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Non eadem arboribus pendet vindemia nostris,
Tentatura pedes olim, vincturaque linguam. 95. Sunt purpureæ, Purpureæ, preciæque: et quo te carmine dicam 95 preciæque uve
Rhætica ? nec cellis ideò contende Falernis. 99. Est Argitis minor Sunt et Ammineæ vites, firmissima vina :
Tmolus et assurgit quibus, et rex ipse Phanæus ; 102. Et, te, O bumaste,
Argitisque minor, cui non certaverit ulla, cum tuis tumidis racemis. Sed neque est nu
Aut tantùm fluere, aut totidem durare per annos. 100 merus, quàm multæ
Non ego te, Dîs et mensis accepta secundis, cies sunt, nec quæ
Transierim, Rhodia ; et tumidis, bumaste, racemis. 105. Quem numerum Sed neque, quàm multæ species, nec nomina quæ sint, qui velit scire, ideın ve- Est numerus : neque enim numero comprendere refert. lit discere quàm multæ
105 arenæ Libyci æquoris Quem qui scire velit
, Libyci velit æquoris idem turbentur
Discere, quàm multæ Zephyro turbentur arenæ ;
Tarentina, and were of a blackish cast. 97. Ammineæ vites. There are various Some think them to be the Bergamot pear. conjectures concerning this vine, but nothing Volemis : to the Volemian pears. These were certainly known. It produced excellent so called from the circumstance of their fill- wine-firmissima vina, strong, and of good ing the palm of the hand; from vola. The body. surculus, or shoot, of all these was different. 98. Quibus et Tmolus: to which both
89. Arboribus: in the sense of vitibus. Tmolus, and Phanæus himself, the king of
90. Methymnæo: an adj. from Methymna, vine-bearing mountains, rise up in sign of a city of Lesbos, an island in the Ægean respect—they yield the pre-eminence to the sea, famous for its vines.
Amminean vine. Assurgit, as here used, is 91. Thasiæ: an adj. from Thasus, an highly metaphorical. It conveys to oui island in the Ægean sea. Mareotides : an minds the idea of one mountain rising up to adj. probably from Mareotis, a lake near another in token of respect, and yielding to Alexandria, in Egypt. Some take it from it precedency. Tmolus : a mountain in a place of the same name in Lybia, in the Lydia, famous for its wines. Phanæus : confines of Egypt. These latter (hæ) re another mountain in the island Chios, in quired a rich soil; the former (illæ) a light soil. the Ægean sea, celebrated for its wines.
93. Psythia : an adj. agreeing with vitis, 99. Argitis: a species of the grape, prounderstood. Its derivation is uncertain. It bably derived from a Greek word signifyis probably from the name of some town in ing white, or from Argos, a city of the Pe Greece, where that species of vine flourish- loponnesus. ed. Utilior passo: better for passum, or 100. Tantùm fluere: to yield so much sweet wine. This was made of raisins or juice. dried grapes; from the word patior: quòd 101. Mensis et Dis secundis. The first ta. solem aut ignem patitur. Lageos. This was ble or course was composed of meats. The a species of grape, deriving its name from second of fruits, and what we generally call a Greek word signifying a hare, because
it desserts. At this second table or course resembled the color of that animal. Ten there were libations made to certain gods. nuis: subtle or penetrating. Quòd facilè Secundis is generally connected with Dis. ebrietatem inducit, says Servius.
It is, however, better to connect it with men95. Purpurea, preciæque. These are both sis: it will then be: the Rhodian wine is adjectives, and agree with vites, or more acceptable to the second table or course, probably with uvæ, understood. Preciæ : and to the gods that were then invoked early ripened—ripened before other grapes. acceptable, or fit for libations.
96. Rhætica : a grape, so called from 102. Rhodia : an adj. from Rhodus, a faRhetia, a country bordering upon Italy on mous island in the Mediterranean sea. the west. Cellis Falernis : with the Faler. Bumaste: the bumastus was a species of nian wine. Cellis : the cellars; by meton. grape, whose clusters were swollen out, like for the wine in them. Falernis: an adj. the udder of a cow. It is derived from the from Falernus, a mountain in Campania, Greek. celebrated for its good wines.
103. Quàm : in the sense of tam.
Aut, ubi navigiis violentior incidit Eurus,
Nec verò terræ ferre omnes omnia possunt.
110. Salices nascuntur: the willows by 121. Seres : a people of India, who fürthe side of rivers—the alders by stagnant nished the rest of the world with silk. It pools—the barren wild ashes on the stony was a common received opinion that they inountains, spring up, and flourish.
collected it from the leaves of trees. To 112. Myrtetis: in groves of myrtle. Læ- this the poet refers in the words, depectant, tissima : in the sense of feracissima.
&c. they comb off the fine fleeces from the
leaves. 113. Bacchus: here put for vites, by me
123. Extremi sinus orbis. It is somewhat ton. Taxi: the yew trees. The verb amant is to be supplied.
difficult to fix the meaning of sinus, in this 114. Aspice orbem. The meaning is, that place. If it could be read sinui, in the dat. the remotest parts of the world were redu
to agree with oceano, it would be easy. ced to a state of cultivation by their re
But it is usually read in the nom. It must
the spective inhabitants, both the east (Eoas do- therefore mean the same as India, mos Arabum) and the north, the country of preceding line. But how it can be applied
with the Geloni. The inhabitants, by ineton. put
any propriety, to express a tract of for the country. They painted themselves country, doth not appear. If we take sinus that they might be more terrible to their for the gen. connected with extremi, the difenemies. This explains the word pictos.
ficulty will be removed, in a good degree,
and orbis for the nom. Now orbis some115. Gelonos : the Geloni were a people times means no more than a single country, inhabiting the northern parts of Europe.
or any division or part of the earth. If we 116. Patriæ divise : countries are distin- , take it thus, the passage may be rendered : guished hy their trees. Patria, one's native Or, why need I mention the groves which country--Rogio, any country.
India, nearer the ocean, the country of 117. Thurea virga: the frankincense tree. (bordering upon) the farthest bay, produ
118. Referam : in the sense of dicam, vel ces? Valpy says: the extreme convexity describam.
of the globe. Heyne: interior remotiorque 119. Balsama: plu. of balsamum, a plant terra extremæ orbis partis. Ruæus : recesof a very delicious fragrance. Its juice is sus ultimi mundi. The sinus I take for the obtained by cutting the branches in the sum- bay of Bengal, called by the ancients the mer months, from which incisions the juice Sinus Gangeticus. The parts of India beHows. Acanthi. There were two kinds of yond the Ganges were very little known to Acanthus; one the herb commonly called them; extremi, therefore, may be very well Brank-ursin, or bear’s-foot; ite other an applied to them. Summum aëra: the highEgyptian tree, always green, and abounding est air—the air surrounding the topmost in berries.
branches. This is evidently an extravagant 120. Molli lanâ: with soft cotton. Æthi- hyperbole, notwithstanding the declaration opum: gen. plu. of Æthiops : an inhabitant of Pliny, as to the height of the trees. Vinof Æthiopia, an extensive country in Africa, cere; in the sense of superare. abounding in the cotton tree. Ut: in the 126. Media. A country of Asia, bounded sensa of quomodo
on the north by the Caspian sea, on the
Et gens illa quidem sumptis non tarda pharetris.
Auxilium venit, ac membris agit atra venena.
Laurus erat: folia haud ullis labentia ventis : sose
Flos apprimà tenax: animas et olentia Medi
Sed neque Medorum sylvæ, ditissima terra,
west by Armenia, on the east by Hyrcania sands. It received in its course the celeand Parthia, and on the south by Persia brated Pactolus ; and with it, fell into the proper. Under Cyrus the great, it became Sinus Phocaicus. a constituent part of the Persian monarchy. 138. Bactra : neu. plu. the principal city
127. Mali : the citron. Its rind is bitter, of the Bactrii. By synec. put for their and its seeds are covered with a bitter skin: whole country, which was called Bactriana, hence tristes succos, bitter juices; and tar and was bounded by Parthia on the west, dum saporem, a taste remaining long on the India on the east, and by the river Oxus on palate. It is called Felix, happy, on account the north. of its many virtues, and qualities ; some of which are mentioned. Non larda: in the
139. Panchaža: a country of Arabia Fesense of strenua vel fortis.
lix. Pinguis: rich, in frankincense-bear
ing soil. 128. Infecere : have poisoned. Pocula: by meton. the wine. Præsentiùs : more
140. Hæc loca : these places bulls breathcertain-more efficacious. Some copies ing fire have not turned, &c. This alludes have præstantiùs.
to the fable of Jason, who, with a company 129. Non innoxia verba : in the sense of of men, went to Colchis to get the golden noxias incantationes.
fleece. Here were bulls breathing fire bound 134. Apprimà: an adj. neu. plu. taken to a plough. Upon their turning the earth, as an adverb, in imitation of the Greeks. it was sown with dragon's teeth, which imThe same as apprimè. Animas et olentia mediately sprang up, seges virûm, into men ora, &c. With this (fruit, malo) the Medes armed and prepared for combat, to supply correct their breatli, and (cleanse) their the place of those that had been slain. The stinking mouths. See Æn. viii. 410. Ku- dragon that guarded the fleece being slain, æus says; Corrigunt halilum suum et grave- Jasor obtained the prize. This was the faolentia ora.
mous Argonautic expedition. See Ovid, 137. Ganges. One of the finest rivers in Met. vii. It is supposed that this was only the world. It rises in the kingdom of Thi
a commercial expedition, which proved very bet, and taking a south-easterly direction,
lucrative. after a course of about 2000 miles, falls into 143. Massicus : a mountain in Campania, the gulf or bay of Bengal ; having in its fertile in the vine; here used as an adj. course received a number of tributary Massicus humor Bacchi: Massic wine. streams, eleven of which, it is said, are as Humor Bacrhi : the liquor of Bacchus, i. e. large as the Rhine. It is considered by the wine. inhabitants upon its banks, as a god. Her 146. Clitumne: Clitunnus a river of Uinmus: a river of Lydia, famous for its golden bria in Italy, famous for the flocks of white
Victima, sæpe tuo perfusi flumine sacro,
Dra. Cu Bis gravidæ pecudes, bis pomis utilis arbos.
153. Nec squameus At rabidæ tigres absunt, et sæva leonium
anguis rapit immensos
orbes per humum, neque Semina : nec miseros fallunt aconita legentes :
colligit se in spiram cum Nec rapit immensos orbes per humum, neque tanto tanto tractu hic, quàm Squameus in spiram tractu se colligit anguis.
quibusdam aliis regionAdde tot egregias urbes, operumque laborem;
158. An memorem Tot congesta manu præruptis oppida saxis ;
mare, quod alluit Italiam Fluminaque antiquos subter labentia muros.
suprà,quodque alluit eam Ain mare, quod suprà, memorem , quodque alluit infrà ? infra? Anne memorem Anne lacus tantos ? te, Lari maxime; teque
tantos lacus, te, O maxFluctibus et fremitu assurgens, Benace, marino ? 160 ime Lari, teque, 0, Be
nace, An memorem portus, Lucrinoque addita claustra,
162. Æquor indignaAtque indignatum magnis stridoribus æquor;
tum circa illa claustra Julia quà ponto longè sonat unda refuso,
sheep that fed on its banks. The victims the Tuscan sea on the south. The former were washed in it, to make them the whiter. was sometimes called Mare superuim, and White victims alone were offered to Jove on the latter Mare inferum; hence the suprà triumphal days. To this the poet alludes. applied to the one, and infrà, to the other. 149. Æstas alienis mensibus: summer in
159. Maxime Lari : Larius, a large lake other months-in months not its own. As
at the foot of the Alps. It communicates siduum: in the sense of perpetuum.
with the Po, by the river Addua. Hodie, 150. Bis pecudes, &c. The meaning is, Lago di Coma. that the flocks bring forth twice in a year,
160. Benace: Benacus, a large lake, comand the trees produce two crops of fruit. Pecudes ; here must mean sheep and other municating with the Po, by the river Minminor animals. It could not be said of
cius. Its present name is Lago di Garda. cattle or horses. The poet, in many instan- Assurgens: swelling with the waves, and ces, in praising his country, exceeds the roaring of a sea. bounds of credibility. Utilis: in the sense
161. Lucrino-Avernis. Lucrinus and of fertilis, says Heyne.
Avernus were two lakes in Campania. Here 152. Aconita: wolf's bane. It is taken Augustus made a haven, which he called here for any noxious or poisonous plant, or
the Julian port. This was done by uniting herb. According to Solinus, it takes its them by a canal, and connecting them with name from Acon, a port in Pontus, a coun
Portum Julium apud Baias, imtry notorious for poisonous plants. Others
misso in Lucrinum et Avernum Lacum mari, take it from a Greek word signifying a efficit, says Suetonius. Addita claustra. It stone, because it grew principally on stony
would seem from this, that Lucrinus was grounds. Semina : in the sense of proles.
originally a bay, and probably connected 155. Laborem operum : the labor, or work with the sea, by a narrow strait, but afterof artificers. Operum appears to be used ward, either by some operation of the wain the sense of Opificum, or Operariorum. ter, or artificially, was separated from it, Heyne takes laborem operum, simply for forming a lake. This was the opinion of opera, vel ædificia.
Strabo, who inforins us that Lucrinus was 156. Tot oppida. Many of the cities of originally a bay; but had been separated Italy were built upon high and elevated from the sea, ever since the days of Hercugrounds. To this the words præruptis saxis les, by a nound or bank of sand; that this allude. Congesta in the sense of extructa.
was occasionally broken over by the waves 157. Subler : Heyne takes this in the of the sea, but was repaired and made sesense of præter: making the seuse to be, cure against all encroachments of that elethat the rivers flowed or passed by the walls ment, by Agrippa, for the purpose of maof cities. He observes that many of the king it a safe and convenient station for the cities of Italy were built upon the margin of Roman fleet. rivers: which seems to warrant that sense 162. Indignatum : the same as indige of the word.
nans: roaring—raging. 158. An Mare, &c. Italy is washed by 163. Julia aqua. Heyne seems to underthe Adriatic sea, on the north-east, and by stand this in the sense of Julius portus, th.
Tyrrhenusque fretis immittitur æstus Avernis ? 165. Hæc eadem Italia llæc eadem argenti rivos, ærisque metalla
165 ostendit in venis rivos
Ostendit venis, atque auro plurima fluxit.
Scipiadas duros bello; et te, maxime Cæsar, 170
Quis color, et quæ sit rebus natura ferendis.
Difficiles primùm terræ, collesque maligni,
Palladiâ gaudent sylvâ vivacis olivæ.
harbor that had been made by excluding the ble birth, he rose to the highest honors. He sea—the water in the harbor. Lucrinus triumphed over Jugurtha, king of Numidia, was not entirely separated from the sea. and over the Cimbri. He died in his seIt was connected with it by a strait, or nar. venth consulship. Camillos. The most celerow channel, for the ingress and egress of brated of the Camilli was Marcus Furius the feet, and for the admission of the water Camillus. He triumphed over the Vientes. of the sea.
He rescued Rome from the Gauls. He was 164. Fretis Avernis : the canal which con. called a second Romulus, and died at the nected Avernus with Lucrinus, is here call. age of eighty years. See Æn. vi. 825. od fretum, a strait. Æstus: in the sense of Scipiadas. See Æn. vi. 843. Duros : invin
cible-capable of enduring the fatigues of 165. Metalla æris: simply, brass. Fluxit: in the sense of abundavit.
173. Saturnia tellus. Italy is so called 167. Marsos. The Marsi were a people of because here Saturn found a safe retreat Italy lying to the south of the Appenines, after his expulsion from heaven. He reignand to the east and north of the Æqui and ed here conjointly with Janus. Res: a subVolsci. They originated, according to some, ject. Tibi: for thee-for thy advantage. from a son of the sorceress Circe: others
174. Virûm: in the sense of heroüm. say, from Marsia, a king of Lydia. Their Laudis antique, et artis. Laudatas et exculprincipal city was Marrubium, or Marruvium, not far from the Lacus Fucinus. Pu
tas ab antiquis, says Ruæus. bem Sabellam: the Sabelli were a very an
176. Ascræum carmen: an Ascrean strain, cient people of Italy, originally including the
or verse; that is, in imitation of Hesiod, Samnites, the Sabines, and the Ausoneans. who was a native of Ascra, a village in Beo
168. Ligurem: the Ligurean accustomed tia, not far from mount Helicon. It is said, to fatigue or toil. The Ligures were a
he wrote a treatise upon agriculture. people inhabiting that part of Italy, which 177. Ingeniis: the nature or quality of lies at the head of the Mare Ligusticum, or the lands. Robora, plu. of robur, strength sea of Genoa. The Volsci were a very war or ability to produce. The poet proceeds like people. They inhabited that part of Ita- to point out the several methods of distinly, through which the river Liris passes, and guishing the various soils. He makes ten were bounded on the west by the Rutuli such methods. and Latini, on the east by Aurunci and 179. Maligni : thin-poor, with reference Campani, and on the north by the Æqui to the qnality of the soil. Dificiles : rough. and Hernici. Verutos, armed with darts : 181. Palladia sylvâ : Minerva's grove. from veru a kind of dart.
Palladia: an adj. from Pallas, a name of 169. Decios : these were three Romans, Minerva, to whom the olive was sacred. who sacrificed their lives for their country. 182. Oleaster nascens plurimus : the wild Marios: the Marii, of whom Caius Marius olive, springing up thick and luxuriant in was the most celebrated. Though of hum- the same tract, is for a sign.