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like unto ihe first; and Moses rose up early 17 Thou shalt make thee no molten gods. in the morning, and went up unto mount 18 The feast of 'unleavened bread Sinai, as the LORD had commanded him, shalt thou keep. Seven days thou shalt and took in his hand the two tables of stone. eat unleavened bread, as I commanded

5 And the LORD descended in the cloud, thee, in the time of the month Abib: for and stood with him there, and proclaimed in the month Abib thou camest out from the name of the LORD.

Egypt. 6 And the LORD passed by before him, | 19 "All that openeth the matrix is mine; and proclaimed, The LORD, The LORD God, and every firstling among thy cattle, whether merciful and gracious, longsuffering, and ox or sheep, that is male. abundant in goodness and truth,

20 But the firstling of an ass thou shalt 7 Keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving redeem with a lamb: and if thou redeem iniquity and transgression and sin, and that him not, then shalt thou break his neck. will by no means clear the guilty; 'visiting All the firstborn of thy sons thou shalt rethe iniquity of the fathers upon the chil deem. And none shall appear before me dren, and upon the children's children, unto sempty. the third and to the fourth generation.

21 ý "Six days thou shalt work, but on 8 And Moses made haste, and bowed his the seventh day thou shalt rest: in earing head toward the earth, and orshipped. time and in harvest thou shalt rest.

9 And he said, If now I have found grace 22 15 And thou shalt observe the feast in thy sight, O LORD, let my Lord, I pray of weeks, of the firstfruits of wheat harvest, thee, go among us; for it is a stiffnecked and the feast of ingathering at the year's people; and pardon our iniquity and our end. sin, and take us for thine inheritance.

23 ?Thrice in the year shall all your 10 | And he said, Behold, 'I make a co menchildren appear before the LORD God, venant : before all thy people I will do mar the God of Israel. vels, such as have not been done in all the | 24 For I will cast out the nations before earth, nor in any nation: and all the people thee, and enlarge thy borders: neither shall among which thou art shall see the work of any man desire thy land, when thou shalt the LORD: for it is a terrible thing that I go up to appear before the LORD thy God will do with thee.

thrice in the year. 11 Observe thou that which I command 25 Thou shalt not offer the blood of my thee this day: behold, I drive out before sacrifice with leaven; neither shall the sathee the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and crifice of the feast of the passover be left the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, unto the morning. and the Jebusite.

26 The first of the firstfruits of thy land 12 STake heed to thyself, lest thou make thou shalt bring unto the house of the LORD a covenant with the inhabitants of the land thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a ''kid in whither thou goest, lest it be for a snare in his mother's milk. the midst of thee:

27 And the Lord said unto Moses, Write 13 But ye shall destroy their altars, break thou 20these words: for after the tenor of their 'images, and cut down their groves: these words I have made a covenant with

14 For thou shalt worship no other god : thee and with Israel. for the Lord, whose name is Jealous, is a 28 And he was there with the LORD jealous God:

forty days and forty nights; he did neither 15 Lest thou make a covenant with the eat bread, nor drink water. And he wrote inhabitants of the land, and they go a upon the tables the words of the covenant, whoring after their gods, and do sacrifice the ten commandments. unto their gods, and one call thee, and thou 29 | And it came to pass, when Moses eat of his sacrifice;

came down from mount Sinai with the two 16 And thou take of their daughters tables of testimony in Moses' hand, when he unto thy sons, and their daughters go a came down from the mount, that Moses wist whoring after their gods, and make thy sons not that the skin of his face shone while he go a whoring after their gods.

| talked with him. 3 Chap. 20.5. Deut. 5. 9. Jer. 32. 18. Deut. 5. 2. 5 Chap. 23 32. Deut. 7.2. Heb. statues. 7 Chap 20.5. 81 Kings 11. 2. 15 Chap. 23. 16. 16 Heb. revolution of the year. 17 Chap. 23. 14, 17. Deut. 16. 16. 18 Chap. 23, 18, 19 Chap. 23. 19. Deut. 14. 21,

0 Deut, 4. 13, 21 Chap. 24, 18, Deut. 9. 9. 2 Heb. words,

9 Chap. 23. 15.

10 Chap. 13. 4.

11 Chap. 22. 29. Ezek. 44. 30.

12 Or, kid.

13 Chap. 23. 15.

14 Chap. 23, 12. Deut. 5. 12, Luke 13. 14.

30 And when Aaron and all the children / 33 And till Moses had done speaking of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his with them, he put 23a vail on his face. face shone, and they were afraid to come 34 But when Moses went in before the nigh him.

LORD to speak with him, he took the vail 31 And Moses called unto them; and off, until he came out. And he came out, Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation and spake unto the children of Israel that returned unto him: and Moses talked with which he was commanded. them.

35 And the children of Israel saw the 32 And afterward all the children of face of Moses, that the skin of Moses' face Israel came nigh: and he gave them in com shone: and Moses put the vail upon his mandment all that the Lord had spoken face again, until he went in to speak with with him in mount Sinai,


23 2 Cor. 3. 13.

Verse 27. Write thou these words.”_In the following verse Moses records that he did as commanded ; and from hence some have inferred that the words of the second table were not, like those of the first, written by the hand of God. But Moses, when speaking of the second tables, in Deut. x. 4, says expressly, as he had elsewhere said of the first tables (Exod. xxxii. 16), that they were written by the finger of God. From this it necessarily follows, as Calmet observes, that there was no such difference as is commonly supposed, but that both were written either by the hand of the Lord or by that of Moses. If we suppose both, or only the second tables, to be written by the hand of God, it is difficult to understand how the same tables should be said to have been written by the hand of Moses; but if we suppose them written by Moses, there is no difficulty in comprehending how, in this as in other cases, that should be said to be done by the Lord which was done by his command and under his direction. The expression might be figurative as to the act of Jehovah, but could not well be so, in this case, with regard to that of Moses. It is, however, supposed by some commentators, that Write thou these words,” refers not to the ten commandinents, but to the words previously spoken, from verse 11 to 29, which Moses wrote on the back side of the tables; and that in the next verse, the word “ Jehovah” has probably been dropped, so that instead of “he (Moses) wrote," we should read “Jehovah wrote.” This hypothesis does certainly obviate the apparent discrepancies of the different texts, but in a manner too gratuitous to satisfy our minds. If it be of importance to understand that the tables were literally written “ by the finger of God,” the probability might, we imagine, be shown by a less violent hypothesis. Admitting that the Lord, and not Moses, is denoted in v. 28, the previous verse is the only one that offers any difficulty, and this may be removed by observing, that the tables of stone are not mentioned in that verse, as every where else where writing upon them is intended. Hence we are at liberty to infer, that the expression “ Write thou these words," does not refer to the tables at all, but to the book in which he was on other occasions instructed to write, and in which he was now told to register the important words which had just been spoken. That these words were written on the back of the tables by Moses is a strange supposition, when we recollect that the former tables had been written on both sides, although they contained nothing but the Decalogue-and it is particularly stated, that the first and second tables were exactly similar.

29. The skin of his face shone.”_“In many pieces, and in some ancient Bibles, Moses is described with horns. The same description we find in a silver medal ; that is, upon one side Moses horned, and on the reverse the commandment against sculptured images. Which is conceived to be a coynage of some Jews, in derision of Christians, who first began that pourtract.” (Brown's · Vulgar Errors,' p. 286. edit. 1672.) The figure of Moses in our wood-cut of the consecration of the priests, after Raffaelle, exhibits an instance of this, and the celebrated statue of Michael Angelo does the same. Our excellent translation, in common with the original and the most ancient versions, gives no sanction to this still prevalent idea, which arose from the Vulgate translation-the only one with which the Italian painters were acquainted-which, instead of saying that the face of Moses shone, says that it was "horned" or had horns. The original word, 1970, karan, signifies primarily to irradiate, to shoot forth or emit rays of light; whence, from the idea of shooting forth the word certainly does also signify a horn” (keren). The context determines the sense, for it is evident that it would be as improper to render the word here “horned," as it would be to translate it “rayed” when applied to an ox or goat. Sir Thomas Brown is perhaps correct in his understanding of the matter, after Tremellius and Estius :—“His face was radiant, and dispersing beams like many horns or cones about his head; which is also consonant unto the original signification, and yet observed in the pieces of our Saviour, and the Virgin Mary, who are commonly drawn with scintillations, or radiant halos, about their head; which, after the French expression, are called, the Glory.” All we can fairly gather from the text is, that the divine glory irradiated the face of Moses, from which such an extraordinary effulgence proceeded, that it was necessary for him to veil his face while delivering to the Israelites the commands of God; or at least in his ordinary communications with them. For it is to be observed, that in the expression (verse 33) “ Till Moses had done speaking with them, he put a vail on his face,” the word “till" is not in the original; and all the ancient versions read, “when, that is to say,—that his face was unveiled while delivering the commandments of God, but veiled at other times, except when he stood before the Lord. Dr. Boothroyd, who has adopted this view of the text in his new translation, thinks that the passage in 2 Cor. iii. 13, merely alludes to the fact of Moses veiling his face, without any reference to the circumstance of time when he did so. The custom among painters of putting glories” around the heads of sacred persons no doubt arose from this fact concerning Moses. We are not aware of any other authority, except that the raiment of Christ became shining at the transfiguration. The ancient heathen considered an irradiation or lambent flame about the head, as a manifestation of the divine favour and protection. But whether this arose from any tradition concerning Moses, it is impossible to determine.


18 The pins of the tabernacle, and the i The sabbath. 4 The free gifts for the tabernacle. | pins of the court, and their cords,

20 The readiness of the people to offer. 30 Be. 19 The cloths of service, to do service in zaleel and Aholiab are called to the work.

the holy place, the holy garments for Aaron And Moses gathered all the congregation the priest, and the garments of his sons, to of the children of Israel together, and said | minister in the priest's office. unto them, These are the words which the | 20 | And all the congregation of the LORD hath commanded, that ye should do children of Israel departed from the prethem.

sence of Moses. 2 Six days shall work be done, but on 21 And they came, every one whose the seventh day there shall be to you an heart stirred him up, and every one holy day, a sabbath of rest to the LORD: | whom his spirit made willing, and they whosoever doeth work therein shall be put brought the Lord's offering to the work to death.

of the tabernacle of the congregation, 3 Ye shall kindle no fire throughout your and for all his service, and for the holy habitations upon the sabbath day.

garments. 4 4 And Moses spake unto all the con 22 And they came, both men and women, gregation of the children of Israel, saying, as many as were willing hearted, and brought This is the thing which the LORD com bracelets, and earrings, and rings, and tablets, manded, saying,

all jewels of gold : and every man that 5 Take ye from among you an offering offered offered an offering of gold unto the unto the LORD: 'whosoever is of a willing LORD. heart, let him bring it, an offering of the 23 And every man, with whom was found LORD; gold, and silver, and brass,

blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen, 6 And blue, and purple, and scarlet, and and goats' hair, and red skins of rams, and fine linen, and goats' hair,

badgers' skins, brought them. 7 And rams skins dyed red, and badgers' 24 Every one that did offer an offering of skins, and shittim wood,

silver and brass brought the Lord's offer8 And oil for the light, and spices for ing: and every man, with whom was found anointing oil, and for the sweet incense, shittim wood for any work of the service,

9 And onyx stones, and stones to be set brought it. for the ephod, and for the breastplate.

25 And all the women that were wise 10 And every wise hearted among you hearted did spin with their hands, and shall come, and make all that the LORD brought that which they had spun, both hath commanded;

of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, and of 11 The tabernacle, his tent, and his fine linen. covering, his taches, and his boards, his 26 And all the women whose heart stirred bars, his pillars, and his sockets,

them up in wisdom spun goats' hair. 12 The ark, and the staves thereof, with 27 And the rulers brought onyx stones, the mercy seat, and the vail of the covering, and stones to be set, for the ephod, and for

13 The table, and his staves, and all his the breastplate; vessels, and the shewbread,

28 And ?spice, and oil for the light, and 14 The candlestick also for the light, and for the anointing oil, and for the sweet inhis furniture, and his lamps, with the oil for cense. the light,

29 The children of Israel brought a 15 And the incense altar, and his staves, willing offering unto the Lord, every man and the anointing oil, and the sweet incense, and woman, whose heart made them willing and the hanging for the door at the enter- | to bring for all manner of work, which the ing in of the tabernacle,

LORD had commanded to be made by the 16 The altar of burnt offering, with his hand of Moses. brasen grate, his staves, and all his vessels, 30 | And Moses said unto the children the laver and his foot,

of Israel, See, the Lord hath called by 17 The hangings of the court, his pillars, name Bezaleel the son of Uri, the son of and their sockets, and the hanging for the | Hur, of the tribe of Judah; door of the court,

31 And he hath filled him with the spirit Chap. 20.9. Levit. 23. 3. Deut. 5. 12. Luke 13. 14. 9 Heb. holiness. Chap. 25. 2. Chap. 26. 1, &c. Chap. 30. 1.

6 Chap 97. 1. 7 Chap 30, 23. 8 Chap. 31. 3.

of God, in wisdom, in understanding, and may teach, both he, and Aholiab, the son of in knowledge, and in all manner of work Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan. manship;

35 Them hath he filled with wisdom of 32 And to devise curious works, to work | heart, to work all manner of work, of the in gold, and in silver, and in brass,

engraver, and of the cunning workman, and 33 And in the cutting of stones, to set of the embroiderer, in blue, and in purple, them, and in carving of wood, to make any in scarlet, and in fine linen, and of the manner of cunning work.

weaver, even of them that do any work, and 34 And he hath put in his heart that he l of those that devise cunning work.

Verse 11. The tabernacle."--The details already given, and those which follow, will be best apprehended by a reference to the principle which the tabernacle was designed to exemplify. This principle has been well traced out by the learned Cudworth, after the best Jewish interpreters; and in the following account we avail ourselves of the assistance which this statement gives. When God had brought the Israelites forth from Egypt, he determined to manifest himself to them in a peculiar manner, and, as the head of their government-their king and general, to dwell, as it were, among them, by an external and visible manifestation of His presence; and from this resulted regulations in some degree analogous to those which the presence of a temporal king would have rendered necessary. Therefore, while they sojourned in tents, He would have a tent or tabernacle built in which, as in his palace, He also might sojourn with them. But when the Hebrews obtained the occupation of the land promised to their fathers, their Almighty Governor would also have a fixed dwelling, and the moveable tabernacle was exchanged for a standing temple. The tabernacle or temple being thus as a house or palace in which the Lord's presence might visibly dwell, it was necessary, in order to complete the idea of a house, that there should belong to it all things suitable for a habitation, Hence there was, in the holy place, a table and candlestick, because these belonged to the furniture of an apartment. And on the same principle the table was to have its dishes, spoons, and bowls, and was also to be furnished with bread. Hence, also, the lamps were to be kept continually burning, and a continued fire was to be maintained upon the altar. The same general idea also appears in the meat and drink offerings, which were partly consumed by fire and partly eaten by the priests: and because meat is unsavoury without salt, it was directed that there should be salt in every ollation and sacrifice. Thus the principle of a residing presence was followed out even in minute details; and in how literal a sense it was understood and applied is demonstrated by the fact that the altar, if not also the table of sherbread, is called “the table of the Lord," and the offering “God's bread or meat.” This statement will also serve to show the difference between the tabernacle or temple, and the synagogues which abounded among the Jews in the later periods of their history. The latter were merely places of resort for prayer and instruction, whereas the former was the palace in which the Lord's presence dwelt, and to which therefore all worship tended, wherever made. The “mercy-seat," whether in the tabernacle or temple, was his throne; and therefore all who served God according to the Levitical law made it the centre of their worship. “Not only in the temple," says Prideaux, “when they came up thither to worship, but everywhere else in their dispersion through the world, whenever they prayed, they turned their faces towards the place where the ark stood, and directed all their devotions that way. And therefore the author of the book • Cozri' justly saith, that the ark, with the mercy-seat, and cherubins, were the foundation, root, heart, and marrow of the whole temple, and of all the Levitical worship therein performed.” (Connection,' vol. i. p. 207.)

22. Tablets.”—This is a very doubtful word. Some, with whom Dr. Boothroyd concurs in his translation, render it by “lockets," while Bochart and others suppose that it was a kind of girdle worn round the bosom. As, however, probabilities have been determined without any reference to Egyptian ornaments, we, making such reference, incline to suppose that the hoop or band surrounding the head (as in the cut to ch. iii.) is here intended. So important an ornament was not likely to be omitted, but we do not see that it is mentioned at all, unless denoted by this word.

It is observable that the Samaritan and Septuagint add “collars” to the list of articles. These were doubtless Egyptian collars, the form of which may be seen in the cut annexed to chap. iii.: they are very large, covering the neck and part of the chest, being, as it were, composed of necklaces disposed in concentric circles. From the frequency with which they occur in Egyptian statues and paintings they appear to have been in very general use, and doubtless, from their size, formed no inconsiderable part of the spoil in jewels of gold and jewels of silver,” which the Hebrews obtained from the Egyptians. (See • Egyptian Antiquities,' vol. ii. p. 83.)

- 35. Blue-purple-scarlet.”-Dyeing would seem to have been one of the earliest of the arts. It was certainly practised in Jacob's time, as we see from Joseph's “coat of many colours," and from the scarlet thread which the midwife tied about the hand of one of Judah's children by Thamar. How much sooner the art was known it is impossible to determine. In the present book its results have been frequently and familiarly mentioned ; but it is observable that blue, purple, and scarlet are the only colours that have been anywhere specified. Dyeing must at this time have acquired considerable perfection, judging from the diversified forms of its application. Thus we see that entire pieces were dyed, as the robe of the ephod, which was all blue ; threads for embroidery, as in the text; and the skins of animals, as the “ sheep-skins dyed red," which formed one of the coverings of the tabernacle: in the last instance we are not quite sure whether it was the fleece which was dyed, or the leather after the fleece had been taken off. The high antiquity of this art is easily accounted for. Most of the materials fit to be manufactured into tissues are of dull and sombre colours, and men would naturally seize the first hints which offered of obviating the unpleasant uniformity of dress thus produced. We believe that the arts that relate to personal adornment and the preparation of food have been in general the first discovered, and the soonest brought to perfection : dyeing is one of this class. The juices of the fruits and plants which they ate, the effect of rains upon certain earths and minerals, and a variety of other circumstances, must early have given to men some notion of the art of dyeing, and of the substances proper to be employed. “In all climates," says Goguet (t. i. p. 148), “man has under his hand ferruginous and ochreous earths of all shades, with vegetable and saline matters, applicable to this purpose. The difficulty was to find the art of applying them to use. How many abortive attempts must have been made before men could apply dyes with effect to their tissues, and to give them that adhesion and lustre which constitute the principal merit of the art of dyeing one of the most agreeable, but at the same time one of the most difficult, with which we are acquainted ! " We have little information concerning the processes followed by the ancients in the application of dyes. Some remarks on the mode of diversifying dresses

with various colours have been given in the note to Gen. chap. xxxvii. 3, and something further on the subject will be found in the note to Judges v. 30. We shall at present confine our attention to colours, particularly those mentioned in the text. As the Hebrews had just come from Egypt, there is no doubt that they employed the same colouring materials that were then in use, and it is therefore interesting to inquire what these were. Yet there is a difficulty in the application of the conclusions resulting from this source, because it is very probable that the Egyptians became acquainted with some of the colours which now appear on their paintings and miimmy cloths, at a later period than the Exodus of the Israelites. However, so much as may not be applicable at this early period will still illustrate the subject of the colours hereafter mentioned in the sacred books, inasmuch as it illustrates generally the subject of ancient colouring materials. The following particulars on Egyptian colours are principally drawn from vol. ii. ofEgyptian Antiquities,' in the · Library of Entertaining Knowledge. Any illustration which can be derived from the colours of the cloths in which the mummies are enfolded, is, in application to the present subject, more valuable than that derived from paintings. These colours are different, being pure yellow, brownish yellow, dark red, flesh colour, and pale brick or red colour. We are not aware of any cloth wholly blue; but the selvage of these cloths is sometimes adorned with blue stripes. Mr. Thomson describes a small pattern, about half an inch broad, as forming the edging of one of the finest of these cloths with selvages; this pattern was composed of a stripe of blue, followed by three narrow lines of the same colour, alternating with three narrow lines of a fawn colour. This description agrees very nearly with that which has been given us by a gentleman who assisted at the examination of a mummy at Bombay ; but, although in the highest degree competent to form an opinion on the subject, he thinks the blue stripes in the Bombay specimen were painted; whereas Mr. Thomson considers that the stripes in his specimen were formed in the loom with threads previously dyed. Our informant, however, most decidedly agrees in the opinion of Mr. Thomson, that the blue colour was formed by indigo; and as indigo is an Indian product, this is another evidence of the existence of an early intercourse with India. Indigo is indeed mentioned in the Periplus as one of the articles exported from India to Egypt; and we cannot arrive at any better probability than that the “ blue” of the text was indigo. This valuable dye is obtained from the Indigofeia tinctoria, a small sbrub, belonging to the leguminous or podded family, with compound leaves, like those of the mimosas, and clusters of blue flowers. The colouring matter is obtained by macerating the young plant in water, from which it is subsequently disengaged by a peculiar process of beating. As to the other colours found in the mummycloths, Professor Jahn, of Berlin, by whom they have been analysed, considers the pure yellow to have been dyed with henna-leaves; this plant is also a native of India, but is now, as well as indigo, cultivated in Egypt. The brownishyellow he conceives to be a watery extract of madder, with the addition of henna-leaves and tamarinds: the dark ilesh-red colour also from madder: and Mr. Thomson believes the pale brick or red colour to have been dyed with safflower. Here then we have a list composed exclusively of vegetable dyes; though perhaps it is too much to infer that such dyes only were used by the Egyptians for their cloths. We may perhaps extend the list by referring to the indubitably ancient paintings in the tombs at Thebes; for some of these colouring matters might be, and doubtless vere, applied also to cloths, particularly if we believe that the colours of cloth were in very early times diversified by painting. These colours then are found to be black, blue, red, green, and yellow, which are always kept distinct and never blended. These have been also analysed by Professor Jahn, who pronounces the blues, of which there are a lighter and darker shade, to be oxides of copper, a metal which abounds in Egypt. Belzoni, however, declares for indigo; but the author of Egyptian Antiquities' prefers the authority of the Professor, while he still seems disposed to admit that the blue in the mummy-cloth is indigo; he also makes the just remark that," in the infancy of the art, earthy colouring matters, which would require little or no preparation, and, next in order to them, some of the vegetable dyes, would be used before the more artificial presarations of the metals." Admitting, however, these views as to the difference between the dye and the paint, it results that either the former was more ancient than the latter, or that the Egyptians exclusively used indigo for dye, and oxides of copper for paint. The author last quoted seems to be of opinion that the Egyptians did use oil in painting, although oil painting is said to be a modern invention; and if so, it is easy to suppose that they rejected indigo as a paint, for the same reason that modern painters in oil do so because it does not well harmonize with oil; while we, as the Egyptians did, still retain it in extensive use as a dye. We have dwelt thus on blue because it is one of the colours mentioned in the text; the others may be more briefly despatched. The reds may be divided into brown-reds and brick-coloured reds. The colouring material of the former is a brown-red of oxide of iron ; and the latter seem to be composed of the minium, cinnabar, or native vermilion which Pliny describes as being employed in painting the Ethiopian gods. The greens are a mixture of yellow vegetable pigment with a copper blue. The vegetable yellow is probably henna, which continues in extensive use, as a dye, throughout the East. The yellou's, which are often very pure, and of a bright sulphur colour, seem also to be vegetable colours. The whites appear to be preparations of lime and gypsum: and the blacks seem to have been in great variety, such as those made from the lees of wine, burnt pitch, charcoal, or soot. The author adds, that doubtless, besides the colouring substances enumerated, various ochreous earths, red and yellow, were employed by the painter. So they probably were by the dyer, although vegetable dyes have only been detected in the mummy-cloths. We may perhaps assume that all these colours were known to the Hebrews, as well as others which we now fail to discover in Egyptian paintings and dyes. It is indeed remarkable that in the above account we find no mention of “scarlet” or “ purple ;" and we therefore reserve a notice of those colours for the following notes.

Purple.”—Goguet and Heeren have respectively brought together much interesting information with regard to the purples of antiquity. From their works (to which we may refer for more detailed accounts) the following particulars are chiefly drawn. The pre-eminence given at the present day to purple as a royal colour, is undoubtedly a result of the ancient preference which arose when the relative superiority of purple to other colours was greater than at present. We have seen this colour frequently mentioned in connexion with the works of the tabernacle and the dress of the highpriest; and among the heathen we know that the colour was considered peculiarly appropriate to the service of the gods. The Babylonians and other nations used to array their gods in robes of purple. A persuasion was even entertained that in the purple dye there lay some peculiar virtue for appeasing the wrath of the gods. Purple was also the distinguishing mark of great dignities among several nations. It is said that when the beautiful purple of Tyre was first discovered, the sovereign to whom it was presented appropriated it as a royal distinction. Homer intimates that it was only worn by princes; and this limitation of its use was cornmon among other nations. A very early notice of this occurs also in Scripture, where the kings of Midian, defeated by Gideon, are described as being clad in purple raiment. (Judges viii. 26.) It seems to us very likely that, as there were several purples held in various degrees of estimation, it was only some particular shade of purple that was reserved for a godlike or royal distinction. It is important to understand that the word * purple” in ancient writings does not denote one particular colour. Pliny mentions the difference between some of the purples: one was faint, approaching to our scarlet, and this was the least esteemed; another was a very deep red, approaching to violet; and a third was of a colour compared to that of coagulated bullock's blood. The most esteemed

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