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firing of a cannon; and during the period of the writer's own residence in the East, he recollects no instance in which the fast was protracted on account of the non-appearance of the moon, for a reward being given to him who brings to the proper authorities the first news of its appearance, there are never wanting persons ready to swear that they have seen, at the usual season, what the mass of the people may have been unable to perceive. There is a chapter, On Seeing the New Moon,' in the Mischat-ul-Masabih, in which authority for most of these practices is found. One tradition reports Mohammed to have said—“A month is twenty nights: then keep not fast till you have seen the new moon ; which being hid from you by clouds, then coinplete thirty days.” In another instance, a Bedouin came and told him that he had seen the new moon; on which Mohammed questioned him as to his faith; and finding that he was a Moslem, turned to Billal, the crier, and told him to proclaim the fast.

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CHAPTER XXIX.

4 And one tenth deal for one lamb, i The offering at the feast of trumpets, 7 at the day throughout the seven lambs :

of afflicting their souls, 13 and on the eight days 5 And one kid of the goats for a sin : of the feast of tabernacles.

offering, to make an atonement for you: And in the seventh month, on the first day 6 Beside the burnt offering of the month, of the month, ye shall have an holy convo- and his meat offering, and the daily burnt cation ; ye shall do no servile work : 'it is offering, and his meat offering, and their a day of blowing the trumpets unto you. drink offerings, according unto their man

2 And ye shall offer a burnt offering for ner, for a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by a sweet savour unto the Lord; one young fire unto the LORD. bullock, one ram, and seven lambs of the 7 | And 'ye shall have on the tenth day first year without blemish :

of this seventh month an holy convocation; 3 And their meat offering shall be of flour and ye shall afflict your souls: ye shall not mingled with oil, three tenth deals for a do any work therein: bullock, and two tenth deals for a ram, 1 8 But ye shall offer a burnt offering unto

1 Levit. 23. 24. Levit. 16. 29, and 23, 27.

continudrink of bullockst

the LORD for a sweet savour; one young two rams, and fourteen lambs of the first bullock, one ram, and seven lambs of the year without blemish: first year; they shall be unto you without | 24 Their meat offering and their drink blemish:

offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and 9 And their meat offering shall be of flour for the lambs, shall be according to their mingled with oil, three tenth deals to a number, after the manner: bullock, and two tenth deals to one ram, 25 And one kid of the goats for a sin

10 A several tenth deal for one lamb, offering; beside the continual burnt offering, throughout the seven lambs :

his meat offering, and his drink offering. 11 One kid of the goats for a sin offering; 26 | And on the fifth day nine bullocks, beside the sin offering of atonement, and two rams, and fourteen lambs of the first the continual burnt offering, and the meat vear without spot : offering of it, and their drink offerings.

27 And their meat offering and their 12 | And on the fifteenth day of the drink offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, seventh month ye shall have an holy con- and for the lambs, shall be according to their vocation; ye shall do no servile work, and number, after the manner: ye shall keep a feast unto the LORD seven 28 And one goat for a sin offering; bedays:

side the continual burnt offering, and his 13 And ye shall offer a burnt offering, a meat offering, and his drink offering. sacrifice made by fire, of a sweet savour unto | 29 | And on the sixth day eight bullocks, the LORD; thirteen young bullocks, two two rams, and fourteen lambs of the first rams, and fourteen lambs of the first year; year without blemish: they shall be without blemish :

14 And their meat offering shall be of drink offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, flour mingled with oil, three tenth deals and for the lambs, shall be according to their unto every bullock of the thirteen bullocks, number, after the manner: two tenth deals to each ram of the two rams, 31 And one goat for a sin offering; be

15 And a several tenth deal to each lamb side the continual burnt offering, his meat of the fourteen lambs :

offering, and his drink offering. 16 And one kid of the goats for a sin 32 | And on the seventh day seven buloffering; beside the continual burnt offer- | locks, two rams, and fourteen lambs of the ing, his meat offering, and his drink offer- first year without blemish: ing.

33 And their meat offering and their 17 And on the second day ye shall drink offerings for the bullocks, for the rams,

workmn assembly phth day yeshali

teen lambs of the first year without spot: number, after the manner:

18 And their meat offering and their 34 And one goat for a sin offering; bedrink offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, side the continual burnt offering, his meat and for the lambs, shall be according to their offering, and his drink offering. number, after the manner:

35 ï On the eighth day ye shall have a 19 And one kid of the goats for a sin solemn assembly: ye shall do no servile offering; beside the continual burnt offer work therein: ing, and the meat offering thereof, and their 36 But ye shall offer a burnt offering, a drink offerings.

20 And on the third day eleven bullocks, the LORD: one bullock, one ram, seven two rams, fourteen lambs of the first year lambs of the first year without blemish: without blemish;

37 Their meat offering and their drink 21 And their meat offering and their offerings for the bullock, for the ram, and drink offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, for the lambs, shall be according to their and for the lambs, shall be according to their number, after the manner: number, after the manner:

38 And one goat for a sin offering; be22 And one goat for a sin offering; be- side the continual burnt offering, and his side the continual burnt offering, and his meat offering, and his drink offering. meat offering, and his drink offering.

39 These things ye shall ‘do unto the LORD * 23 | And on the fourth day ten bullocks, in your set feasts, beside your vows, and your

fter the late for an offering

8 Levit. 23. 36.

"Or, offer.

freewill offerings, for your burnt offerings, I 40 And Moses told the children of Israel and for your meat offerings, and for your according to all that the LORD commanded drink offerings, and for your peace offerings. | Moses.

Verse 1. “A day of blowing the trumpets.”—This was one of the new moon days, celebrated with more than ordinary solemnity, on account, probably, of its commencing the new year; for the first day of the seventh month of the sacred year was the new year's day of the more ancient civil year. It is the only one of the new moon days on which servile work is interdicted. It is called “the feast of trumpets:" and we are to understand that the trumpet-blowing was greater on this day than on any other of the solemn festivals. The Scripture gives no reason for this peculiarity, or indeed for the festival itself. Numerous conjectures have been offered to supply the omission. Many Jewish writers think that the trumpets were blown in order to awaken men to repentance against the great fast, or day of expiation, which followed nine days after. But to this it has been well objected by Bishop Patrick, that the words (1720 noi, zikron teruah) translated * a memorial of blowing of trumpets” in the parallel text, Lev. xxiii. 24, properly siguities a memorial of triumph, a shouting for joy, the word teruuh being never used in Scripture but for a sound or shout of rejoicing. The opinion most commonly received by the Jews is, that the trumpets were blown in memory of the intetion to offer Isaac in sacrifice, and the substitution of a ram in his place. On which account they say that the trumpets used on this occasion were made of rams' horns, and they still use such in their synagogues under this im. pression. They also inform us that a ram's head was eaten on this day for the same reason, and also to betoken that the Jews would be the head and not the tail. A notion, derived from the Mishna, is also entertained that on this day God sits to determine the events of the following year, and to judge the conduct of men, who pass before him as a fock before the shepherd ; and that the blowing of trumpets is to disturb Satan when he comes to accuse the Israelites. Some of the Christian iathers think that the institution was to commemorate the delivery of the law on Mount Sinai, which was attended by the sound of the trumpet. The most general opinion however, both among Jews and Christians, is, that the observance was instituted to commemorate the creation of the world when the morning stars sang together and all the sons of God shouted for joy” (Job xxxviii. 7). This opinion has the advantage that it may be held in common with any of the others; and is not incompatible even with the view which we entertain, which is, that the day, being new year's day, was celebrated by the blowing of trumpets, for much the same reason that we celebrate the commencement of our new year by the ringing of bells, namely, to usher in the year with tokens of public rejoicing. It will be observed that the opinions concerning the creation of the world, of the judgment which takes place on that day, and of the intended sacrifice of Isaac, are not stated as opposite notions, since they are all entertained by the modern Jews, whose prayers for the day make frequent allusions to all three. | 39. These things ye shall do unto the Lord in your set feasts.”—The laws in this and the preceding chapter contaia a repetition of previous injunctions. They are here given again, probably, like the recapitulation in Deuteronomy, to remind the new generation about to enter Canaan of the obligations laid upon their fathers, and which were to continue in force under the approaching alteration in their condition of life. Of all the sacrifices enjoined in the law, the Jews, who have now abode * many days without a king, and without a prince, and without a sacrifice" (Hos. iii. 4), offer none. Instead of sacrifices they have certain observances, with appropriate prayers and readings of Scripture; and on a day when there should be a sacrifice they read in their synagogues the passage of Scripture eajoining that sacrifice, under the impression that, in their present depressed circumstances, the public reading of the injunction will be accepted in place of compliance with it. (See Leo of Modena's * History of the Rites, &c. of the Jews.')

CHAPTER XXX.

5 But if her father disallow her in the i Vows are not to be broken. 3 The exception of a day that he heareth; not any of her vows, maid's vow. 6 Of a wife's. 9 Of a widow's, or or of her bonds wherewith she hath bound her that is divorced.

her soul, shall stand: and the Lord shall And Moses spake unto the heads of the forgive her, because her father disallowed tribes concerning the children of Israel, | her. saying, This is the thing which the LORD 6 And if she had at all an husband, when hath commanded.

'she vowed, or uttered ought out of her lips, 2 If a man vow a vow unto the Lord, or wherewith she bound her soul; swear an oath to bind his soul with a bond; 1 7 And her husband heard it, and held he shall not 'break his word, he shall do ac- his peace at her in the day that he heard it: cording to all that proceedeth out of his then her vows shall stand, and her bonds mouth.

wherewith she bound her soul shall stand. 3 If a woman also vow a vow unto the 8 But if her husband disallowed her on LORD, and bind herself by a bond, being in the day that he heard it; then he shall her father's house in her youth;

make her vow which she vowed, and that 4 And her father hear her vow, and her which she uttered with her lips, wherewith bond wherewith she hath bound her soul, she bound her soul, of none effect: and the and her father shall hold his peace at her: | LORD shall forgive her. then all her vows shall stand, and every | 9 But every vow of a widow, and of her bond wherewith she hath bound her soul that is divorced, wherewith they have bound shall stand.

| their souls, shall stand against her.

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10 And if she vowed in her husband's / afflict the soul, her husband may establish house, or bound her soul by a bond with an it, or her husband may make it void. oath;

14 But if her husband altogether hold 11 And her husband heard it, and held his peace at her from day to day; then he his peace at her, and disallowed her not: establisheth all her vows, or all her bonds, then all her vows shall stand, and every 1 which are upon her: he confirmeth them, bond wherewith she bound her soul shall because he held his peace at her in the day stand.

that he heard them. 12 But if her husband hath utterly made 15 But if he shall any ways make them them void on the day he heard them; then void after that he hath heard ihem; then he

cerning her vows, or concerning the bond of 16 These are the statutes, which the her soul, shall not stand: her husband hath | Lord commanded Moses, between a man made them void; and the Lord shall forgive and his wife, between the father and his .

daughter, being yet in her youth in her fa13 Every vow, and every binding oath to | ther's house.

her.

Verse 2. If a man vow a vow.”—This chapter relates wholly to vows; and its contents were, not improbably, delivered in answer to some questions or difficulties which had been propounded to Moses on the subject. It will be right to observe that nothing is said either in approval or disapprobation of vows in general, and it may be reasonably concluded that these laws were intended to regulate and modify practices already existing. Moses nowhere exhorts to the practice of vowing, and sometimes speaks of vows as if they might be rashly taken. Michaelis has a good general remark, which is applicable to the whole subject :-" Moses appears to have retained vows as an ancient usage among his people ; only taking care that the jus tertii, the rights of a father, or a husband, should not be affected by them; and that where rashly made, they should not become too burdensome ; and with this view ordaining an authority, for the purpose of alleviating and buying them off. This is nearly the spirit of his law. Of many vows that became common in later times, he had not even an idea, and, of course, could enjoin nothing respecting them. The most common yow, to which he often alludes, and which he pre-supposes as known, was the promising an offering to Goda sort of vow which we can no longer make. By other vows, either something was presented as a gift to God, who ha:l then a visible sanctuary and priests; or else there was promised a piece of self-denial, uninjurious to the common

his laws." The Rabbins very properly observe, that no vow could be admitted as coming within the scope of these laws if it bound the person to do a forbidden thing, or any thing contrary to the honour and known will of God. Such vows were in themselves void.

" According to all that proceedeth out of his mouth.”—This phrase frequently occurs in connection with vows; and it would seem from hence, that to render a vow binding it was necessary that it should be actually uttered—not merely made in the heart. Such a mental act would appear to have been regarded rather as a resolution to vow than as a vow itself. This limitation is of more importance than would at first sight appear, and was probably intended to prevent the anxiety which conscientious persons might sometimes be led to entertain on account of the difficulty which might occur of distinguishing between a bare intention and a vow actually completed.

3. In her youth.—The Rabbins say that this means till she was twelve years of age. We should rather think that there was no distinct reference to age ; for as we find the husband possessing a power of nullifying his wife's vows, without any restriction as to her age, it is but reasonable to conclude that the father possessed the same power till she was married. And this seems the more probable when we consider that among the Hebrews, as at present in most nations of the East, it was a very rare circumstance for a female to remain unmarried beyond girlhood, and that she was often betrothed long before the actual marriage took place. The same authorities inform us that when a girl was betrothed, the concurrence of her father and betrothed husband was requisite to nullify her vow. We see from verse 9, that a woman seems never to have been independent in this matter, or perhaps in any other, until she either become a widow or a divorced wife.

| ing, Arm some of yourselves unto the war, CHAPTER XXXI.

and let them go against the Midianites, and 1 The Midianites are spoiled, and Balaam slain.

avenge the Lord of Midian. 13 Moses is wroth with the officers, for saving the women alive. 19 How the soldiers, with their

4 Of every tribe a thousand, throughout all captives and spoil, are to be purified. 25 The the tribes of Israel, shall ye send to the war. proportion whereby the prey is to be divided. | 5 So there were delivered out of the thou48 The voluntary oblation unto the treasury of sands of Israel, a thousand of every tribe, the Lord.

twelve thousand armed for war. . And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 6 And Moses sent them to the war, a

2 'Avenge the children of Israel of the thousand of every tribe, them and Phinehas Midianites: afterward shalt thou be ga the son of Eleazar the priest, to the war, thered unto thy people.

with the holy instruments, and the trumpets ! 3 And Moses spake unto the people, say- | to blow in his hand. Chap. 25. 17. Chap. 27. 13. 3 Heb, a thousand of a tribe, a thousand of a tribe.

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caused bf Balao

7 And they warred against the Midian- | and all the princes of the congregation, ites, as the LORD commanded Moses; and went forth to meet them without the camp. they slew all the males.

14 And Moses was wroth with the officers 8 And they slew the kings of Midian, of the host, with the captains over thoubeside the rest of them that were slain; sands, and captains over hundreds, which namely, “Evi, and Rekem, and Zur, and came from the battle. Hur, and Reba, five kings of Midian: Ba- 15 And Moses said unto them, Have ye laam also the son of Beor they slew with the saved all the women alive? sword.

16 Behold, these caused the children of 9 And the children of Israel took all the Israel, through the 'counsel of Balaam, to women of Midian captives, and their little commit trespass against the Lord in the ones, and took the spoil of all their cattle, matter of Peor, and there was a plague and all their flocks, and all their goods. among the congregation of the LORD.

10 And they burnt all their cities where 17 Now therefore &kill every male among in they dwelt, and all their goodly castles, the little ones, and kill every woman that with fire.

hath known man by lying with him. 11 And they took all the spoil, and all 18 But all the women children, that have the prey, both of men and of beasts.

not known a man by lying with him, keep 12 And they brought the captives, and alive for yourselves. the prey, and the spoil, unto Moses, and 19 And do ye abide without the camp Eleazar the priest, and unto the congrega seven days: whosoever hath killed any per. tion of the children of Israel, unto the camp son, and i'whosoever hath touched any slain, at the plains of Moab, which are by Jordan | purify both yourselves and your captives on near Jericho.

the third day, and on the seventh day, 13 | And Moses, and Eleazar the priest, 20 And purify all your raiment, and all • Josh. 13. 21. Heb. host of war. "Chap. 25. 2. 72 Pet. 2. 16. 8 Judg. 21. 11. Heb. a malen 20 Chap. 19, 11, &c.

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