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which it urgently stands in need, in addition to those of a character exclusively spiritual. But when the clerical profession is both depressed in circumstances and insufficient in numbers, it has little prospect of commanding general notice from a proud, busy, crowded, and irreligious world.

The United States of America may seem to offer an example unfavourable to this conclusion. In them not only does religion generally prevail, but also episcopal protestantism has recently advanced in a remarkable degree. This last, however, has chiefly gained ground among the wealthier and more intelligent classes of a people habitually religious. The great mass lies under its old liability to the fluctuating influences of various discordant sects, all contending eagerly for popularity; and many parts of the country appear to be very insufficiently supplied with religious instruction and consolations of any kind. More experience and information are, therefore, needed, before conclusions can be safely drawn from the American case. But matters have gone far enough to show the value of a system that will bear sufficient examination. The church's increasing popularity among a people extensively nurtured in prejudice against it is a testimony to the soundness of their national religion upon which Englishmen may think with honest pride, and which may eventually receive due attention from inquirers after truth in other nations.

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The metaphysical and the mathematical sects.

Malebranche and Leibnitz . . .

British patronage of the mathematical philosophy .

Eclectics and sceptics . . . . .

Popes of the seventeenth century . . . .

Exertions to suppress protestantism . .

Commotions in Austria and Bohemia

Frederick, elector Palatine, chosen king of Bohemia .

Imperial successes against protestantism . .

Gustavus Adolphus . .

The peace of Westphalia.

Cessation of Romish wars

Opponents of Romanism banished from Spain and France

Religious movements in the British isles.

Pacific exertions of the Romish church .

Attempts at reconciliation

Papal methodists , . .

Protestant apostacy . . .

Papal reverses in the East .

Decline of papal authority ,

The Venetian interdict . .

Papal differences with Portugal

French attacks upon the papal court

Convention of Paris for the Gallican liberties.

Papal contest on the French ambassador's right of asylum

General corruption of the Romish clergy.

Division of monks into reformed and unreformed . .

French congregation of St. Maur . ..

Port Royal and La Trappe . . . . . .

Oratory of the holy Jesus .

Priests of the Missions, and Sisters of Cha

Attacks upon the Jesuits . .

Progress of learning and science .

Literary services of the Jesuits

.

Literary services of the Benedictines ,

Literary services of the Jannenista . .

Eminent Romish scholars . .

Continuance of Doctrinal corruption among Romanists

Jesuitic perversions of morality . .

Romish exertions against scriptural knowledge .

Diversities of Romish theological study ·

Romish controversies

Molina . . . . . . . . .

Jansenius

The Jansenist controversy

Papal condemnation of Jansenism . . . .

Papal compromise with the Jansenists .

Moral severity and practical piety of the Jansenists .

The convent of Port Royal . . . . . .

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Renewed contests on the immaculate conception

Quietists . . . . . . . .

Controversy between Bossuet and Fenelon .

Minor Romish controversies . . . .

Canonizations. . .

State of the Greek church

Cyrillus Lucaris .

Romnish influence upon Greek theology

The Greek church in Russia .

Revolution in it .

The monophysites . .

The Armenians

The Nestorians . .

Adverse events in the Lutheran church.

Secession of Hesse . . . .

Secession of Brandenburg .

Attempted union between Lutherans and Calvinists

Decree of Charenton · · ·

Conference of Leipsic . ..

Conferences of Horn and Cassel ..

Pacific exertions of Duræus . .

John Matthiæ and George Calixtus .

External advantages of the Lutherans

Literature every where cultivated.

State of philosophy . . . .

Increased liberty in philosophising.

Excellences and defects of the teachers

Faults of the times. . .

Ecelesiastical government . .

Eminent Lutheran writers .

Modern Lutherans more tolerant than ancient.

Biblical studies of the Lutherans .

Lutheran theology. ..

Lutheran moral philosophy .

Lutheran controversies . .

George Calixtus . . .

Paper wars occasioned by him .

Principal charges against him.

Parties raised by his writings .

Moderation of the Jena divines

Pietistic controversies . .

Biblical colleges . . . .

Fanatical movements among Lutherans . .

Division of opinion among them . . .

Contest on the religious value of human learning

Contest on the value of ascetic restrictions

Pietistic views of ecclesiastical history . .

Rajllery employed against Lutheranism . .

Millenarian doctrines revived . . . .

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Attacks upon confession and the illimitable mercy of God

Controversy on the humiliation of Christ.

Controversy on the operation of grace . .

Minor controversies . . . . ..

Jacob Bæhmen . . . . .

Pretended prophets . . .

Evils of mystical reading. ..

Attacks upon the Lutheran church.

Semi-Judaizers . . . . .

Enlargement of the reformed church

Reverses of the French protestants.

Persecution of that body . . . .

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

Persecutions of the Waldenses and Palatines

State of learning and philosophy

Biblical interpretation . .

Dogmatic theology . . . . .

Moral philosophy . . .

Predestinarian doctrines. .

The synod of Dort . . .

Little regard paid to its decrees .

Moderation of the Gallic church .

Modification of the predestinarian hypothesis.

The doctrine of imputed sin .

Approaches to a reconciliation with Rome .

The doctrine of original sin .

Dutch synods upon this doctrine

doctrine .

.

. . .

Dissensions in the English church . .

Archbishop Laud and his contemporaries

The Independents. .

Various sects. . .

The Antinomians . .

The Latitudinarians

The restoration

The Non-jurors

Their peculiar opinions .

Controversies in Holland .

Cocceius.

Roel .

Becker . -. .

Minor Dutch sects. ..

Swiss protestantism . . .

An arch-priest appointed among English Romanists

Primacy of Archbishop Bancroft

English concurrence in the synod of Dort

The Lambeth Articles admitted in Ireland .

Progress of puritanism under Charles I. .

Ecclesiastical affairs in Scotland . .

The Long Parliament . . . . . .

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