparent Priami et veterum penetralia regum,
Armatosque vident stantes in limine primo. 485

• At domus interior gemitu, miseroque tumultu,
Miscetur; penitusque cavae plangoribus aedes
Femineis ululant: ferit aurea sidera clamor.
Tum pavidae tectis matres ingentibus errant,
Amplexaeque tenent postes, atque oscula figunt. 490
Instat vi patria Pyrrhus; nec claustra, neque ipsi
Custodes sufferre valent: labat ariete crebro
Janua, et emoti procumbunt cardine postes.
Fit via vi : rumpunt aditus, primosque trucidant
Immissi Danai, et late loca milite complent. 495
Non sic, aggeribus ruptis quum spumeus amnis
Exiit oppositasque evicit gurgite moles,
Fertur in arya furens cumulo, camposque per omnes
Cum stabulis armenta trahit. Vidi ipse furentem

food?—Ed. 1, 78; and its passive sometimes, as here, deponently, and followed by the accusative-'to feed upon.'— 473. Alluding to the fact in natural history, that the serpent repeatedly casts its skin in summer.--476. In the ancient war-chariots, the warrior was accompanied by a charioteer, whose main business it was to manage the chariot, as subservient to the active combatant. Virgil makes the charioteer of Achilles the armour-bearer of his son.—477. Scyria; from Scyros, one of the Cyclades.-479. Ipse, Pyrrhus.--480. Compare verso 469 with 485, and it will be found that Aeneas is here speaking of the limen of the vestibulum.-485. Limine primo, of the inner part of the palace, domus interior.

487. Penitus, in the inmost recesses.—489. Errant ; a strong expression— lose their way.'—490. Oscula. Bidding them farewell.-492. Ariete, pronounced in three syllables, āryětě.—493. Janua. See verses 480, 485.--496. Non sic; non amnis tanto cum impetu furit.498. Cumulo. Compare A. I, 105.

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Caede Neoptolemum, geminosque in limine Atridas: 500
Vidi Hecubam, centumque nurus, Priamumque per aras
Sanguine foedantem, quos ipse sacraverat, ignes.
Quinquaginta illi thalami, spes tanta nepotum,
Barbarico postes auro spoliisque superbi,
Procubuere; tenent Danaï, qua deficit ignis.

505
'Forsitan et, Priami fuerint quae fata, requiras.
Urbis ubi captae casum, convulsaque vidit
Limina tectorum, et medium in penetralibus hostem ;
Arma diu senior desueta trementibus aevo
Circumdat nequidquam humeris, et inutile ferrum 510
Cingitur, ac densos fertur moriturus in hostes.

· Aedibus in mediis, nudoque sub aetheris axe,
Ingens ara fuit, juxtaque veterrima laurus,
Incumbens arae, atque umbra complexa Penates.
Hic Hecuba et natae nequidquam altaria circum, 515
Praecipites atra ceu tempestate columbae,
Condensae, et divûm amplexae simulacra, sedebant.
Ipsum autem sumptis Priamum juvenilibus armis
Ut vidit : “Quae mens tam dira, miserrime conjux,
Impulit his cingi telis ? aut quo ruis ?” inquit. 520
“Non tali auxilio, nec defensoribus istis
Tempus eget; non, si ipse meus nunc afforet Hector.
Huc tandem concede; haec ara tuebitur omnes,
Aut moriere simul.” Sic ore effata, recepit
Ad sese, et sacra longaevum in sede locavit. 525

501. Hecubam, the wife of Priam. Nurus ; filias (quinquaginta) et nurus (quinquaginta).—503. Cf. Hom. I. 6, 243.—504. Barbarus and barbaricus have frequently in the Greek and Latin poets the peculiar signification of Phrygius. Barbarico. Virgil here follows the Greeks in the application of this epithet to Trojan gold, though it may be that the allusion is to spoils taken by the Trojans from the barbari.

509. Diu senior desueta. The position of these words shews that the long disuse arose from his age.

512. There was a vestibulum; then the palace, forming a square, with its spacious rooms, and in the middle a court, open to the sky, where, as was usual in ancient houses, stood an altar to the Penates. Axe. See A. 1, 90.515. The position of nequidquam next altaria indicates the impious cruelty of the Greeks; even the altars were no protection.--519. Quae mens tam dira impulit. Such expressions are equivalent to est tam dira ut impellat.-521. Non: defensoribus eget from the previous sentence is involved, without the istis. Non eget infers that their safety is beyond all hope, as we would say of a dead man, he needs no help now.—524. Ore. See A. 1, 614.

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' Ecce autem, elapsus Pyrrhi de caede, Polites,
Unus natorum Priami, per tela, per hostes,
Porticibus longis fugit, et vacua atria lustrat
Saucius ; illum ardens infesto vulnere Pyrrhus
Insequitur, jam jamque manu tenet, et premit hasta. 530
Ut tandem ante oculos evasit et ora parentum,
Concidit, ac multo vitam cum sanguine fudit.
Hic Priamus, quamquam in media jam morte tenetur,
Non tamen abstinuit, nec voci iraeque pepercit :-
At tibi

pro scelere,” exclamat,“ pro talibus ausis, 535
Di, si qua est coelo pietas, quae talia curet,
Persolvant grates dignas, et praemia reddant
Debita, qui nati coram me cernere letum
Fecisti, et patrios foedasti funere vultus.
At non ille, satum quo te mentiris, Achilles 540
Talis in hoste fuit Priamo ; sed jura fidemque
Supplicis erubuit, corpusque exsangue sepulcro
Reddidit Hectoreum, meque in mea regna remisit.”
Sic fatus senior, telumque imbelle sine ictu
Conjecit; rauco quod protinus aere repulsum, 545
Et summo clipei nequidquam umbone pependit.
Cui Pyrrhus: “Referes ergo haec, et nuntius ibis
Pelidae genitori : illi mea tristia facta,
Degeneremque Neoptolemum, narrare memento.
Nunc morere. Hoc dicens, altaria ad ipsa trementem
Traxit, et in multo lapsantem sanguine nati, 551

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529. Vulnere : the poets sometimes use vulnus for telum, by which the wound is inflicted.-530. The chase is here most graphically described by the present tenses, and jam jamque.531. Evasit, 'reached,' arrived.' -533. Media morte; death is represented as a band encompassing him on all sides.—535. At tibi ; emphatic. “To thee, at least-whatever may be the fate of the other Greeks.'--536. Coelo. See A. 1, 378, to ascertain how in heaven there may be pietas.--537. Grates, praemia, ironically = poenas.-- 540. Priam denies it to be possible that the murderous Pyrrhus can be a son of the noble-minded Achilles, who restored to him the body of Hector. — 541. In hoste. The ordinary construction is hostem. Sallust especially is fond of the ablative in such constructions.-542. Erubuit, literally, - blushed at the rights of the suppliants; that is, respected them. 544. Sine ictu, ' without (being able to strike) a blow.'-546. Umbone, the boss or eentre of the shield, which projected. It sometimes terminated in a spike, which might, as here, catch a dart, so as to cause it to dangle from it.-547, &c. Similarly in Shakspeare. Richard, annoyed at the taunts of Henry VI., says: Down, down to hell; and say—I sent thee thither.'—548. Pelidac, Achilles.' Tristia, “fatal' (to thee).-550. Ipsa. Expressive of the

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Implicuitque comam laeva, dextraque coruscum
Extulit ac lateri capulo tenus abdidit ensem.
Haec finis Priami fatorum : hic exitus illum
Sorte tulit, Trojam incensam, et prolapsa videntem 555
Pergama, tot quondam populis terrisque superbum
Regnatorem Asiae. Jacet ingens litore truncus,
Avulsumque humeris caput, et sine nomine corpus.

' At me tum primum saevus circumstetit horror,
Obstupui; subiit cari genitoris imago,

560
Ut regem aequaevum crudeli vulnere vidi
Vitam exhalantem : subiit deserta Creüsa,
Et direpta domus, et parvi casus Iuli.
Respicio, et, quae sit me circum copia, lustro.
Deseruere omnes defessi, et corpora saltu

565 Ad terram misere, aut ignibus aegra dedere.

Jamque adeo super unus eram; quum limina Vestae
Servantem, et tacitam secreta in sede latentem,
Tyndarida aspicio : dant clara incendia lucem
Erranti, passimque oculos per cuncta ferenti. 570
Illa, sibi infestos eversa ob Pergama Teucros,
Et poenas Danaûm, et deserti conjugis iras,
Praemetuens, Trojae et patriae communis Erinys,
Abdiderat sese, atque aris invisa sedebat.
Exarsere ignes animo: subit ira cadentem

575

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impiety of the deed.-555. Sorte, fato.-556. Populis, dative, instead of the usual genitive, governed by regnatorem.557. Asiae, in the Roman sense, of the sea-board (principally) of Asia Minor. The truncus and caput make the corpus.- 558. Sine nomine, 'nameless,' so to speak, by the loss of his head.

559. Aeneas had forgotten his father. The mental law of association recalled him now for the first time.—562. Creisa, “the wife of Aeneas." ---563. Domūs, the final ūs long by the arsis.-564. Aeneas seems still to be on the house-top, and, while in no situation to render assistance, to have beheld the fatal scene in the court below.-565. Deseruere ;

have forsaken me.'--566. Ignibus aegra. The position of the words indicates that their fate was in consequence of their weariness. The twenty-two lines following were rejected, we are told, by the critics who reviewed the Aeneid for Augustus, because inconsistent with A. 6, 517, &c., and to avoid the slur cast upon Aeneas for his projected violence to a woman.

567. Aeneas leaves the palace, and wanders homewards.—569. Tyndarida. See A. 1, 652.-570. Erranti. In the confusion of the hour, he lost his way.

See verse 489.-_572. Conjugis, Menelai.-573. Erinys. See verse 337.-574. Aris, 'on the steps of the altar.' Invisa, non visa.

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Ulcisci patriam, et sceleratas sumere poenas.
“Scilicet haec Spartam incolumis, patriasque Mycenas,
Aspiciet, partoque ibit regina triumpho ?
Conjugiumque, domumque, patres, natosque videbit,
Iliadum turba et Phrygiis comitata ministris ? 580
Occiderit ferro Priamus ? Troja arserit igni ?
Dardanium toties sudarit sanguine litus ?
Non ita. Namque, etsi nullum memorabile nomen
Feminea in poena est, nec habet victoria laudem,
Exstinxisse nefas tamen, et sumpsisse merentis 585
Laudabor poenas; animumque explesse juvabit
Ultricis flammae, et cineres satiasse meorum."

• Talia jactabam, et furiata mente ferebar;
Quum mihi se, non ante oculis tam clara, videndam
Obtulit, et pura per noctem in luce refulsit

590
Alma parens, confessa deam, qualisque videri
Coelicolis et quanta solet; dextraque prehensum
Continuit, roseoque haec insuper addidit ore :-

Nate, quis indomitas tantus dolor excitat iras ?
Quid furis ? aut quonam nostri tibi cura recessit? 595
Non prius aspicies, ubi fessum aetate parentem
Liqueris Anchisen ? superet conjuxne Creusa,
Ascaniusque puer ? quos omnes undique Graiae
Circum errant acies ; et, ni mea cura resistat,

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576. Sceleratas, scelerum.—577, &c. This represents the current of his thoughts. Spartam, the home of Menelaus, her husband. Mycenas, Graeciam. See A. 1, 650.--579. Conjugium conjugem, 'Menelaus,' who was at Troy. Patres parentes ; her father Tyndarus was dead. Natosque, Nicostratus and Hermione. This line, which the poet could not have written, is rightly suppressed by Wagner.–580. Comitata. See A. 1, 312.-581. Occiderit. The action is regarded as completed at a future time, represented by ibit.-583. Memorabile nomen, glory, honour. 584. Victoria de femina.--585. Note laudabor exstinxisse, the resolution of which seems to be, laudes habebo exstinxisse, construed as a genitive. Nefas = nefariam ; and merentis = a merente. 587. Flammae. See A. 1, 215.

590. Pura, ut coelesti. Per noctem, night though it was.-591. Qualis, as to beauty and general appearance ; 592, quanta, as to majesty.593. Roseo. See X. 1, 402; Ecl. 9, 40.-594. Tantus excitat, tantus ut excitet. See verse 519.-595. Nostri cura, 'thy love for me,' which would have made thee feel thy duties towards thy father..-- 599. Resistat, tulerint. The English idiom requires a close attention to the precise

aning of these tenses. The completion of their destruction is tingency only prevented by (ni) another act in the course of being now realised, and also expressed contingently: My present resistance

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