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345

350

355

Terque novas circùm felis eat hostia fruges,
346. Quam hosliam Omnis quam chorus et socii comitentur ovantes ;
onnis chorus, et tui socii Et Cererem clamore vocent in tecta: neque antè

Falcem maturis quisquam supponat aristis,
Quàm Cereri, tortâ redimitus tempora quercu,
Det motus incompositos, et carmina dicat.

Atque hæc ut certis possimus discere signis,
Ætusque, pluviasque, et agentes frigora ventos;
Ipse pater statuit, quid menstrua Luna moneret,
Quo signo caderent Austri, quid sæpe videntes
Agricolæ propiùs stabulis armenta tenerent.
Continuò, ventis surgentibus, aut freta ponti
Incipiunt agitata tumescere, et aridus altis
Montibus audiri fragor ; aut resonantia longè
Litora misceri, et nemorum increbrescere murmur.
Jam sibi tum curvis malè temperat unda carinis :
Cùm medio celeres revolant ex æquore mergi,

Clamoremque ferunt ad litora, cùmque marinæ 363. Sicco litore In sicco ludunt fulicæ; notasque paludes,

364. Ardeaquc deserit Deserit, atque altam supra volat ardea nubem. notas paludes, atquo vó- Sæpe etiam stellas, vento impendente, videbis lat supra altam nubem. Præcipites cælo labi ; noctisque per umbram

Flammarum longos à tergo albescere tractus ;
Sæpe levem paleam et frondes, volitare caducas ,
Aut summâ nantes in aquâ colludere plumas.
At Boreæ de parte trucis cùm fulminat, et cùm
Eurique Zephyrique tonat domus ; omnia plenis
Rura natant fossis ; atque omnis navita ponto

360

365

370

NOTES.

345. Felix hostia. The poet here alludes 360. Jam tum unda malè temperat: then to the sacrificium ambervale, so called, be- the waves scarcely restrain themselves from cause the victim was led three times around (swallowing up) the bending ships. Malè : the field; ab ambire arva.

in the sense of difficilè. 346. Omnis chorus et socii: the same as 361. Mergi: a species of sea-fowl, geomnis chorus sociorum.

nerally taken to be the cormorant: from the 349. Redimitus tempora: bound as to his verb mergo. temples with a wreath of oak. The poet 363. Fulicæ : a species of sea-fowl much enjoins upon the farmer to make two offer- like the common duck; a coot, or moor-hen. ings to Ceres: the first of honey and wine, 364. Ardea: a bird, swift on the wing, at the beginning of spring: dilue favos, &c. and soaring high. From which circumThe other of a victim at the beginning of stance called ardea, quasi pro ardua • a heron, harvest: ter felix hostia, &c.

365. Sæpe videbis stellas: you will also 350. Incompositos motus: the irregular or often see stars, &c. The poet speaks in immethodical dance; such as is performed conformity to the vulgar notion. No star by rustics. Cereri: nempe, in honorem Ce- moves from its station. Those appearances reris.

to which the poet alludes are of an electric 351. Hæc: nempe, æstusque, pluviasque. nature-meteors. They are sometimes seen 353. Moneret : in the sense of indicaret. to dart across the heavens, and through the

354. Signo: in the sense of indicio. darkness of the night, appear to draw after Quod indicium esset venti mox cessuri, says them a train (tractus) of light or flame. Heyne. Austri: here put for any boister- Impendente: threatening-being near ous wind: the species for the genus.

hand. 356. Freta ponti: simply, for pontus, vel 371. Domus Eurique, &c. That part of mare. Fretuin, properly a strait, or narrow the heavens from which these winds blow, part of the sea.

the poet calls their house or habitation. 358. Aridus fragor: a dry cracking The expression is highly poetical. Here sound, such as is made among dry trees the poet mentions twelve signs or prognostics when they break.

of rain.

at

Humida vela legit. Nunquam imprudentibus imber
Obfuit. Aut illum surgentem vallibus imis
Aëriæ fugêre grues; aut bucula cælum

375 Suspiciens, patulis captavit naribus auras .

376. Suspiciens ad

lum
Aut arguta lacus circumvolita vit hirundo:
Et veterem in limo ranæ cecinêre querelam.
Sæpius et tectis penetralibus extulit ova
Angustum formica terens iter; et bibit ingens 380
Arcus ; et è pastu decedens agmine magno
Corvorum increpuit densis exercitus alis.
Jam varias pelagi volucres, et quæ Asia circùm

383. Jam videas vaDulcibus in stagnis rimantur prata Caystri,

rias volucres pelagi, et Certatim largos humeris infundere rores ;

385 eas, quæriniantur circum

Asia prata in dulcibus Nunc caput objectare fretis, nunc currere in undas,

stagnis Caystri, certatim Et studio incassùm videas gestire lavandi.

infundere largos rores Tum cornix plenâ pluviam vocat improba voce,

humeris Et sola in siccâ secum spatiatu arenâ. Nec nocturna quidem carpentes pensa puellæ

390 Nescivere hyemem : testâ cùm ardente viderent Scintillare oleum, et putres concrescere fungos.

393. Nec minùs ex Nec minùs ex imbri soles, et aperta serena

imbri poteris prospicere, Prospicere, et certis poteris cognoscere signis.

et, certis signis, cognosNam neque tum stellis acies obtusa videtur, 395 cere sudos soles, et aperta Nec fratris radiis obnoxia surgere

Luna :

et serena cæla.

NOTES.

373. Imprudentibus, &c. Never hath a 385. Infundere largos: to throw eagerly shower hurt any person unforwarned: that much water upon their backs. Rores : in is, a shower always gives such certain signs the sense of aquam. of its approach, that any who will attend 387. Studio lavandi : through a desire of to thein, may avoid receiving injury from washing themselves in vain. Incassùm may it. Heyne informs us, that the Medicean, be understood in three senses. 1. Because and some other copies, read prudentibus; he, nothing can add to the whiteness of the however, prefers the usual reading, impru- swan, the fowl here spoken of. 2. Because dentibus. Prudentibus is the easier. they need take no pains to wash themselves,

374. Illum surgentem, &c. This sentence for the impending rain will do it without is capable of two constructions: 1. The their labor. 3. Because, according to Sercranes may flee the shower, rising out of the vius, water will not wet their feathers. valleys; which is the sense Ruæus gives. 2. 390. Carpentes : carding their nightly Davidson takes it to mean that the cranes tasks of wool. flee into the valleys, to avoid the rising 392. Fungos: the clots or spungy substorm. This is also the opinion of Valpy. stance that gathers round the wick of the

378. Et ranæ cecinere, &c. This alludes lamp or candle. Scintillare : to sputter or to the fable of the transformation of the snap in the burning shell. Lycians into frogs for reproaching Latona, 393. Nec minùs. Having mentioned the of which hard treatment, when they croak, signs of a storm, the poet now enumerates they are said to complain. See Ovid. Met. those of fair weather. He makes them in Lib. 6.

number nine. Ex imbri : after a shower.. 380. Ingens arcus : the spacious bow hath Soles : days. drunk; alluding to a vulgar notion that the 395. Acies stellis : Ruæus says, lux stellarainbow drank the water that supplied the rum. Videtur: in the sense of apparet. clouds.

396. Luna surgere obnoxia : nor will the 383. Asia : an adj. from Asius, a lake and moon seem to rise beholden (or indebted) to town between the river Caystrus and the the beams of her brother. The moon will mountain Tmolus, in the confines of Lydia rise so clear and bright, that she will scem and Phrygia Major. Caystrus falls into the to shine by her own inherent light, and not Ægean sea, not far from the onco famous by reflecting the rays of the sun. Sol and city of Ephesus. On its banks the swan Luna in heaven, the same as Apollo and abounded. Rimantur: in the sense of fre- Diana on earth, were said to have been the grueniant.

children of Latona. See Ecl. iv. 10.

Tenuia nec lanæ per cælum vellera ferri.
Non tepidum ad solem pennas in litore pandunt
Dilectæ Thetidi Halcyones: non ore solutos
Immundi meminere sues jactare maniplos.

400 401. Ima loca At nebulæ magis ima petunt, campoque recumbunt;

Solis et occasum servans de culmine summo
Nequicquam seros exercet noctua cantus.
Apparet liquido sublimis in aëre Nisus,
Et pro purpureo panas dat Scylla capillo.

405
Quâcunque illa levem fugiens secat æthera pennis,
Ecce inimicus, atrox, magno stridore per auras,
Insequitur Nisus: quà se fert Nisus ad auras,

Illa levem fugiens raptim secat æthera pennis. 410. Tum corvi ter Tum liquidas corvi presso ter gutture voces

410 aut quater ingeminant Aut quater ingeminant: (et sæpe cubilibus altis, liquidas 412. Læti, nescio quâ

Nescio quâ præter solitum dulcedine läti, dulcedine, præter soli- Inter se foliis strepitant juvat imbribus actis (luin morem strepitant Progeniem parvam, dulcesque revisere nidos. 415. Haud equidem Haud equidem credo, quia sit divinitùs illis

415 credo hoc fieri ita, quia Ingenium, aut rerum fato prudentia major :

Verùm, ubi tempestas et cæli mobilis humor 419. Densat ea, quæ Mutavere vias : et Jupiter humidus Austris modò erant rara, et relcxat ea, quæ priùs erant

Densat, erant quæ rara modò; et, quæ densa, relaxat. densa

Vertuntur species animorum, et pectora motus 420 421. Concipiunt nunc Nunc alios, alios, dum nubila ventus agebat,

NOTES.

397. Tenuia vellera : thin white clouds, for the purple lock. Daremreddere-pendere like fleeces of wool.

-solvere pænas, vel supplicium, to be punish399. Halcyones. Ceyx, king of Trachi- ed. These are phrases. In like manner": nia, going to consult the oracle of Apollo at afficere pænå vel supplicio-cupere--sumere Clarus, was shipwrecked in the Ægean sea. -petere pænas, vel supplicium, to punish. His wife, Halcyone, seeing his dead body 410. Presso guttere: with their throats floating near the shore, flung herself upon compressed. This would render the sounds it in a transport of her passion. Thetis, more clear and shrill. out of compassion to the lovers, transform 416. Ingenium : discernment, or mental ed them into the birds called king-fishers: capacity. Major prudentia fato, &c. A hence dileclue Thetidi. It is said the sea is greater knowledge or foresight in the course calm a certain number of days about the and order of things, than men have. This winter solstice, that they may more conve- passage, as it is commonly rendered, is niently bring forth their young. Hence unintelligible. To take fato in the ablative, those days were sometimes called Halcyon governed by major, Dr. Trapp observes, is days.

complete nonsense; and yet this is the opi. 400. Maniplos: bundles of straw_straw nion of Heyne, and Valpy who follows him: in general.

and it is very little better to take it for the 403. Noctua servans: the owl observing agent or means by which this greater the setting of the sun, &c. The meaning knowledge was obtained. It is perfectly of the expression seems to be this: that easy as rendered above. Ruæus says: reas the hooting of the owl in general is a rum prudentia, quæ potentior est fato; which sign of foul weather, yet when these signs is with difficulty understood. of fair weather occur, she hoots in vain; 417. Mobilis humor: the moving vapor of she will be disregardud; or, if any regard heaven. Vias is here used in the sense of her prognostics, they will find themselves modus, or qualitates. Tempestas: the weadisappointed. The owl is the only bird ther-temperature of the weather. that sings exclusively in the night; hence, 418. Jupiter humidus: the air moistened seros cantus exercet.

by the south winds. Jupiter is here put 404. Nisus: the falcon, or hawk. Scylla: poetically for the air; which passing over

“k. See Ecl. vi. 74; also nom. prop. the sea that lay to the south of Italy, bem Visus.

came moist, or impregnated with vapor. Scylla dat prenas. Seylla is punished 420. Motus: motions affections.

Concipiunt: hinc ille avium concentus in agris,

alios motus, et nunc alios,

dum Et lætæ pecudes, et ovantes gutture corvi.

422. Hinc oritur ille Si verò Solem ad rapidum Lunasque sequentes

concentus avium inagris, Ordine respicies; nunquam te crastina fallet 425

et hinc pecudes sunt Hora, neque insidiis noctis capiere serenæ. Luna, revertentes cùm primùm colligit ignes, Si nigrum obscuro comprenderit aëra cornu ; Maximus agricolis pelagoque parabitur imber. At, si virgineum suffuderit ore ruborem,

430 Ventus erit : vento semper rubet aurea Phoebe. Sin ortu in quarto (namque is certissimus auctor)

432. Sin illa fuerit puPura, neque

obtusis

per
cælum cornibus ibit;

ra in quarto ortu, neque Totus et ille dies, et qui nascentur ab illo

ibit per cælum Exactum ad mensem, pluviâ ventisque carebunt :

435 Votaque servati solvent in litore nautæ

436. Servati à tempesGlauco, et Panopeæ, et Inoo Melicertæ.

tate Sol quoque, et exoriens, et cùm se condit in undas, Signa dabit: Solem certissima signa sequuntur, Et quæ manè refert, et quæ surgentibus astris. 440 440. Et quæ refert Ille ubi nascentem maculis variaverit ortum,

manè, et quæ refert Conditus in nubem medioque refugerit orbe; Suspecti tibi sint imbres : namque urget ab alto

NOTES. 425. Crastina hora : simply, to-morrow. Melicerte. Melicertes was sumetimes called

427. Colligit revertentes ignes: when first Palæmon. Sce Æn. v. 823. the moon collects the reflected, or returning 440. Astris surgentibus. When the stars rays, (ignes ;) if she embrace, &c. The poet appear in the evening at the approach of here mentions three prognostics of the darkness, in the language of poetry, they weather from the moon. 1. If the new are said to rise : so when they disappear at moon be obscured by dusky air, (nigrum the approach of day, they are said to set. aëra,) look for rain. 2. If she be red, look 442. Medio refugerit orbe. Most commenfor wind. 3. If, on the fourth day, she be tators take orbis here for the face or disc of bright, expect the remainder of the month the sun; and understand by the words meto be fair weather; whence the common dio refugerit orbe, when he shall disappear saying: pallida Luna pluit; rubicunda flat; with half his orb or disc, the other half realla serenat.

maining visible. Ruæus says : latuerit me432. Auctor: sign-prognostic.

diâ sui parte. Valpy says, “When the ri437. Glauco. Glaucus was a fisherman sing sun appears bordered by clouds, the of Anthedon, in Beotia, by some said to centre alone remaining visible.” Davidson have been the son of Neptune and the nymph translates the whole passage thus: “ When Nais. As he was fishing, he observed the he (the sun) shall chequer his new-born face fish that he caught, as he laid them on the with spots, hidden in a cloud, and coyly grass, to receive fresh vigor, and immedi- shun the sight with half his orb.” Servius ately to escape from him by leaping into seems to understand the words to imply that the sea.

From this circumstance, he ima- the centre of the sun retired, as it were, gined there must be some extraordinary from view, by appearing hollow like the cavirtue in the grass; whereupon he tasted it, vity of the hand, while the edge was consand found himself suddenly moved with a cealed in a cloud. I know not that philodesire to live in the watry element; and sophers have noticed any such appearances leaping into the sea, he was made a sea-god of the sun; I am sure they must be very by Oceanus and Tethys. Panopeæ: a nymph rare. Besides, this half concealment of the of the sea, the daughter of Nereus and Do sun does not come up to the obvious meanris. Melicertæ. Melicerta, or Melicertes, ing of conditus in nubem, which certainly was the son of Ino, the daughter of Cad means that he was wholly concealed from mus, and wife of Athamas, king of Thebes; sight. By taking medio orbe, for, in the midwho fleeing from her husband, who had dle of his course, or diurnal revolution, which slain her son Learchus, leaped into the sea may very well be done, the passage will be with Melicerta in her arms, both of whom rendered intelligible and easy. Thus: when were changed into sea-gods, and worship- the sun, in his ascent above the horizon, ped. Inoo : an adj. from Ino, agreeing with shall have passed behind fleecy clouds, and

Aboribusque satisque Notus, pecorique sinister.
Aut ubi sub lucem densa inter nubila sese

445
Diversi erumpent radii, aut ubi pallida surget
Tithoni croceum linquens Aurora cubile ;
Heu, malè tum mites defendet pampinus uvas,

Tam multa in tectis crepitans salit horrida grando. 450. Magis profuerit Hoc, etiam emenso cùm jam decedet Olympo, 450 meminisse hoc, etiam Profuerit meminisse magis : nam sæpe videmus cùm jam sol decedet, Ipsius in vultu varios errare colores. Olympo emenso: 453. Ceruleus sol

Cæruleus pluviam denunciat, igneus Euros
Sin maculæ incipient rutilo immiscerier igni ;
Omnia tunc pariter vento

nimbisque videbis 450 Fervere. Non illâ quisquam me nocte per altum

Ire, neque à terra moneat convellere funem. 458. At si orbis solis At si, cùm referetque diem, condetque relatum, erit lucidus, cum Lucidus orbis erit, frustrà terrebere nimbis; Et claro sylvas cernes Aquilone moveri.

460 461. Denique Sol da Denique, quid Vesper serus vehat, unde serenas bit signa tibi, quid serus Ventus agat nubes, quid cogitet humidus Auster, vesper

Sol tibi signa dabit: Solem quis dicere falsum
Audeat ? ille etiam cæcos instare tumultus
Sæpe monet, fraudemque, et operta tumescere bella. 465
Ille etiam extincto miseratus Cæsare Romam;
Cùm caput obscurâ nitidum ferrugine texit,
Impiaque æternam timuerunt sæcula noctem.
Tempore quanquam illo tellus quoque, et æquora ponti,
Obscænique canes, importunæque volucres, 470
Signa dabant. Quoties Cyclopum effervere in agros
Vidimus undantem ruptis fornacibus Ætnam,
Flammarumque globos, liquefacta que volvere saxa ?
Armorum sonitum toto Germania cælo®
Audiit; insolitis tremuerunt motibus Alpes.

475

460

NOTES.

be sometimes concealed by them from sight; 470. Obsceni canes: foul dogs--dogs of and when he shall have approached the me bad omen-howling frightfully. The anridian, and finished half his course, he shall cients considered any thing of this kind inbe wholly concealed from sight by the in- auspicious. Importunæ : inauspicious. Cujus creased and condensed vapor in the atmos cantus erat mali ominis. phere, then rain is to be expected. Imbres : 471. Quoties vidimus : how often have we in the sense of pluvia.

seen Ætna rising in waves, its furnaces being 444. Sinister : injurious—hurtful. burst, &c. Undantem, expresses very forcibly 452. In vultu : in the sense of per vultum. the violence and agitation of the flames

454. Immiscerier : by Paragoge, for im- pent up in the mountain, rising by turns Neisceri, to be mingled with sparkling light. against its sides, which, no longer able to Igni : lumine, says Rumus.

resist the shock, open a passage; when, in 456. Fervere. This verb forcibly ex an instant, it covers the adjacent country presses the violence of the storm. All things with lava. The Cyclops were the servants are confusion and wild disorder. Turbari, of Vulcan, and said to be the sons of Colus

and Terra. They were so called from their 462. Cogitet: in the sense of præparet. having but one eye, which was in the midSerenas : in the sense of siccas.

dle of their forehead. Their business was 467. Obscura ferrugine: with a dark red to assist Vulcan in forming the thunder-bolts color-a color resembling blood.

of Jupiter, and the arms of the gods, and 468. Sæcula. Sæculun is properly an celebrated heroes. Their forges were under age; by meton. the inhabitants or men of Ætna. The most noted of them were that age. Impra sæcula: the same as im. Brontes, Steropes, and Pyracmon. When Ti homines.

Ulysses visited Sicily, Polyphemus, say the

says Ruæus.

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