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Hinc movet Euphrates, illinc Germania bellum:
509. Euphrates. A noble river of Asia, ed together; also, a chariot drawn by four rising in the mountains of Armenia, fertili- horses, by meton. Of Quatuor and ago, bezing Mesopotamia, as the Nile does Egypt, cause four were driven together : or conand uniting with the Tigris in its course, tracted of Quadrijugus, four yoked together. falls into the Persian gulf. It is here put, Carceribus. Carcer was the mark, or starting by a figure of speech, for the nations of the place, in races. Spatia : the race ground, east, particularly the Parthians, who were or course. Efudēre. Ruæus says, erupevery troublesome to the Romans.
513. Addunt : in the sense of immittunt, 510. Legibus : in the sense of fæderibus.
says Heyne. Some copies leave out the se. 511. Impius: cruel-merciless; a suitable Others read in spatio. "Ruæus, in his interepithet of Mars.
pretation, omits the words addunt se, and 512. Ut, cum quadrigæ. This is a noble connects in spatia with the preceding verb. simile. The uncontrolled licentiousness of They are not necessary to make the sense the age is likened to the rapidity and vio- complete. lence of ungovernable horses in the chariot 514. Currus: a chariot : by meton. the race,
when they mock both the driver and horses in the chariot. Neque audit habethe reins. Quadrigæ : four horses harness nas: nor do they regard, or obey the reins.
How does this book open?
What precepts does the poet give about What does the poet proceed to do? ploughing land ? What does he do in the next place? What does he give about planting, and
To whom does he ascribe the origin of changing crops ? agriculture ?
Who was Jupiter? What signs or prognostics of the weather To whom was his education intrusted ? does he mention ?
Where was he educated ? How does he conclude the book ?
What are some of his names ? Are there any fables introduced by way of Who were the Giants ? and what is said episode? What are they?
of them? Why are Bacchus and Ceres invoked next What are the Pleïades ? after the heavenly bodies?
What other names have they? Who was Neptune? and what is said of What are the Hyades ? him?
What are their names? Who is said to have been the first who Who was Aurora ? taught mankind the propagation of bees? What is said of her? Who was Aristaus?
What were the Furies? Who was Minerva ? and what is said of What were their names? her?
What was their office ? What power did she possess ?
Who was Vulcan? What is said of him! How is she represented under her different What were some of his names ? characters ?
What is the word Vulcanus often used for? What celebrated statue had she?
By what figure is it so used ? What are some of her names ?
Who were the Cyclops ? Who is said to have first taught the Where does the poet represent them as Greeks agriculture ?
residing ? What is probably meant by Ultima Thule ? Why are they called Cyclops.?
Was the Ecliptic at first divided into 12 Who was Mercury ? signs ? How was it divided?
What is said of him? Where were the Olympic games celebra What was his office ? ted? In what year before Christ were they How is he represented ? instituted:
Of what was he the inventor? How often were they celebrated ? and in What were some of his namos ? honor cf what god ?
Who was Glaucus? What is said of him
The subject of this book is the cultivation of the several kinds of trees. The poet de
scribes with much judgment the soils proper for each: and after giving a variety of excellent precepts for the management of the vine, the olive, &c. he digresses into the praises of Italy; and concludes with a panegyric upon a country life.
1. Hactenus cecini HACTENUS arvorum cultus, et sidera cæli: cultus
Nunc te, Bacche, canam, necnon sylvestria tecum
5 Floret ager, spumat plenis vindemia labris.
Huc, pater ô Lenæe, veni: nudataque musto 8. Tingeque mecum Tinge novo mecum direptis crura cothurnis. nudata crura novo mus
Principio arboribus varia est natura creandis. to, cothurnis direptis. Namque aliæ, nullis hominum cogentibus, ipsæ
10 Sponte suâ veniunt, camposque et Humina latè Curva tenent : ut molle siler, lentæque genistæ,
Populus, et glaucâ canentia fronde salicta. 15. Æsculusque maxima nemorum, quæ fron
Pars autem posito surgunt de semine: ut altæ det Jovi, atque quercus,
Castaneæ, nemorumque Jovi quæ maxima frondet 15 quæ habitæ sunt
Æsculus, atque habitæ Graiis oracula quercus.
2. Necnon : also. Two negatives have said to ripen. Pampineo autumno : the pro the force of an affirmative in Latin and duce of the vine-grapes. English.
9. Cothurnis. The cothurnus was a kind 3. Virgulta : shrubs, or underbrush; of high-heeled shoe, worn by Bacchus. Rehere put for trees in general. Tardè cre
ference is here made to the custom of tread. scentis olive. The olive is of a very slow ing out the grapes with their feet. The cogrowth. Some say it is a hundred years in thurnus was used by tragedians to make growing.
them appear taller; hence put for tragedy 4. Lenæe: Lenæus, a name of Bacchus, in the sense of ratio, vel modus.
itself-also for the tragic style. Natura : from a Greek word signifying a vine-press. Adsis, is to be supplied, or some word of the niste: the broom. Populus: the poplar
12. Siler: an osier, or small withy. Gesame import.
tree, of which there are three kinds. 5. Ager gravidus : the field heavy with 13. Salicta : willow-grounds ; by meton. the produce of the vine. Autumno: the the willows. season for gathering grapes and other pro 16. Æscu!us: a species of oak, sacred to ductions of the earth, put, by meton. for Jupiter. The Æsculus was a mast-tree, and the grapes themselves. Floret: in the sense abounded in Dodona, in Epirus, where there of maturescit. The fields do not bloom in were oaks said to have given out oracles; autumn, but with propriety they may be to which here is an allusion.
dedit hos tres modos pro
ducendi arbores: in his Sunt alii, quos ipse viâ sibi repperit usus.
Nil radicis egent aliæ: summumque putator
NOTES. 17. Sylva : here means the suckers, that took root, firm enough to support itself'; ana shoot up under, and near the trunk of the was then severed from it. This was about parent tree.
the third year. Arcus: the arches, or cur18. Cerasis : to the cherry-trees. Laurus. ved figures of the layers, or branches so bent This tree is called Parnassian, because it down. abounded on mount Parnassus. It was sa 27. Viva plantaria : living shoots to be cred to Apollo.
put in their own earth—not cut off as in 19. Subjicit se : shoots itself up.
other cases, but suffered to grow to the pa21. Sylvarum fruticumque: trees and rent tree for a time. Defodi, or a word of shrubs.
the like import, is understood. 22. Viâ: by practice, or experience. 29. Referens mandare: to commit the topSunt aliż: there are other methods of pro- most shoot to the earth whence it sprang. ducing trees, which, &c. The poet proceeds Summum cacumen : the highest shoot, or to enumerate the methods of raising the se branch. Referens mandare, simply for manveral kinds of trees, which he reduces to dare, says Heyne.
1. By planting the shoot or scion. 30. Caudicibus : Caudex, is properly the 2. By burying the stump or stock in the body of the tree distinguished from the root, earth. 3. By burying the stake or trunk as truncus is the body distinguished from sphit at the bottom. 4. By the layer. 5. the top or head. By planting in the earth a bough or twig 32. Impunè : without injury. Alterius : taken from the top of the tree, 6. By in the sense of unius. Arboris is underplanting the trunk or stalk of the tree, de- stood. prived of its root and branches. This suc 33. Vertere : for verti, the active for the ceeds very well with the olive-tree, 7. By passive, by enallage: or, vertere se in ramos grasting or transfetring a branch or scion of alterius arboris. one tree into another.
34. Corna lapidosa : the corneil trees, 23. Plantas: the shoots or scions from which naturally produce a stony hard fruit, the body of the mother tree.
by being grafted, will produce the plum24. Obruit stirpes : another buries the will redden with plums. stocks in the ground, and stakes split in four 37. Neu segnes terræ jaceant. Dr. Trapp parts at the lower end, and poles, the wood renders these words : let not your lands lie being sharpened into a point.
idle. Ne terræ sint inutiles, says Rueus. 26. Alic sylvarum : other trees of the But the connexion is better preserved by wood-simply, other trees. Ruæus says, rendering it: let not your barren lands lie aliæ arbores. Propaginis. The propago was neglected or unimproved. Ismara : neu. the layer, or branch of the parent tree, bent plu. a mountain in Thrace. Tuburnus : a down and fastened in the ground, until it mountain in Campania, fertile in olives.
Tuque ades, inceptumque unà decurre laborem; 39. Tuque, Mæcenas, O decus, ô famæ meritò pars maxima nostræ, 40 ades, decurreque incep- Mæcenas, pelagoque volans da vela patenti. tum laborem unà me- Non ego cuncta meis amplecti versibus opto: cum: tren o decus, O Non, mihi si linguæ centum sint, oraque centum, meritò maxima pars nos
Ferrea vox: (ades, et primi lege litoris oram. træ fama 43. Non possem am- In manibus terræ, non hic te carmine ficto,
45 plecti ea, si sint mihi
Atque per ambages et longa exorsa tencbo. 47. Arbores quæ tol Sponte suâ quæ se tollunt in luminis auras, lunt se suâ sponte Infæcunda quidem, sed læta et fortia surgunt.
Quippe solo natura subest. Tamen hæc quoque si quis
In quascunque voces artes ; haud tarda sequentur.
Hoc faciet, vacuos si sit digesta per agros:
55 Crescentique adimunt fætus, uruntque ferentem.
Jam, quæ seminibus jactis se sustulit, arbos
60 Scilicet omnibus est labor impendendus, et omnes
Cogendæ in sulcum, ac multâ mercede domandæ. 63. Sed olee respon- Sed truncis oleæ meliùs, propagine vites dent meliùs de truncis ; vites de propagine, et Respondent, solido Paphiæ de robore myrtus, myrtus Plantis et duræ coryli nascuntur, et ingens
NOTES. The object of the poet is to persuade the 56. Adimunt fætus : and take away the farmer not to neglect his rugged and barren fruit from it growing up, and starve it while lands, and suffer them to lie useless; for, by bearing. The poet's meaning appears to be culture, he may render them profitable to this: that the sucker, which springs up from him. He adduces the case of Ismarus and the root of the parent tree, will be fruitful Taburnus, which, though naturally rugged and productive, if transplanted into open · and barren, had become, by cultivation and ground, and arranged in proper rows. For proper attention, very productive. Baccho while it remains, the leaves and boughs of is here put for the vine.
the parent tree will overshadow it, and pre39. Decurre. Here we have a beautiful vent it from bearing fruit as it grows up: or, allegory, drawn from the sailing of a ship. if it should bear fruit, it will be pinched and The verb decurro signifies to sail before the small, by being deprived of the rays of the wind—to sail with a prosperous gale. La sun and proper nourishment. borem : the work or task, viz. the Georgics, 57. Jam : here is used in the sense of which he begun at the request of Mæcenas. porrò, or præterea.
41. Da volans, &c. And flying, spread the 60. Ura: the grape; by meton. for the sails to the opening sea-accompany me, vine. Prædam : as a prey for birds-only through this great work, which spreads be- fit for birds. fore me like an open sea, expanding on 62. Multa mercede: with much labor, or every side. Some copies have volens.
expense. 45. Ficto carmine : in the sense of fabu 63. Olece respondent, &c. The olive is loso poëmate.
raised or propagated better from the stump; 46. Ambages et longa exorsa: preambles, the vine from the layer; the myrtle from and tedious introductions.
the solid wood; the hazle, the ash, the pop50. Scrobibus subactis : in trenches pre- lar, and the oak, from the scion, or young pared for the purpose. Mutata: transplant- shoot. ed-removed from their native soil.
64. Paphiæ : Venus, so called from Pa52. In quascunque artes, &c.: in the sense phos, a city of Cyprus, where she was of in quocunque modo, vel via tractes. In particularly worshipped. The myrtle was whatever mode you may require, says sacred to her. Respondent : in the sense of Valpy.
proueniunt, vel oruntur.
70 Castaneæ fagus, ornusque incanuit albo
71. Fagus incanuit Flore pyri ; glandemque sues fregêre sub ulmis. flore castaneæ, ornusque Nec modus inserere atque oculos imponere simplex.
incanuit albo flore pyri Nam quà se medio trudunt de cortice gemmæ, Et tenues rumpunt tunicas, angustus in ipso
79. In solidum lignum Plantæ immittuntur. Nec longum tempus, et ingens Exiit ad cælum ramis felicibus arbos,
81 Miraturque novas frondes, et non sua poma.
Prætereà genus haud unum, nec fortibus ulmis,
Pomaque, et Alcinoi sylva: nec surculus idem varenie Spie
Crustumiis, Syriisque pyris, gravibusque volemis.
NOTES. 66. Umbrosa arbos: the poplar-tree. It 78. Aut rursum. Having described the was sacred to Hercules. He wore a crown process of inoculation, the poet gives us that made of the leaves of this tree, to the infer- of ingrafting. Truncus : the body of the nal regions.
tree, properly after the top and branches 67. Glandes : properly acorns; by meton. are cut off. This is split, and the graft put the oaks that bore them. Chaonii patris : into the fissure. He seems to prefer this Jupiter; so called because he had a temple, mode of cultivating trees, inasmuch as they and was splendidly worshipped at Dodona, soon come to maturity. Nec longum tema town of Chaonia in Epirus. The oak pus (says he,) et ingens arbos: it is not a was sacred to him.
long time, and the mighty tree, exiit, hath 68. Visura. This is said of the fir-tree, shot up to the skies. There is a peculiar ele. because ships were built of its timber. Ma- gancy in the use of the perfect tense here. rinos casus : in the sense of periculæ maris. 80. Plantæ: grafts, or scions of fruit
69. Arbutus inseritur : the arbute or bearing trees. strawberry-tree is grafted with the shoot or 82. Poma non sua : that is, poma non sui scion of the nut-tree.
generis. 70. Platani. The plane tree affords a 84. Idæis Cyparissis : to the Idæan Cylarge and pleasant shade, but bears no fruit. presses. There were two mountains by the It is therefore called sterilis. However, says name of Ida, the one in Phrygia, the other the poet, even this has been made to bear in Crete; the latter is here meant. apples by being grafted.
86. Orchades. The poet here mentions 73. Imponere oculos : to inoculate. Ocu- three species of olives: the orchades, a round lus is the bad which is enclosed or put in olive, a word derived from the Greek; the the bark of the tree to be inoculated. In- radii, an oblong olive; the pausia, an olive serere: to ingraft. Nec modus, &c. Neither of a bitter taste, so called from pavio, says is the method of ingrafting and inoculating Columella, because its chief use was for oil; one and the same-they are different pro to obtain which, it was brayed or beaten.
87. Sylva Alcinoï : the orchards of Alci. 76. Sinus angustus: a small slit or gash, nous, king of the Phæaceans. They were made in the bark of the tree, (where the bud celebrated by the poets. was putting forth,) for the purpose of re 88. Crustumiis: to the Crustumean pears, ceiving the graft.
so called from Crustumium, a town in Tus77. Docent: they teach it to grow up, or cany, whose pears were much esteemed; incorporate itself with the moist bark. Lic they were of a reddish cast. Syriis pyris. ber is the inward part of the bark of the These were so called, becaŭse they were tree; Cortex, the whole bark, or rind. brought from Syria. They were also called