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Vox quoque per lucos vulgò exaudita silentes
Ingens; et simulacra modis pallentia miris
Visa sub obscurum noctis: pecudesque locutæ,
Infandum! sistunt amnes, terræque dehiscunt :
Et mæstum illacrymat templis ebur, æraque sudant.
Proluit insano contorquens vortice sylvas

481 481. Eridanus proluit Fluviorum rex Eridanus, camposque per omnes

sylvas, contorquens eas Cum stabulis armenta tulit: nec tempore eodem

insano. Tristibus aut extis fibræ apparere minaces,

484. Fibræ nec cessaAut puteis manare cruor cessavit; et altè

485 verunt aut apparere mi

naces in tristibus extis; Per noctem resonare, lupis ululantibus, urbes.

aut cruor cessavit maNon aliàs cælo ceciderunt plura sereno

nare è puteis; et urbes Fulgura, nec airi toties arsere cometæ.

non cessaverunt resonare Ergò inter sese paribus concurrere telis

altè per noctem, lupis Romanas acies iterum vidêre Philippi ;

496 ululantibus. Nec fuit indignum Superis, bis sanguine nostro

491. Nec visum fuit Emathiam et latos Hæmi pinguescere campos.

NOTES. poets, was their king. Diodorus informs us battles, one fought between Cæsar and Pomthat the Cyclops were the first inhabitants pey; the other, between Brutus and Casof Sicily, of a gigantic stature, and of a sius on one side, and Augustus and Anthofierce and savage nature. They dwelt ny on the other. But history informs us chiefly about mount Ætna.

that the former was fought on the plains of 477. Simulacra: spectres, or ghosts, pale Pharsalia, in Thessaly, the latter at Philipin a wonderful manner, were seen, &c. pi, in the confines of Thrace, more than two

478. Obscurum: an adj. of the neu. taken hundred miles distant. To explain this apas a sub. in the sense of obscuritatem. Ru- parent inconsistency, there have been many æus interprets it by crepusculum.

attempts. The most probable solution is, 480. Mæstum ebur : the mournful ivory that the poet does not mean that both these (ivory statues) wept. Æra: brass-statues battles were fought on the same spot. This made of brass.

would contradict history. He would not 481. Insano vortice: with its rapid current commit such a blunder. We are told that -eddies.

the city Thebe Thessalicre, or Phthoticæ, 482. Eridanus : the river Po. It is here which was in sight of Pharsalia, was called called the king of rivers, because the largest also Philippi. And though historians, for in Italy. It rises in Piedmont, and running sake of distinction, called the one Philippi, an easterly course, after receiving a number and the other Pkarsalia, the poet might, of tributary streams, falls into the Gulf without any impropriety, call them both by of Venice by several mouths.

the common name of Philippi. Ruæus 483. Tristibus extis. One mode of con- has one conjecture which may be deserving sulting the omens, was an examination of of notice: that the adverb iterùm may rethe entrails of the victim. If any defect or fer, not to Philippi, but to the Roman arsingularity appeared, it was thought to be mes : Philippi saw the Roman armies portentous. Tristibus : ominous-baleful. again engage for the empire of the world,

485. Altè. Heyne reads altæ, agreeing though not for the first time. They had with urbes.

engaged for a similar purpose before on the 488. Cometæ. Plutarch informs us that a plains of Pharsalia. This appears to solve very bright comet appeared at Rome for the difficulty. several days about the time of Cæsar's 492. Emathiam-Latos campos Hæmi. death. To this the poet refers in Ecl. ix. 47. Here is an apparent difficulty. Hæmus is Suetonius says: Ludis, quos primo conse- a mountain in Thrace; and neither of the cratos ei hæres Augustus edebat, stella crinita battles was fought in Emathia or Macedoper septem dies continuos fulsit, exoriens circa nia, properly so called. But the language undecimam horam: creditumque est animum of poetry does not always conform to hisesse Cæsaris in cælum recepti.

torical or geographical exactness. We are 489. Ergò : therefore-on account of the told that the ancient Emathia was consideath of Cæsar, which was the cause of the dered by the poets to extend as far east as civil war.

the river Nessus, including a considerabio 490. Philippi iterum: Philippi hath seen part of Thrace beyond Philippi; and to the Roman armies again, &c. It is agreed the south comprehending all Thessaly, and that Virgil here alludes to the two famous consequently Pharsalia, or the Pharsalian

Scilicet et tempus veniet, cùm finibus illis
Agricola, incurvo terram molitus aratro,
Exesa inveniet scabrâ rubigine pila :

Aut gravibus rastris galeas pulsabit inanes,
Grandiaque effossis mirabitur ossa sepulchris.

Dii patrii Indigetes, et Romule, Vestaque mater,
Quæ Tuscum Tiberim et Romana palatia servas,
Hunc saltem everso juvenem succurrere sæclo 500
Ne prohibete: satis jampridem sanguine nostro
Laomedonteæ luimus perjuria Troja.
Jampridem nobis cæli te regia, Cæsar,

Invidet, atque hominum queritur curare triumphos. 505. Sunt tot bella

Quippe ubi fas versum atque nefas, tot bella per orbem,

Tam multæ scelerum facies : non ullus aratro 506 507. Colonis abductis Dignus honos; squalent abductis arva colonis, ad malitiam

Et curvæ rigidum falces conflantur in ensem.


Philippi. Taken in this extent, the poet cause they had been men, and dwelt on the would be consistent. Emathia could be earth: or because they were now dwelling wet twice with Roman blood. Again Hæ- among the gods. Others again, and perhaps mus is not so much a single mountain as a with more propriety, derive it from Indegere; range of mountains, branching out in va- because being translated to heaven, they rious directions, and in various parts assu- stood in need of nothing. Mater Vesta. ming different naines. Casting our eye on There were two by the name of Vesta, one a map of that country, we find the range the mother of Saturn, the other his daughcommencing at the Euxine sea, and taking ter; but commonly confounded together. a south-westerly direction till it enters Ma- The latter presided over the perpetual fire. cedonia, then turning northerly till it reaches It is said that Æneas brought her along with the 430 of N. lat. when it takes a southern his household gods into Italy, and introdudirection, passing into Thessaly; and con- ced her worship. Her mysteries were transsequently its extensive plains might be mitted to the Albans, and from them introfattened by the blood, shed in both those duced among the Romans by Numa. He battles.

instituted a college of virgins, who kept 494. Molitus: in the sense of vertens. alive the perpetual fire as the safety, or Scabra: in the sense of corrosa.

pallu lium of the state. 498. Dii patrii, Indigetes. The Romans 500. Hunc Juvenem: meaning Octavius, divided their deities into three classes. The afterward called Augustus Cæsar. Everso first embraced the supreme or select gods, sæclo: the ruined or falling age. who were honored with the highest ado- 502. Satìs luimus jampridem: we have ration, and considered eminent above the long ago atoned sufficiently for the perjury rest. Of these, twelve were called Consentes, of Trojan Laomedon, with our blood. Labecause on particular occasions they were omedon was the father of Priam, and king admitted to the council of Jupiter. Six of of Troy. During his reign, the poets tell these were male and six female: Jupiter, us, the walls o: Troy were built by Neptune Apollo, Mercury, Mars, Neptune, and Vul- and Apollo, for a certain price; but when can : Juno, Diana, Minerva, Venus, Vesta, the work was done, he refused to pay them. and Ceres. These were sometimes called On which account, they became hostile to Dii Majores. The second class compre- the Trojans, and exerted all their power hended those of inferior power, and was against them in the war with the Greeks. very numerous. It embraced all the deified The Romans, pretending to descend from heroes, such as Romulus, Hercules, Perseus, them, the poet supposes were punished for &c. and all that in any manner had ob- this injustice of their ancestor. tained divine honors. These were some- perhaps, may be explained by supposing times called the Dii Minores. The third class Laomedon to have employed the money, was without number. It embraced all the which had been designed for religious pursylvan deities: all the nymphs; the penates; poses, to this use. the genii; the virtutes, &c. Indigetes: pro

505. Ubi: where-(that is,) here among perly deified heroes. Some derive the word Fas atque nefas versum: right and from Indigetare, to call by name; because wrong are confounded. was custoinary to address them by their 507. Squalent: lie neglected-are over

Others derive it from degere, be grown with weeds.


The story,



Hinc movet Euphrates, illinc Germania bellum:
Vicinæ ruptis inter se legibus urbes
Arma ferunt: sævit toto Mars impius orbe.
Ut, cùm carceribus sese effudêre quadrigæ,
Addunt se in spatia : et frustrà retinacula tendens,
Fertur equis auriga, neque audit currus habenas.


509. Euphrates. A noble river of Asia, ed together; also, a chariot drawn by four rising in the mountains of Armenia, fertili- horses, by meton. Of Quatuor and ago, bezing Mesopotamia, as the Nile does Egypt, cause four were driven together : or conand uniting with the Tigris in its course, tracted of Quadrijugus, four yoked together. falls into the Persian gulf. It is here put, Carceribus. Carcer was the mark, or starting by a figure of speech, for the nations of the place, in races. Spatia : the race ground, east, particularly the Parthians, who were or course. Efudēre. Ruæus says, erupevery troublesome to the Romans.


513. Addunt : in the sense of immittunt, 510. Legibus : in the sense of fæderibus.

says Heyne. Some copies leave out the se. 511. Impius: cruel-merciless; a suitable Others read in spatio. "Ruæus, in his interepithet of Mars.

pretation, omits the words addunt se, and 512. Ut, cum quadrigæ. This is a noble connects in spatia with the preceding verb. simile. The uncontrolled licentiousness of They are not necessary to make the sense the age is likened to the rapidity and vio- complete. lence of ungovernable horses in the chariot 514. Currus: a chariot : by meton. the race,

when they mock both the driver and horses in the chariot. Neque audit habethe reins. Quadrigæ : four horses harness- nas: nor do they regard, or obey the reins.


How does this book open?

What precepts does the poet give about What does the poet proceed to do? ploughing land ? What does he do in the next place? What does he give about planting, and

To whom does he ascribe the origin of changing crops ? agriculture ?

Who was Jupiter? What signs or prognostics of the weather To whom was his education intrusted ? does he mention ?

Where was he educated ? How does he conclude the book ?

What are some of his names ? Are there any fables introduced by way of Who were the Giants ? and what is said episode? What are they?

of them? Why are Bacchus and Ceres invoked next What are the Pleïades ? after the heavenly bodies?

What other names have they? Who was Neptune? and what is said of What are the Hyades ? him?

What are their names? Who is said to have been the first who Who was Aurora ? taught mankind the propagation of bees? What is said of her? Who was Aristaus?

What were the Furies? Who was Minerva ? and what is said of What were their names? her?

What was their office ? What power did she possess ?

Who was Vulcan? What is said of him! How is she represented under her different What were some of his names ? characters ?

What is the word Vulcanus often used for? What celebrated statue had she?

By what figure is it so used ? What are some of her names ?

Who were the Cyclops ? Who is said to have first taught the Where does the poet represent them as Greeks agriculture ?

residing ? What is probably meant by Ultima Thule ? Why are they called Cyclops.?

Was the Ecliptic at first divided into 12 Who was Mercury ? signs ? How was it divided?

What is said of him? Where were the Olympic games celebra- What was his office ? ted? In what year before Christ were they How is he represented ? instituted:

Of what was he the inventor? How often were they celebrated ? and in What were some of his namos ? honor cf what god ?

Who was Glaucus? What is said of him

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The subject of this book is the cultivation of the several kinds of trees. The poet de

scribes with much judgment the soils proper for each: and after giving a variety of excellent precepts for the management of the vine, the olive, &c. he digresses into the praises of Italy; and concludes with a panegyric upon a country life.

1. Hactenus cecini HACTENUS arvorum cultus, et sidera cæli: cultus

Nunc te, Bacche, canam, necnon sylvestria tecum
Virgulta, et prolem tardè crescentis olivæ.
Huc, pater ô Lenæe : tuis hìc omnia plena
Muneribus ; tibi pampineo gravidus autumno

5 Floret ager, spumat plenis vindemia labris.

Huc, pater ô Lenæe, veni: nudataque musto 8. Tingeque mecum Tinge novo mecum direptis crura cothurnis. nudata crura novo mus

Principio arboribus varia est natura creandis. to, cothurnis direptis. Namque aliæ, nullis hominum cogentibus, ipsæ

10 Sponte suâ veniunt, camposque et Humina latè Curva tenent : ut molle siler, lentæque genistæ,

Populus, et glaucâ canentia fronde salicta. 15. Æsculusque maxima nemorum, quæ fron

Pars autem posito surgunt de semine: ut altæ det Jovi, atque quercus,

Castaneæ, nemorumque Jovi quæ maxima frondet 15 quæ habitæ sunt

Æsculus, atque habitæ Graiis oracula quercus.


2. Necnon : also. Two negatives have said to ripen. Pampineo autumno : the pro the force of an affirmative in Latin and duce of the vine-grapes. English.

9. Cothurnis. The cothurnus was a kind 3. Virgulta : shrubs, or underbrush; of high-heeled shoe, worn by Bacchus. Rehere put for trees in general. Tardè cre

ference is here made to the custom of tread. scentis olive. The olive is of a very slow ing out the grapes with their feet. The cogrowth. Some say it is a hundred years in thurnus was used by tragedians to make growing.

them appear taller; hence put for tragedy 4. Lenæe: Lenæus, a name of Bacchus, in the sense of ratio, vel modus.

itself-also for the tragic style. Natura : from a Greek word signifying a vine-press. Adsis, is to be supplied, or some word of the niste: the broom. Populus: the poplar

12. Siler: an osier, or small withy. Gesame import.

tree, of which there are three kinds. 5. Ager gravidus : the field heavy with 13. Salicta : willow-grounds ; by meton. the produce of the vine. Autumno: the the willows. season for gathering grapes and other pro- 16. Æscu!us: a species of oak, sacred to ductions of the earth, put, by meton. for Jupiter. The Æsculus was a mast-tree, and the grapes themselves. Floret: in the sense abounded in Dodona, in Epirus, where there of maturescit. The fields do not bloom in were oaks said to have given out oracles; autumn, but with propriety they may be to which here is an allusion.

Tasaring up,
Pullulat ab radice aliis densissimą sylva': Suberso
Ut cerasis, ulmisque : etiam Parnassia laurus
Parva sub ingenti matris se subjicit umbrâ.
Hos natura modos primùm dedit : his genus omne · 20 20. Natura primùm
Sylvarum, fruticumque viret, nemorumque sacrorum.

dedit hos tres modos pro

ducendi arbores: in his Sunt alii, quos ipse viâ sibi repperit usus.

Hic plantas tenero abscindens de corpore matrum
Deposuit sulcis : hic stirpes obruit arvo,
Quadrifidasque sudes, et scuto robore vallos : 25
Sylvarumque aliæ pressos propaginis arcus
Expectant, et viva suâ plantaria terrâ.

Nil radicis egent aliæ: summumque putator
Haud dubitat terræ referens mandare cacumen.
Quin et caudicibus sectis, mirabile dictu,

Truditur è sicco radix oleagina ligno.
Et sæpe alterius ramos impunè videmus
Vertere in alterius, mutatamque insita mala
Ferre pyrum, et prunis lapidosa rubescere, corna.
Quare agite, ô, proprios generatim discite cultus, 35
Agricolæ, fructusque feros mollite colendo.
Neu segnes jaceant terræ: juvat Ismara Baccho
Conserere, atque oleâ magnum vestire Taburnum.

NOTES. 17. Sylva : here means the suckers, that took root, firm enough to support itself'; ana shoot up under, and near the trunk of the was then severed from it. This was about parent tree.

the third year. Arcus: the arches, or cur18. Cerasis : to the cherry-trees. Laurus. ved figures of the layers, or branches so bent This tree is called Parnassian, because it down. abounded on mount Parnassus. It was sa- 27. Viva plantaria : living shoots to be cred to Apollo.

put in their own earth—not cut off as in 19. Subjicit se : shoots itself up.

other cases, but suffered to grow to the pa21. Sylvarum fruticumque: trees and rent tree for a time. Defodi, or a word of shrubs.

the like import, is understood. 22. Viâ: by practice, or experience. 29. Referens mandare: to commit the topSunt aliż: there are other methods of pro- most shoot to the earth whence it sprang. ducing trees, which, &c. The poet proceeds Summum cacumen : the highest shoot, or to enumerate the methods of raising the se- branch. Referens mandare, simply for manveral kinds of trees, which he reduces to dare, says Heyne.

1. By planting the shoot or scion. 30. Caudicibus : Caudex, is properly the 2. By burying the stump or stock in the body of the tree distinguished from the root, earth. 3. By burying the stake or trunk as truncus is the body distinguished from sphit at the bottom. 4. By the layer. 5. the top or head. By planting in the earth a bough or twig 32. Impunè : without injury. Alterius : taken from the top of the tree, 6. By in the sense of unius. Arboris is underplanting the trunk or stalk of the tree, de- stood. prived of its root and branches. This suc- 33. Vertere : for verti, the active for the ceeds very well with the olive-tree, 7. By passive, by enallage: or, vertere se in ramos grasting or transfetring a branch or scion of alterius arboris. one tree into another.

34. Corna lapidosa : the corneil trees, 23. Plantas: the shoots or scions from which naturally produce a stony hard fruit, the body of the mother tree.

by being grafted, will produce the plum24. Obruit stirpes : another buries the will redden with plums. stocks in the ground, and stakes split in four 37. Neu segnes terræ jaceant. Dr. Trapp parts at the lower end, and poles, the wood renders these words : let not your lands lie being sharpened into a point.

idle. Ne terræ sint inutiles, says Rueus. 26. Alic sylvarum : other trees of the But the connexion is better preserved by wood-simply, other trees. Ruæus says, rendering it: let not your barren lands lie aliæ arbores. Propaginis. The propago was neglected or unimproved. Ismara : neu. the layer, or branch of the parent tree, bent plu. a mountain in Thrace. Tuburnus : a down and fastened in the ground, until it mountain in Campania, fertile in olives.


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