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3. Inter densas fagos Tantùm inter densas, umbrosa cacumina, fagos habentes umbrosa cacu- Assiduè veniebat : ibi hæc incondita solus 64 nina.
Montibus et sylvis studio jactabat inani.
Nunc virides etiam occultant spineta lacertos :
Sole sub ardenti resonant arbusta cicadis.
Nonne fuit satius tristes Amaryllidis iras,
Mille meæ Siculis errant in montibus agnæ :
Lac mihi non æstate novum, non frigore defit. solitus est cantare, Canto, quæ solitus, si quando armenta vocabat,
4. Ibi solus jactabat, &c. There alone he flowers themselves, by meton. Vaccinia : poured forth these indigested complaints. Jac- the blackberries or bilberries. Some take tabat : he threw them away—they were of them for the Hyacinth of Theocritus, whom no avail to him, because they were unheed- Virgil here imitates. The meaning of the ed by Alexis.
poet is this : as the privets, though white and 5. Inani studio : with unavailing pleasure, fair, (cadunt,) lie neglected because they are or fondness. He speaks the language of a useless; and the blackberry is gathered and lover. The beauty and accomplishments of saved for its usefulness : so, Alexis, shall the boy had taken possession of his affec- you, though fair and beautiful to the sight, tions. He dwells upon them with rapture be neglected for your pride; while Menalcas, and delight. But all this is vain and una- though black and swarthy, shall be loved vailing. The boy regards him not. He for his good disposition, and his conciliating then breaks forth: O crudelis Alexi, nihil temper. mea carmina curas, &c.
21. Siculis. The mountains of Sicily are 7. Nil. This word is often used in the mentioned, either because they are famed sense of non, as a simple negative. So also for excellent pastures, or because the scene is nihil.
of the pastoral is laid in that country. 9. Lacertos : lizards. Spinetum : a place 22. Æstate : in summer. Frigore : in where thorns and prickly shrubs grow: here winter. put for
the thorns themselves, by meton. 23. Siquando : the same as quando. When 10. Thestylis. The name of a servant; he called his herds. It was usual with shep. taken from Theocritus.
herds to walk before their sheep, and call 11. Allia : plu, of allium, an herb called them. garlic. Serpyllum: wild-thyme, or running 24. Amphion. A celebrated musician, betony; an odoriferous herb.
said to have been the son of Jupiter and An13. Cicadis. The cicada is an insect of tiope, and born on mount Cythera. He was the species of the grasshopper, making a king of Thebes, and is said to have built the very hoarse and disagreeable noise, particu walls of that city by the music of his lyre. larly in the heat of the day. Satius : in the We are to understand by this, perhaps, his sense of melius.
persuading, by his eloquence, à barbarous 15. Menalcan. A Greek acc. of Menal- people to unite, and build a city for their cas. See Ecl. 3. Fastidia: plu. of fastidium: common safety. His mother was wife to disdain—haughtiness. Pati : to bear-en- Lycus, king of Thebes, and put away by dure.
him for the sake of Dirce, whom he married. 18. Ligustra : plu. of Ligustrum: a privet Dirceus: an adj. either from Dirce his stepor with-bind, a species of shrub or plant mother, or from a fountain of that name in bearing very white flowers; taken for the Beotia. Aracyntho: a town and mountain
Amphion Dircæus in Actæo Aracyntho.
38. Nunc ista fistula Et dixit moriens : Te nunc habet ista secundum
habet te secundum doDixit Damætas : invidit stultus Amyntas.
minum. Prætereà duo, nec tutâ mihi valle reperti,
40 40. Duo capreoli reCapreoli, sparsis etiam nunc pellibus albo,
perti mihi, nec tutâ valle, Bina die siccant ovis ubera : quos tibi servo.
siccant bina ubera ovis
in die, pellibus etiam Jampridem à me illos abducere Thestylis orat :
nunc sparsis albo. Et faciet : quoniam sordent tibi munera nostra. Huc ades, ô formose puer. Tibi lilia plenis
in Beotia. But why it should be called Ac- terpretation is attended with difficulty. Dr. tæus, there is a difference of opinion. Ser- Trapp takes it for a large plant or little tree, vius thinks it is so called from a Greek word out of which wands were made. He obo which signifies the shore. Probus derives it serves, Virgil no where mentions it as food froin Aclæon, who, hunting near this moun for cattle.' Compellere, &c.: to drive them tain, was torn in pieces by his dogs, for hav- with a green switch. ing discovered Diana bathing herself. Mr. 31. Pana. Pan, the god of shepherds and Davidson places the mountain in the con- hunters, is said to have been the son of Merfines of Attica and Beotia ; and thinks it is cury and the nymph Dryope. He was edu80 called from Acta or Acte, the country cated in Arcadia ; and wrapped in the skin about Attica. Ruæus interprets Actæo by of a goat, he was carried up to heaven by maritimo.
Jupiter, where all the gods ridiculed his ap26. Daphnim. A beautiful shepherd. pearance. He chiefly resided in Arcadia. See in Ecl. 5. Placidum: in the sense of He is said to have invented the pipe with tranquillum.
seven reeds. He was worshipped in Arca27. Imago. His image reflected from the dia, and is said to have given out oracles on water. Nunquam: in the sense of non. mount Lycæus. His festivals, called by the
28. O tantùm libeat tibi : O that it would Greeks Lyce, were introduced into Italy by please you to inhabit with me, &c. These Evander, and established at Rome under are sweet lines. Sordida rura. Most com
the name of Lupercalia, and celebrated the mentators join tibi to sordida, disdained or 15th of February. He was the chief of the despised by thee. But there is no need of Satyrs. this refinement. Sordida is a very proper
34. Trivisse labellum: to have worn the epithet for cottages and country villages, lip. From the verb tero. which in general are indifferent in them 36. Cicutis. Cicuta, an herb much like selves, and poorly furnished, when compar- the Hemlock. Hence used for any hollow ed with the splendor and luxury of cities. reed: hence also, by Meton. for a pipe. FisOr, we may suppose the poet to speak in the tula : a pipe connected together with seven character of a lover, who thinks nothing unequal reeds, &c. These were put togegood enough for the object of his affections. ther with wax, as mentioned 32 supra. Rus is opposed to urbs.
41. Duo Capreoli : two young goats. Ca30. Viridi hibisco. Ruæus takes these preoli : a diminitive noun, from capra or words to be in the dative case, and under- caper. These were undoubtedly wild kids, stands by them: to green or verdant pasture; taken from their dams, which he esteemed ad virentem hibiscum, says he: taking the very much; and not those lost by him, and hibiscum for a kind of plant. But this in- recovered again. Servius says: kids have
Ecce ferunt Nymphæ calathis : tibi candida Naïs
Et vos, ô lauri, carpam, et te, proxima myrte : 55. Quoniam vos po- Sic positæ quoniam suaves miscetis odores.
55 sitse sic miscetis
Rusticus es, Corydon ; nec munera curat Alexis : 58. Quid ego volui Nec si muneribus certes, concedat Iolas. mihi misero? Perditus immisi austrum floribus, Eheu, quid volui misero mihi ? Aoribus Austrum et apros.
Perditus, et liquidis immisi fontibus apros.
at first white spots, which afterwards change, he killed himself. His blood was changed and lose their beauty. If it be so, this into a flower, which bears his name. circumstance will explain the words, sparsis 47. Summa papavera carpens : gatheretiam nunc pellibus albo : which also denotes ing the heads of poppies. Papaver and that they were young.
Anethus were two beautiful youths ; who, 46. Ecce ferunt: behold the nymphs bring according to Servius, were changed, the for you lilies in full baskets, &c. The fole former into the flower, which we call the lowing lines are extremely beautiful. Mr. poppy; the latter into the herb, which we Warton observes, they contain the sweetest call anise or dill. Benè olentis : sweetgarland ever offered by a lover. The agi- smelling: tation and doubts of a lover's mind are
50. Pingit mollia, &c. She adorns or sets finely set forth : nec munera curat Alexis, off the soft hyacinths with saffron-colored &c. At length he seems to come to himself, marygold. Vaccinium, here is plainly the and to reflect upon the state of his affairs: Hyacinthus of Theocritus, whom Virgis here vilis semiputata est, &c. Nymphæ. They copies ; so say Turnebus, Salmasius, and were a kind of female Divinities supposed
Ruæus. to exist for a very great length of time; but 51. Mala. Malum signifies several kinds not to be altogether immortal. They were
of fruit, such as apples, peaches, quinces, divided into two general classes Nymphs &c.
The last is here meant, as appears of the land, and Nymphs of the water. from the cana tenera lanugine : white with Each of these classes was divided into seve
soft down, or fur. Mr. Dryden renders ral others. The former into Dryades-Ha- mala, peaches. madryades-Oreades_Napæce-Limoniades,
53. Cerea : of waxen-color. &c. The latter into Oceanides-Nereïdes
54. Myrte. The Romans used crowns or Naïades or Naides-Potamides-Limniades, garlands of laurel in their most splendid &c. All of which are of Greek derivation. triumphs : and those of myrtle, in the ovatio.
which was on horseback, and considered the The nymphs were further distinguished lesser triumph, or triumph of less honor and by an epithet taken from the place of their dignity than that in which the conqueror residence. Thus the Nymphs of Sicily are rode in a chariot. The myrtle tree was called Sicelides—those of Corycus, Coryci- sacred to Venus, and the laurel to Apollo. ades or Corycides, &c.
Proxima: next in honor to the laurel. Echo is said to have been formerly a 56. Rusticus : in the sense of stultus. nymph; but falling in love with a beautiful 57. Iolas. The owner or master of Alexis. youth called Narcissus, who refused her ad 58. Eheu, quid volui, &c. Lit. what have dresses, at which she was so much grieved I done to myself, a miserable man? Alas! that she pined away, till every part of her ruined, I have let in the south winds, &c. was consumed but her voice, that continued These expressions are proverbial, and apto haunt the woods and fountains, which plicable to those who wish for things that she once frequented. Narcissus, stopping to prove ruinous to them. Dr. Trapp explains repose himself by the side of a fountain, the passage thus: By my folly in indulging where he chanced to see his image reflected this extravagant passion, I have ruined my in the water, became enamoured with it: peace and quiet, and permitted my affairs to taking it for a nymph, he endeavored to go to decay, which were before well managed, approach it; but all his attempts being un- flourishing, and prosperous. Volui. Ruæus availing, he was so much disappointed that interprets it by feci.
Quem fugis, ah, demens! habitârunt dî quoque sylvas,
70 Quin tu aliquid saltem potìus, quorum indiget usus,
71. Quin potius tu
paras detexere saltem Viminibus mollique paras detexere junco ?
aliquid eorum, quorum Invenies alium, si te hic fastidit
usus indiget viminibus. NOTES.
60. Demens: O foolish boy, whom do you 66. Referunt. After the labor of the flee? Demens, compounded of de and day, they drew home the plough inverted,
so that the share would glide easily over the 61. Paris. See nom. prop. under Paris. ground, and hang, as it were, lightly upon Dardanius, an adj. of Dardanus, one of the the yoke. founders of Troy. Pallas, the same as Mi 71. Quin tu, &c. Why do you not rather See Geor. I. 18.
prepare to make (weave) at least some of 62. Colat : in the sense of incolat. those things which need requires, of osiers
65. Sua voluptas trahit quemque : his own and pliant rushes ? The verb indigeo gopleasure draws every one every one is verns the genitive. Usus: need, or necesdrawn by his own pleasure.
What is the subject of this pastoral ?
Who is represented under the character of Corydon?
Who under that of Alexis?
Who was Pan? What is said of him?
What were his festivals called by the Greeks? What by the Romans ?
By whom were they introduced into Italy
When were they celebrated?
Who were the Nymphs? Into how many classes may they be divided ?
Was each of these classes subdivided into other classes ?
Can you mention some of those subdivisions?
Who was Echo said to have been?
From what language are the names of the Nymphs derived?
MENALCAS, DAMETAS, PALÆMON.
The subject of this pastoral is a trial of skill in music between the shepherds Menalcas
and Damætas; who after rallying each other a while, resolve to try a song in the presence of their neighbor Palæmon, whom they constitute judge of their performances, Having heard each of them attentively, he declared he was unable to decide so weighty a controversy ; but pronounced each one to be deserving of the pledge. This beautiful pastoral is in imitation of the fifth and eighth of the Idylls of Theocri.
tus. It is conjectured that under the character of Damætas, we are to understand Virgil ; and under that of Menalcas, some rival poet at Rome.
1. Cujum pecus est Men. DIC mihi, Damæta, cujum pecus ? an Melibæi? estud? an est pecus Me DA. Non, verùm Ægonis: nuper mihi tradidit Ægon. libæi? non : Verùm est
ME. Infelix, ò, semper, oves, pecus! ipse Neæram pecus Ægonis.
Dum fovet, ac, ne me sibi præferat illa, veretur,
5 Et succus pecori, et lac subducitur agnis.
Da. Parciùs ista viris tamen objicienda memento 8. Novimus et qui Novimus et qui te, transversà tuentibus hircis, corruperint te et in quo Et quo, sed faciles Nymphæ risêțe, sacello. sacello, hircis tuentibus
ME. Tum, credo, cùm me arbustum vidêre Myconis, 10 transversà, sed
10. Tum, credo, illæ Atque malâ vites incidere falce novellas. riserunt, cum videre me Da. Aut hìç ad veteres fagos, cùm Daphnidis arcum incidere arbustum Fregisti et calamos : quæ tu, perverse Menalca,
Et cùm vidista puero donata, dolebas ; 16. Audent facere ta. Et, si non aliquà nocuisses, mortuus esses.
ME. Quid domini facient, audent cùm talia fures ?
1. Cujum : an adj. agreeing with pecus: minished or taken away proportionably in the sense of cujus.
from their young. This was a heavy charge 2. Ægon. The name of a shepherd, the brought against Dametas. He highly rerival of Menalcas in the love of Neæra. sented it. It is derived from a Greek word signifying
8. Transversà : crosswise_asquint. An a goat.
adv. from the adj. of the neu. plu. in imi3. O oves, infelix pecus. The sheep are
tation of the Greeks. called unhappy, because their master Ægon, while in love with Neæra, had given up all 9. Sacello : any place consecrated to the care of them; and because they had fallen worship of God-a cave or grotto; as in into the hands of a hireling, who treated the present case. them so inhumanly.
10. Arbustum : properly, a place plantea 5. Alienus. An alien, or hireling shep- with trees for vines to grow up_by. By herd-custos.
meton. the trees themselves. See Ecl. I. 40. 6. Succus : may mean the same with lac Novellas : new, or young. mentioned just after. By milking the dams, 13. Quæ tu, &c. Which (bow and arrows) the natural food (lac) of the young would when you saw given to the boy, you both grieved, be taken from theni, and they suffered to and would have died, if you had not, in some starve. Or succus may mean nourishment way, injured him. in general. It being taken away or dimi 16. Fures : slaves. They were sometimes nished to the dams, the milk would be di- so called, because notorious for stealing.