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Tuque ades, inceptumque unà decurre laborem; 39. Tuque, Mæcenas, O decus, ô famæ meritò pars maxima nostræ, 40 ades, decurreque incep- Mæcenas, pelagoque volans da vela patenti. tum laborem unà me- Non ego cuncta meis amplecti versibus opto: cum: tren o decus, O Non, mihi si linguæ centum sint, oraque centum, meritò maxima pars nos

Ferrea vox: (ades, et primi lege litoris oram. træ fama 43. Non possem am- In manibus terræ, non hic te carmine ficto,

45 plecti ea, si sint mihi

Atque per ambages et longa exorsa tencbo. 47. Arbores quæ tol- Sponte suâ quæ se tollunt in luminis auras, lunt se suâ sponte Infæcunda quidem, sed læta et fortia surgunt.

Quippe solo natura subest. Tamen hæc quoque si quis
Inserat, aut scrobibus mandet mutata subactis, 50
Exuerint sylvestrem animum : cultuque frequenti,

In quascunque voces artes ; haud tarda sequentur.
53. Et illa arbor quæ Necnon et sterilis quæ stirpibus exit ab imis,
exit sterilis

Hoc faciet, vacuos si sit digesta per agros:
Nunc altæ frondes et rami matris opacant,

55 Crescentique adimunt fætus, uruntque ferentem.

Jam, quæ seminibus jactis se sustulit, arbos
Tarda venit, seris factura nepotibus umbram :
Pomaque degenerant, succos oblita priores :
Et turpes avibus prædam fert uva racemos.

60 Scilicet omnibus est labor impendendus, et omnes

Cogendæ in sulcum, ac multâ mercede domandæ. 63. Sed olee respon- Sed truncis oleæ meliùs, propagine vites dent meliùs de truncis ; vites de propagine, et Respondent, solido Paphiæ de robore myrtus, myrtus Plantis et duræ coryli nascuntur, et ingens

65

NOTES. The object of the poet is to persuade the 56. Adimunt fætus : and take away the farmer not to neglect his rugged and barren fruit from it growing up, and starve it while lands, and suffer them to lie useless; for, by bearing. The poet's meaning appears to be culture, he may render them profitable to this: that the sucker, which springs up from him. He adduces the case of Ismarus and the root of the parent tree, will be fruitful Taburnus, which, though naturally rugged and productive, if transplanted into open · and barren, had become, by cultivation and ground, and arranged in proper rows. For proper attention, very productive. Baccho while it remains, the leaves and boughs of is here put for the vine.

the parent tree will overshadow it, and pre39. Decurre. Here we have a beautiful vent it from bearing fruit as it grows up: or, allegory, drawn from the sailing of a ship. if it should bear fruit, it will be pinched and The verb decurro signifies to sail before the small, by being deprived of the rays of the wind—to sail with a prosperous gale. La- sun and proper nourishment. borem : the work or task, viz. the Georgics, 57. Jam : here is used in the sense of which he begun at the request of Mæcenas. porrò, or præterea.

41. Da volans, &c. And flying, spread the 60. Ura: the grape; by meton. for the sails to the opening sea-accompany me, vine. Prædam : as a prey for birds-only through this great work, which spreads be- fit for birds. fore me like an open sea, expanding on 62. Multa mercede: with much labor, or every side. Some copies have volens.

expense. 45. Ficto carmine : in the sense of fabu- 63. Olece respondent, &c. The olive is loso poëmate.

raised or propagated better from the stump; 46. Ambages et longa exorsa: preambles, the vine from the layer; the myrtle from and tedious introductions.

the solid wood; the hazle, the ash, the pop50. Scrobibus subactis : in trenches pre- lar, and the oak, from the scion, or young pared for the purpose. Mutata: transplant- shoot. ed-removed from their native soil.

64. Paphiæ : Venus, so called from Pa52. In quascunque artes, &c.: in the sense phos, a city of Cyprus, where she was of in quocunque modo, vel via tractes. In particularly worshipped. The myrtle was whatever mode you may require, says sacred to her. Respondent : in the sense of Valpy.

proueniunt, vel oruntur.

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43h tree
Fraxinus, Herculeæque arbos umbrosa coronæ,
Chaoniique patris glandes; etiam ardua palma
Nascitur, et casus abies visura, marinos.
Inseritur verò ex fætu nucis arbutus horrida,
Et steriles platani malos gessere valentes :

70 Castaneæ fagus, ornusque incanuit albo

71. Fagus incanuit Flore pyri ; glandemque sues fregêre sub ulmis. flore castaneæ, ornusque Nec modus inserere atque oculos imponere simplex.

incanuit albo flore pyri Nam quà se medio trudunt de cortice gemmæ, Et tenues rumpunt tunicas, angustus in ipso

75
Fit nodo sinus: huc alienâ ex arbore germen
Includunt, udoque docent inolescere libro.
Aut rursum enodes trunci resecantur, et altè
Finditur in solidum cuneis via : deinde feraces

79. In solidum lignum Plantæ immittuntur. Nec longum tempus, et ingens Exiit ad cælum ramis felicibus arbos,

81 Miraturque novas frondes, et non sua poma.

Prætereà genus haud unum, nec fortibus ulmis,
Nec salici, lotoque, nec Idæis cyparissis :
Nec pingues unam in faciem nascuntur olivæ, 85
Orchades, et radii, et amarà pausia baccâ :

Pomaque, et Alcinoi sylva: nec surculus idem varenie Spie

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Crustumiis, Syriisque pyris, gravibusque volemis.

NOTES. 66. Umbrosa arbos: the poplar-tree. It 78. Aut rursum. Having described the was sacred to Hercules. He wore a crown process of inoculation, the poet gives us that made of the leaves of this tree, to the infer- of ingrafting. Truncus : the body of the nal regions.

tree, properly after the top and branches 67. Glandes : properly acorns; by meton. are cut off. This is split, and the graft put the oaks that bore them. Chaonii patris : into the fissure. He seems to prefer this Jupiter; so called because he had a temple, mode of cultivating trees, inasmuch as they and was splendidly worshipped at Dodona, soon come to maturity. Nec longum tema town of Chaonia in Epirus. The oak pus (says he,) et ingens arbos: it is not a was sacred to him.

long time, and the mighty tree, exiit, hath 68. Visura. This is said of the fir-tree, shot up to the skies. There is a peculiar ele. because ships were built of its timber. Ma- gancy in the use of the perfect tense here. rinos casus : in the sense of periculæ maris. 80. Plantæ: grafts, or scions of fruit

69. Arbutus inseritur : the arbute or bearing trees. strawberry-tree is grafted with the shoot or 82. Poma non sua : that is, poma non sui scion of the nut-tree.

generis. 70. Platani. The plane tree affords a 84. Idæis Cyparissis : to the Idæan Cylarge and pleasant shade, but bears no fruit. presses. There were two mountains by the It is therefore called sterilis. However, says name of Ida, the one in Phrygia, the other the poet, even this has been made to bear in Crete; the latter is here meant. apples by being grafted.

86. Orchades. The poet here mentions 73. Imponere oculos : to inoculate. Ocu- three species of olives: the orchades, a round lus is the bad which is enclosed or put in olive, a word derived from the Greek; the the bark of the tree to be inoculated. In- radii, an oblong olive; the pausia, an olive serere: to ingraft. Nec modus, &c. Neither of a bitter taste, so called from pavio, says is the method of ingrafting and inoculating Columella, because its chief use was for oil; one and the same-they are different pro- to obtain which, it was brayed or beaten.

87. Sylva Alcinoï : the orchards of Alci. 76. Sinus angustus: a small slit or gash, nous, king of the Phæaceans. They were made in the bark of the tree, (where the bud celebrated by the poets. was putting forth,) for the purpose of re- 88. Crustumiis: to the Crustumean pears, ceiving the graft.

so called from Crustumium, a town in Tus77. Docent: they teach it to grow up, or cany, whose pears were much esteemed; incorporate itself with the moist bark. Lic they were of a reddish cast. Syriis pyris. ber is the inward part of the bark of the These were so called, becaŭse they were tree; Cortex, the whole bark, or rind. brought from Syria. They were also called

cesses.

Non eadem arboribus pendet vindemia nostris,
Quam Methymnæo capit de palmite Lesbos.

90
Sunt Thasiæ vites, sunt et Mareotides albæ :
Pinguibus hæ terris habiles, levioribus illæ.
Et passo Psythia utilior, tenuisque lageos

Tentatura pedes olim, vincturaque linguam. 95. Sunt purpureæ, Purpureæ, preciæque: et quo te carmine dicam 95 preciæque uve

Rhætica ? nec cellis ideò contende Falernis. 99. Est Argitis minor Sunt et Ammineæ vites, firmissima vina :

Tmolus et assurgit quibus, et rex ipse Phanæus ; 102. Et, te, O bumaste,

Argitisque minor, cui non certaverit ulla, cum tuis tumidis racemis. Sed neque est nu

Aut tantùm fluere, aut totidem durare per annos. 100 merus, quàm multæ

spe

Non ego te, Dîs et mensis accepta secundis, cies sunt, nec quæ

Transierim, Rhodia ; et tumidis, bumaste, racemis. 105. Quem numerum Sed neque, quàm multæ species, nec nomina quæ sint, qui velit scire, ideın ve- Est numerus : neque enim numero comprendere refert. lit discere quàm multæ

105 arenæ Libyci æquoris Quem qui scire velit

, Libyci velit æquoris idem turbentur

Discere, quàm multæ Zephyro turbentur arenæ ;

uva, cui

NOTES.

Tarentina, and were of a blackish cast. 97. Ammineæ vites. There are various Some think them to be the Bergamot pear. conjectures concerning this vine, but nothing Volemis : to the Volemian pears. These were certainly known. It produced excellent so called from the circumstance of their fill- wine-firmissima vina, strong, and of good ing the palm of the hand; from vola. The body. surculus, or shoot, of all these was different. 98. Quibus et Tmolus: to which both

89. Arboribus: in the sense of vitibus. Tmolus, and Phanæus himself, the king of

90. Methymnæo: an adj. from Methymna, vine-bearing mountains, rise up in sign of a city of Lesbos, an island in the Ægean respect—they yield the pre-eminence to the sea, famous for its vines.

Amminean vine. Assurgit, as here used, is 91. Thasiæ: an adj. from Thasus, an highly metaphorical. It conveys to oui island in the Ægean sea. Mareotides : an minds the idea of one mountain rising up to adj. probably from Mareotis, a lake near another in token of respect, and yielding to Alexandria, in Egypt. Some take it from it precedency. Tmolus : a mountain in a place of the same name in Lybia, in the Lydia, famous for its wines. Phanæus : confines of Egypt. These latter () re- another mountain in the island Chios, in quired a rich soil; the former (illæ) a light soil. the Ægean sea, celebrated for its wines.

93. Psythia : an adj. agreeing with vitis, 99. Argitis: a species of the grape, prounderstood. Its derivation is uncertain. It bably derived from a Greek word signifyis probably from the name of some town in ing white, or from Argos, a city of the Pe Greece, where that species of vine flourish- loponnesus. ed. Utilior passo: better for passum, or 100. Tantùm fluere: to yield so much sweet wine. This was made of raisins or juice. dried grapes; from the word patior: quòd 101. Mensis et Dis secundis. The first ta. solem aut ignem patitur. Lageos. This was ble or course was composed of meats. The a species of grape, deriving its name from second of fruits, and what we generally call a Greek word signifying a hare, because

it desserts. At this second table or course resembled the color of that animal. Ten there were libations made to certain gods. nuis: subtle or penetrating. Quòd facilè Secundis is generally connected with Dis. ebrietatem inducit, says Servius.

It is, however, better to connect it with men95. Purpurea, preciæque. These are both sis: it will then be: the Rhodian wine is adjectives, and agree with vites, or more acceptable to the second table or course, probably with uvæ, understood. Preciæ : and to the gods that were then invoked early ripened—ripened before other grapes. acceptable, or fit for libations.

96. Rhætica : a grape, so called from 102. Rhodia : an adj. from Rhodus, a faRhetia, a country bordering upon Italy on mous island in the Mediterranean sea. the west. Cellis Falernis : with the Faler. Bumaste: the bumastus was a species of nian wine. Cellis : the cellars; by meton. grape, whose clusters were swollen out, like for the wine in them. Falernis: an adj. the udder of a cow. It is derived from the from Falernus, a mountain in Campania, Greek. celebrated for its good wines.

103. Quàm : in the sense of tam.

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Aut, ubi navigiis violentior incidit Eurus,
Nôsse, quot lonii veniant ad litora fluctus.

Nec verò terræ ferre omnes omnia possunt.
Fluminibus salices, crassisque paludibus alni
Nascuntur, steriles saxosis montibus orni,
Litora myrtetis lætissima: denique apertos
Bacchus amat colles, Aquilonem et frigora taxi.
Aspice et extremnis domitum cultoribus orbem,
Eoasque domos Arabum, pictosque Gelonos.
Divisæ arboribus patriæ. Sola India nigrum
Fert ebenum, solis est thurea virga Sabæis.
Quid tibi odorato referam sudantia ligno
Balsa maque, et baccas semper frondentis acanthi ?
Quid nemora Æthiopum molli canentia lanâ ?
Velleraque ut foliis depectant tenuia Seres ?
Aut quos Oceano propior gerit India lucos,
Extremi sinus orbis ? ubi aëra vincere summum
Arboris haud ullæ jactu potuere sagittæ :

120

120. Quid referam tibi

nemora

NOTES.

110. Salices nascuntur: the willows by 121. Seres : a people of India, who fürthe side of rivers—the alders by stagnant nished the rest of the world with silk. It pools—the barren wild ashes on the stony was a common received opinion that they inountains, spring up, and flourish.

collected it from the leaves of trees. To 112. Myrtetis: in groves of myrtle. Læ- this the poet refers in the words, depectant, tissima : in the sense of feracissima.

&c. they comb off the fine fleeces from the

leaves. 113. Bacchus: here put for vites, by me

123. Extremi sinus orbis. It is somewhat ton. Taxi: the yew trees. The verb amant is to be supplied.

difficult to fix the meaning of sinus, in this 114. Aspice orbem. The meaning is, that place. If it could be read sinui, in the dat. the remotest parts of the world were redu

to agree with oceano, it would be easy. ced to a state of cultivation by their re

But it is usually read in the nom. It must

the spective inhabitants, both the east (Eoas do- therefore mean the same as India, mos Arabum) and the north, the country of preceding line. But how it can be applied

with the Geloni. The inhabitants, by ineton. put

any propriety, to express a tract of for the country. They painted themselves country, doth not appear. If we take sinus that they might be more terrible to their for the gen. connected with extremi, the difenemies. This explains the word pictos.

ficulty will be removed, in a good degree,

and orbis for the nom. Now orbis some115. Gelonos : the Geloni were a people times means no more than a single country, inhabiting the northern parts of Europe.

or any division or part of the earth. If we 116. Patriæ divise : countries are distin- , take it thus, the passage may be rendered : guished hy their trees. Patria, one's native Or, why need I mention the groves which country--Rogio, any country.

India, nearer the ocean, the country of 117. Thurea virga: the frankincense tree. (bordering upon) the farthest bay, produ

118. Referam : in the sense of dicam, vel ces? Valpy says: the extreme convexity describam.

of the globe. Heyne: interior remotiorque 119. Balsama: plu. of balsamum, a plant terra extremæ orbis partis. Ruæus : recesof a very delicious fragrance. Its juice is sus ultimi mundi. The sinus I take for the obtained by cutting the branches in the sum- bay of Bengal, called by the ancients the mer months, from which incisions the juice Sinus Gangeticus. The parts of India beHows. Acanthi. There were two kinds of yond the Ganges were very little known to Acanthus; one the herb commonly called them; extremi, therefore, may be very well Brank-ursin, or bear’s-foot; ite other an applied to them. Summum aëra: the highEgyptian tree, always green, and abounding est air—the air surrounding the topmost in berries.

branches. This is evidently an extravagant 120. Molli lanâ: with soft cotton. Æthi- hyperbole, notwithstanding the declaration opum: gen. plu. of Æthiops : an inhabitant of Pliny, as to the height of the trees. Vinof Æthiopia, an extensive country in Africa, cere; in the sense of superare. abounding in the cotton tree. Ut: in the 126. Media. A country of Asia, bounded sensa of quomodo

on the north by the Caspian sea, on the

125

130

135

Et gens illa quidem sumptis non tarda pharetris.
Media fert tristes succos, tardumque saporem
Felicis mali: quo non præsentius ullum
(Pocula si quando sævæ infecêre novercæ,
Miscueruntque herbas, et non innoxia verba)

Auxilium venit, ac membris agit atra venena.
131. Ipsa arbor est in- Ipsa ingens arbos, faciemque simillima lauro;
gens, simillimaque lauro Et, si non alium latè jactaret odorem,
quoad faciem

Laurus erat: folia haud ullis labentia ventis : sose

Flos apprimà tenax: animas et olentia Medi
Ora fovent illo, et senibus medicantur anhelis.

Sed neque Medorum sylvæ, ditissima terra, city

Nec pulcher Ganges, atque auro turbidus Hermus,
Laudibus Italiæ certent : non Bactra, neque Indi,
Totaque thuriferis Panchaïa pinguis arenis.
Hæc loca non tauri spirantes naribus ignem
Invertêre, satis immanis dentibus hydri :
Nec galeis densisque virûm seges horruit hastis:
Sed gravidæ fruges, et Bacchi Massicus humor
Implevere : tenent oleæque, armentaque læta.
Hinc bellator equus campo sese arduus infert :
Hinc albi, Clitumne, greges, et maxima taurus

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140

145

NOTES.

west by Armenia, on the east by Hyrcania sands. It received in its course the celeand Parthia, and on the south by Persia brated Pactolus ; and with it, fell into the proper. Under Cyrus the great, it became Sinus Phocaicus. a constituent part of the Persian monarchy. 138. Bactra : neu. plu. the principal city

127. Mali : the citron. Its rind is bitter, of the Bactrii. By synec. put for their and its seeds are covered with a bitter skin: whole country, which was called Bactriana, hence tristes succos, bitter juices; and tar- and was bounded by Parthia on the west, dum saporem, a taste remaining long on the India on the east, and by the river Oxus on palate. It is called Felix, happy, on account the north. of its many virtues, and qualities ; some of which are mentioned. Non larda: in the

139. Panchaža: a country of Arabia Fesense of strenua vel fortis.

lix. Pinguis: rich, in frankincense-bear

ing soil. 128. Infecere : have poisoned. Pocula: by meton. the wine. Præsentiùs : more

140. Hæc loca : these places bulls breathcertain-more efficacious. Some copies ing fire have not turned, &c. This alludes have præstantiùs.

to the fable of Jason, who, with a company 129. Non innoxia verba : in the sense of of men, went to Colchis to get the golden noxias incantationes.

fleece. Here were bulls breathing fire bound 134. Apprimà: an adj. neu. plu. taken

to a plough. Upon their turning the earth, as an adverb, in imitation of the Greeks. it was sown with dragon's teeth, which imThe same as apprimè. Animas et olentia mediately sprang up, seges virûm, into men ora, &c. With this (fruit, malo) the Medes armed and prepared for combat, to supply correct their breatli, and (cleanse) their the place of those that had been slain. The stinking mouths. See Æn. viii. 410. Ku- dragon that guarded the fleece being slain, æus says; Corrigunt halilum suum et grave- Jasor obtained the prize. This was the faolentia ora.

mous Argonautic expedition. See Ovid, 137. Ganges. One of the finest rivers in Met. vii. It is supposed that this was only the world. It rises in the kingdom of Thi

a commercial expedition, which proved very bet, and taking a south-easterly direction,

lucrative. after a course of about 2000 miles, falls into 143. Massicus : a mountain in Campania, the gulf or bay of Bengal ; having in its fertile in the vine; here used as an adj. course received a number of tributary Massicus humor Bacchi: Massic wine. streams, eleven of which, it is said, are as Humor Bacrhi : the liquor of Bacchus, i. e. large as the Rhine. It is considered by the wine. inhabitants upon its banks, as a god. Her- 146. Clitumne: Clitunnus a river of Uinmus: a river of Lydia, famous for its golden bria in Italy, famous for the flocks of white

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