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Wec Pelusiacæ curam aspernabere lentis ;
Haud obscara cadens mittet tibi signa Bootes :
Incipe, et ad medias sementem extende pruinas.

Idcirco certis dimensum partibus orbem
Per duodena regit mundi Sol aureus astra.
Quinque tenent cælum zonæ : quarum una corusco
Seinper Sole rubens, et torrida semper ab igni :
Quam circùm extremæ dextrâ lævâque trahuntur,
Cæruleâ glacie concretæ atque imbribus atris.
Has inter mediamque, duæ mortalibus ægris
Munere concessæ Divûm, et via secta per ambas,
Obliquus quà se signorum verteret ordo.
Mundus ut ad Scythiam Riphæasque arduus arces
Consurgit ; premitur Libyæ devexus in Austros.
Hic vertex nobis semper sublimis; at illum
Sub pedibus Styx atra videt, Manesque profundi.
Maximus hìc flexu sinuoso elabitur anguis
Circùm, perque duas in morem fluminis Arctos :
Arctos, Oceani metuentes æquore tingi.

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NOTES.

Ut · as.

cheap, which is the meaning of vilis, in 235. Trahuntur: are extended-stretched this place.

out.
228. Lentis. The lens was a kind of pulse, 239. Obliquus ordo : the ecliptic. It is
shich abounded in Egypt, and particularly called obliquus, because it makes an angle

t Pelusium, a town situated near the east- with the equator. The quantity of the angle
ern mouth of the Nile. Hence the adj. Pe is 23° 28'.
lusiaca.

240. Scythiam: a vast country lying to229. Bootes cadens : the Bootes setting ward the arctic circle. See Ecl. i. 66. Ri. will give, &c. Bootes, a star in the constel- phæas arces: the Riphæan inountains. An lation of the same name, near the north extensive range stretching along the north pole. It sets acronically, or with the sun, of Europe, and covered with perpetualsnow. about the beginning of November; and cos

In austros : simply, to the south. mically, or at the time of his rising, about 242. Hic vertex. The poles are two innathe beginning of March. The former is ginary points in the heavens directly in a here meant. Mittet : in the sense of dabit. line with the axis of the earth. On the

232. Duodena astra. Astronomers divide equator these points are in the horizon. In the ecliptic, or the circle in which the sun all places on the north of the equator, the appears to move, into 12 equal parts, called north pole is visible; while the south pole signs, and each of these signs into 30 equal will be depressed below the horizon. Illum : parts called degrees. A space 8 degrees in the south pole. breadth on each side of this circle is called 244. Maximus angreis. The dragon, the zodiac, because it contains the 12 con- (Draco,) the keeper of the garden of the stellations, which take the naines of certain Hesperides, after he was killed by Hercuanimals: as Aries, Taurus, &c. It also con- les, was translated to heaven, and made a tains the orbits of the planets.

constellation near the north pole. With his 233. Quinque zone. Geographers divide tail he touches Ursa major, and with the the surface of the earth into five grand por- flexure of his body einbraces Ursa minor: tions caled zones : one of which they de- the greater and lesser bears : here called nominate the torrid or burning; two the Arctos. This will be seen by looking upon temperate; and two the frozen zones. The a celestial globe. torrid is that portion of the earth's surface 246. Arctos metuentes : fearing to be included between the tropics of Cancer and touched in the waters of the ocean. The Capricorn. In every part of which the sun elevation of the pole at any given place is is vertical twice in every year. The ancients always equal to the latitude of thai place. supposed it to be uninhabitable on accoun Consequently all those stars that are nearof its great heat. Those parts of the earth's er the pole than the distance any place is surface that lie between the two tropics and from the equator in degrees, will not set bepolar circles, are denominated the tempe- low the horizon at that place, but continue

The two frozen zones embrace to revolve about the pole. This is the ca' those parts between the polar circles and the with the two constellations here ment poles

in the latitude of Italy.

rate zones.

247. Illic, (ad austra- Illic, ut perhibent, aut intempesta silet nox
lem polum) ut perhibent Semper, et obtentâ densantur nocte tenebræ :
homines, aut

Aut redit à nobis Aurora, diemque reducit ;
Nosque ubi primus equis oriens afflavit anhelis, 250
Illic sera rubens accendit lumina Vesper.
Hinc tempestates dubio prædicere cælo
Possumus ; hinc messisque diem, tempusque serendi ,
Et quando infidum remis impellere marmor
Conveniat ; quando armatas deducere classes, 255
Aut tempestivam sylvis evertere pinum.

Nec frustrà signorum obitus speculamur et ortus,

Temporibusque parem diversis quatuor annum. 259. Si quando frigi- Frigidus agricolam si quando continet imber: dus imber continet agri- Multa, forent quæ mox cælo properanda sereno,

260 colam domi, tunc tempus Maturare datur: durum procudit arator datur maturare multa, quæ mox forent prope

Vomeris obtusi dentem ; cavat arbore lintres : randa, cælo sereno: Aut pecori signum, aut numeros impressit acervis.

Exacuunt alii vallos, furcasque bicornes,
Atque Amerina parant lentæ retinacula viti. 265
Nunc facilis rubeâ texatur fiscina virgâ :
Nunc torrete igni fruges, nunc frangite saxo.
Quippe etiam festis quædam exercere diebus
Fas et jura sinunt : rivos deducere nulla
Religio vetuit, segeti prætendere sepem,

270
Insidias avibus moliri, incendere vepres,
Balantûmque gregem fluvio mersare salubri.

NOTES.

248. Densantur : is thickened—rendered dug out of the solid body of trees-troughs still more dark, night being extended, or-bowls,&c. lengthened out. At the poles there are six 263. Signum : in the sense of notas. Acer. months day, and six months night, alter- vis. Acervus is a heap or pile of any thing nately,

-a heap of grain. Here, probably, it is 249. Aurora : Aurora returns to them, taken for the sacks or bags that contained from us. She was goddess of the morning, the grain. the daughter of Titan and Terra. She fell 265. Amerina retinacula : osier strings, in love with Tithonus, the son of Laome- to fasten the limber vine. Amerina : an don, king of Troy, by whom she had Mem- adj. from Ameria, a town in Umbria, a non, who came to assist Priam against the spacious country in Italy, where osiers Greeks, and was slain by Achilles. She abounded. oblained for her lover immortality; but for- 266. Rubea virgâ: with the osier or wickgot, at the same time, to ask for perpetual er twig. Rubea : an adj. probably from youth and beauty. At last he grew old Rubi, a town of Campania, near which the and infirm; and requested her to reinove virga, or wicker abounded. Dr. Trapp unhim from the world; but as that could not derstands it in this sense, and as a reason be done, she is said to have changed him for so doing, he observes that rubeus, from into a grasshopper: which, as often as it rubus, the bramble, is no where found. grows old, renews its age. By meton. ele- Heyne is of the same opinion. gantly put for the morning.

267. Torrete : dry. Fruges: grain-corn. 250. Oriens: in the sense of Sol.

269. Fas et Jura sinunt exercere, &c. 255. Deducere: to launch the armed fleets. There is a difference of signification between Marmor : in the sense of mare.

fas and jus. "The former implies a divine 256. Tempestivam: seasonable-denoting law, or what may be done, or is permitted the time proper for cutting the pine. Ever- to be done, by the laws of God. The lattere: in the sense of cædere.

ter a natural right—or a law founded in 261. Maturare: to do in season-or, at reason-common law. Deducere rivos : to leisure.

drain the water from his fields. 262. Dentem : the edge of his dull or 272. Balanlûm: gen. plu. of the pres. part. lunt share. Lintres. Those were vessels of balo, here used as a substantive--sheep.

Sæpe oleo tardi costas agitator aselli,
Vilibus aut onerat pomis: lapidemque revertens

274. Revertens domum Incusum, aut atræ massam picis, urbe reportat. 275 ex urbe, reportat Ipsa dies alios alio dedit ordine Luna

277. Pallidus Orcus Felices operum. Quintam fuge: pallidus Orcus,

satus est, Eumenidesque Eumenidesque satæ : tum partu Terra nefando

satæ sunt, illo die.
Cæumque, Iapetumque creat, sævumque Typhea,
Et conjuratos cælum rescindere fratres.

280
Ter sunt conati imponere Pelio Ossam
Scilicet, atque Ossæ frondosum involvere Olympum:
Ter Pater extructos disjecit fulmine montes.
Septima post decimam felix, et ponere vitem,

284. Septima dies post Et prensos domitare boves, et licia telæ

285 decimam est felix, et po Addere : nona fugæ melior, contraria furtis.

286. Nona dies est mo Multa adeò gelidâ meliùs se nocte dedêre :

lior fugæ, sed
Aut cùm Sole novo terras irrorat Eoüs.
Nocte leves stipulæ meliùs, nocte arida prata
Tondentur: noctés lentus non deficit humor. 290
Et quidam seros hyberni ad luminis ignes
Pervigilat, ferroque faces inspicat acuto.
Intereà longum cantu solata laborem
Arguto conjux percurrit pectine telas :

294. Conjux solata Aut dulcis musti Vulcano decoquit humorem,

295 longum laborem cantu Et foliis undam tepidi despumat aheni.

percurrit

nere

NOTES.

274. Lapidem incusum: a furrowed or 281. Pelio. The mountains here men indented stone, for the purpose of grinding tioned were very high mountains in Thescorn ; something like our mill-stone. saly, near the Sinus Thermaicus. The lat

276. Alios dies : other days. Alio ordine : ter is sometimes taken for heaven. in a different order from those above men- 286. Fugæ : in the sense of itineri ; and, tioned. The ancients superstitiously thought contraria, in the sense of adversa, vel sisome days of the month to be lucky, and nistra. others unlucky.

288. Eoüs : the morning star; by meton. 278. Eumenides: the furies. They were the morning. Novo sole : in the sense of said to have sprung from the blood of a die incipiente, vel oriente. wound, which Cælus received from his 289. Stipulæ : in the sense of ariste, says brother Saturn. Some say they were the Ruæus. Mowing in general is best effected daughters of Acheron and Nox, or of Pluto when the dew is upon the grass. and Proserpine. They were three in num- 292. Inspicat : he forms matches with a ber: Tisiphone, Megæra, and Alecto. They sharp knife. Any instrument made of iron were supposed to be the ministers of ven- may be called ferrum. geance to the gods, and to be constantly 295. Decoquit: she boils away the liquor employed in punishing the wicked in hell. of sweet must, and skims, &c. Musłum is They were sometimes called Furiæ and sweet or new made wine. The juice of Erinnyes. They were worshipped; but the the grape, when boiled down one third part, people dared not to mention their names, or formed what was called sapa, and when one even to fix their eyes upon their temple. half, it formed the defrutum. Vulcanus : T'hey were represented holding a burning was the son of Jupiter and Juno. On actorch in one hand, and a whip of scorpions count of his deformity, he was cast down in the other hand.

from heaven upon the island of Lemnos, 278. Creat : in the sense of edidit, vel where he taught the inhabitants the smith produxit.

trade, and married Venus. The Cyclops 279. Cæumque, &c. These are the names were his workmen and assistants. He was of three giants, who attempted to scale hea- the god of fire; hence Vulcanus, by meton. ven and dethrone the gods. They were the often is put for fire itself, as in the present sons of Titan and Terra. Those here named instance. He was sometimes called Mulcio were the principal ones. Conjuratos fratres. ber, Ignipotens, and Pandamator. These included the whole fraternity, that 296. Undam. By this we are to under were engaged in the enterprise.

stand the liquor in the boiling kettle. Terit

At rubicunda Ceres medio succiditur æstu,
Et medio tostas æstu terit area fruges.
Nudus ara, sere nudus : hyems ignava colono.
Frigoribus parto agricolæ plerumque fruuntur, 300
Mutuaque inter se læti convivia curant:
Invitat genialis hyems, curasque resolvit.
Ceu pressæ cùm jam portum tetigere carinæ,
Puppibus et læti nautæ imposuere coronas.
Sed tamen et quernas glandes tum stringere tempus,
Et lauri baccas, oleamque, cruentaque myrta:

306
307. Tunc tempus est Tunc gruibus pedicas, et retia ponere cervis,
quoque ponere

Auritosque sequi lepores ; tum figere damas 308. Tum est tempus Stupea torquentem Balearis verbera fundæ ; venatorem figere damas

310 torquentem stupea ver

Cùm nix alta jacet, glaciem cùm flumina trudunt.
bera Balearis funde, Quid tempestates autumni et sidera dicam ?
cùm

Atque, ubi jam breviorque dies, et mollior æstas,
Quæ vigilanda viris ? vel cùm ruit imbriferum ver:
Spicea jam campis cùm messis inhorruit, et cùm
Frumenta in viridi stipulâ lactentia turgent?

315
Sæpe ego, cùm flavis messorem induceret arvis

Agricola, et fragili jam stringeret hordea culmo, 318. Ego sæpe vidi Omnia ventorum concurrere prælia vidi, omnia prælia ventorum Quæ gravidam latè segetem ab radicibus imis concurrere, quæ eruerent Sublimè expulsam eruerent; ita turbine nigro

320 Ferret hyems culmumque levem, stipulasque volantes. Sæpe etiam immensum cælo venit agmen aquarum,

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says Ruæus.

NOTES. Ihresnes, or beats out. Fruges tostas : the 315. Lactentia : milky-filling with milk. dry, or ripe grain.

318. Omnia prælia ventorum : all the pow297. Medio æstu: in the middle of the ers of the winds in fier e contest engage. day. Ceres : for seges, the grain, or harvest. Ruæus says: pugnus omnium ventorum Rubicunda : in the sense of fara.

misceri. This comparison of the wind with 299. Nudus ava, &c. The poet's meaning the wind, and of growing corn with chaff, here is, that the farmer should be industrious, has been censured by some critics; but the and turn the summer to the best account; passage is probably to be understood as refor the winter is a season of rest and festi- presenting the growing corn uprooted by vity, when he may enjoy the fruit of his la- the tempest, and whirled aloft (sublime) as bors.

easily as light straw is by an ordinary 300. Parto : what he had gotten during whirlwind. Martyn, Heyne, and Vossius, the summer. Rebus per æstatem comparatis, concur, says Valpy, in this interpretation.

320. Expulsam : in the sense of dissipa-
301. Curant: in the sense of parant. tam. Nigro turbine: in a black whirlwind;

304. Ceu pressæ carinæ : may either mean a whirlwind bringing with it clouds and
laden ships, or weather-beaten ships. Ca- darkness, and imbruing a storm. Hyems :
rina is properly the keel ; by synec. the in the sense of tempestas.
whole ship.

322. Immensum agmen, &c. Nothing can 305. Stringere : in the sense of colligere. surpass, in grandeur and sublimity, the de309. Balearis fundæ : the Balerian sling. scription which we here have of a sudden The islands Majorca, Minorca, and Uvica, storm, of its rise, and effect. An immense on the coast of Spain, were called by the band or army of vapors march along the ancients Balearides ; the inhabitants of heavens; the clouds, impregnated deeply which were famous for the use of the sling. with vapor, collect together from the sea ; Stupea verbera : the hempen strings. and, forming themselves into globous

312. Æstas : in the sense of calor, vel wreaths, brew a deep and threatening storm. estus. The verb est is to be supplied. Vi. They then burst, and discharge such a derilanda : curanda, vel providenda, says luge of water, that the whole heaven seems Viris : for agricolis.

dissolved, and pouring upon the fields. The Ruit: hastens to a close. Ruæus foods sweep away the fertilo (læta) crops, sinit, and Servius, præcipitatur, the labors of man and beast; the ditches

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e.

325

330

Et fædam glomerant tempestatem imbribus atris
Collectæ ex alto nubes: ruit arduus æther,

Et pluvià ingenti sata læta, boumque labores
• Diluit : implentur fossæ, et cava flumina crescunt

Cum sonitu, fervetque fretis spirantibus æquor.
Ipse pater, mediâ nimborum in nocte; corusca
Fulmina molitur dextrâ: quo maxima motủ
Terra tremit : fugêrc feræ, et mortalia corda
Per gentes humilis stravit pavor: ille flagranti
Aut Atho, aut Rhodopen, aut alta Ceraunia telo
Dejicit: ingeminant Austri, et densissimus imber :
Nunc nemora ingenti vento, nunc litora plangunt.

Hoc metuens, cæli menses et sidera serva :
Frigida Saturni sese quò stella receptet :
Quos ignis cæli Cyllenius erret in orbes.
Imprimis venerare. Deos, atque annua magnæ
Sacra refer Cereri, lætis operatus in herbis,
Extremæ sub casum hyemis, jam vere sereno.
Tunc agni pingues, et tunc mollissima vina :
Tunc somni dulces, densæque in montibus umbræ.
Cuncta tibi Cererem pubes agrestis adoret:
Cui tu lacte favos, et miti dilue Baccho,

335

340

341. Tunc agni sunt

NOTES. are filled; the winding rivers swell, and the from the circumstance of its great distance sea roars in its foaining friths.

from the sun, and the small degree of heat 327. Fretis. Fretum is properly a strait, it receives from him. On the other hand, or arm of the sea. Spirans, as here used, the planet Mercury is called ignis, on acis beautiful and expressive. The figure is count of its nearness to the sun, and the detaken from water boiling, which seems to gree of heat it probably receives from him. breathe (spirare) by emitting a steam or Cyllenius. A name of the god Mercury. vapor, and is all in commotion.

He was the son of Jupiter and Maia, the 329. Molitur: in the sense of vibrat, vel god of eloquence, and messenger of the jacit. Quo motu. By this we are to under- gods. He had a winged cap called Petasus, stand probably the act of vibrating or hurl- and winged feet called Talaria. The ining the thunder-bolt-the thunder itself. vention of the lyre, and its seven strings, is What the ancients supposed to be the bolt, attributed to him; which he gave to Apollo, was nothing more than the lightning—the and received in return the celebrated Caelectric matter, passing from one cloud, or duceus, which was a rod or wand encircled part of the atmosphere, to another, that was with serpents, and said to possess extraordifferently electrified, and thus became vi- dinary virtues and qualities. It was his sible.

business to conduct the manes of the dead 330. Feræ fugere: the wild beasts have to the infernal regions. He presided over ded. There is a peculiar force in the use of orators, merchants, and thieves. The worthe perfect tense here. The beasts of the ship of Mercury was established in Greece, forest fear, and they are gone, and are out Egypt, and Italy. He was called Cyllenius, of sight in a moment, seeking their wonted from a mountain in Arcadia of that name, retreats.

where he is said to have been born; Caducea332. Alho: a Greek acc. A mountain tor, Triplex, Delius, &c. According to Cicero, in Macedonia, which overlooked the Ægean there were four others to whom the name sea. Rhodopen.. A mountain, or rather of Mercury was given. Of these, was a range of mountains in Thrace. Ceraunia: famous philosopher of Egypt, whom they acc. plu, neu. mountains in Epirys. They called Hermes Trismigistus. Cyllenius ignis: were so called from a Greek word signify- the planet Mercury. ing thunder, because, from their height, they

337. Erret : in the sense of moveat. Ora were much exposed to it. 333. Imber densissimus. Ruæus says:

bes: planets. pluvia est copiocissima.

344. Cui tu dilue favos: for whom do 336. Quò frigida stella: to wha“ part of thou mingle honey with milk and swect heaven the cold star of Saturn betakes it- wine. Favos: the comb; by meton. che self. Saturn is called cold most probably honey contained it. it.

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