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Sæpe oleo tardi costas agitator aselli,
Vilibus aut onerat pomis: lapidemque revertens

274. Revertens domum Incusum, aut atræ massam picis, urbe reportat. 275 ex urbe, reportat Ipsa dies alios alio dedit ordine Luna

277. Pallidus Orcus Felices operum. Quintam fuge: pallidus Orcus,

satus est, Eumenidesque Eumenidesque satæ : tum partu Terra nefando

satæ sunt, illo die.
Cæumque, Iapetumque creat, sævumque Typhea,
Et conjuratos cælum rescindere fratres.

280
Ter sunt conati imponere Pelio Ossam
Scilicet, atque Ossæ frondosum involvere Olympum:
Ter Pater extructos disjecit fulmine montes.
Septima post decimam felix, et ponere vitem,

284. Septima dies post Et prensos domitare boves, et licia telæ

285 decimam est felix, et po Addere : nona fugæ melior, contraria furtis.

286. Nona dies est mo Multa adeò gelidâ meliùs se nocte dedêre :

lior fugæ, sed
Aut cùm Sole novo terras irrorat Eoüs.
Nocte leves stipulæ meliùs, nocte arida prata
Tondentur: noctés lentus non deficit humor. 290
Et quidam seros hyberni ad luminis ignes
Pervigilat, ferroque faces inspicat acuto.
Intereà longum cantu solata laborem
Arguto conjux percurrit pectine telas :

294. Conjux solata Aut dulcis musti Vulcano decoquit humorem,

295 longum laborem cantu Et foliis undam tepidi despumat aheni.

percurrit

nere

NOTES.

274. Lapidem incusum: a furrowed or 281. Pelio. The mountains here men indented stone, for the purpose of grinding tioned were very high mountains in Thescorn ; something like our mill-stone. saly, near the Sinus Thermaicus. The lat

276. Alios dies : other days. Alio ordine : ter is sometimes taken for heaven. in a different order from those above men 286. Fugæ : in the sense of itineri ; and, tioned. The ancients superstitiously thought contraria, in the sense of adversa, vel sisome days of the month to be lucky, and nistra. others unlucky.

288. Eoüs : the morning star; by meton. 278. Eumenides: the furies. They were the morning. Novo sole : in the sense of said to have sprung from the blood of a die incipiente, vel oriente. wound, which Cælus received from his 289. Stipulæ : in the sense of ariste, says brother Saturn. Some say they were the Ruæus. Mowing in general is best effected daughters of Acheron and Nox, or of Pluto when the dew is upon the grass. and Proserpine. They were three in num 292. Inspicat : he forms matches with a ber: Tisiphone, Megæra, and Alecto. They sharp knife. Any instrument made of iron were supposed to be the ministers of ven- may be called ferrum. geance to the gods, and to be constantly 295. Decoquit: she boils away the liquor employed in punishing the wicked in hell. of sweet must, and skims, &c. Musłum is They were sometimes called Furiæ and sweet or new made wine. The juice of Erinnyes. They were worshipped; but the the grape, when boiled down one third part, people dared not to mention their names, or formed what was called sapa, and when one even to fix their eyes upon their temple. half, it formed the defrutum. Vulcanus : T'hey were represented holding a burning was the son of Jupiter and Juno. On actorch in one hand, and a whip of scorpions count of his deformity, he was cast down in the other hand.

from heaven upon the island of Lemnos, 278. Creat : in the sense of edidit, vel where he taught the inhabitants the smith produxit.

trade, and married Venus. The Cyclops 279. Cæumque, &c. These are the names were his workmen and assistants. He was of three giants, who attempted to scale hea- the god of fire; hence Vulcanus, by meton. ven and dethrone the gods. They were the often is put for fire itself, as in the present sons of Titan and Terra. Those here named instance. He was sometimes called Mulcio were the principal ones. Conjuratos fratres. ber, Ignipotens, and Pandamator. These included the whole fraternity, that 296. Undam. By this we are to under were engaged in the enterprise.

stand the liquor in the boiling kettle. Terit

At rubicunda Ceres medio succiditur æstu,
Et medio tostas æstu terit area fruges.
Nudus ara, sere nudus : hyems ignava colono.
Frigoribus parto agricolæ plerumque fruuntur, 300
Mutuaque inter se læti convivia curant:
Invitat genialis hyems, curasque resolvit.
Ceu pressæ cùm jam portum tetigere carinæ,
Puppibus et læti nautæ imposuere coronas.
Sed tamen et quernas glandes tum stringere tempus,
Et lauri baccas, oleamque, cruentaque myrta:

306
307. Tunc tempus est Tunc gruibus pedicas, et retia ponere cervis,
quoque ponere

Auritosque sequi lepores ; tum figere damas 308. Tum est tempus Stupea torquentem Balearis verbera fundæ ; venatorem figere damas

310 torquentem stupea ver

Cùm nix alta jacet, glaciem cùm flumina trudunt.
bera Balearis funde, Quid tempestates autumni et sidera dicam ?
cùm

Atque, ubi jam breviorque dies, et mollior æstas,
Quæ vigilanda viris ? vel cùm ruit imbriferum ver:
Spicea jam campis cùm messis inhorruit, et cùm
Frumenta in viridi stipulâ lactentia turgent?

315 Sæpe ego, cùm flavis messorem induceret arvis

Agricola, et fragili jam stringeret hordea culmo, 318. Ego sæpe vidi Omnia ventorum concurrere prælia vidi, omnia prælia ventorum Quæ gravidam latè segetem ab radicibus imis concurrere, quæ eruerent Sublimè expulsam eruerent; ita turbine nigro

320 Ferret hyems culmumque levem, stipulasque volantes. Sæpe etiam immensum cælo venit agmen aquarum,

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says Ruæus.

NOTES. Ihresnes, or beats out. Fruges tostas : the 315. Lactentia : milky-filling with milk. dry, or ripe grain.

318. Omnia prælia ventorum : all the pow297. Medio æstu: in the middle of the ers of the winds in fier e contest engage. day. Ceres : for seges, the grain, or harvest. Ruæus says: pugnus omnium ventorum Rubicunda : in the sense of fara.

misceri. This comparison of the wind with 299. Nudus ava, &c. The poet's meaning the wind, and of growing corn with chaff, here is, that the farmer should be industrious, has been censured by some critics; but the and turn the summer to the best account; passage is probably to be understood as refor the winter is a season of rest and festi- presenting the growing corn uprooted by vity, when he may enjoy the fruit of his la- the tempest, and whirled aloft (sublime) as bors.

easily as light straw is by an ordinary 300. Parto : what he had gotten during whirlwind. Martyn, Heyne, and Vossius, the summer. Rebus per æstatem comparatis, concur, says Valpy, in this interpretation.

320. Expulsam : in the sense of dissipa301. Curant: in the sense of parant. tam. Nigro turbine: in a black whirlwind;

304. Ceu pressæ carinæ : may either mean a whirlwind bringing with it clouds and laden ships, or weather-beaten ships. Ca- darkness, and imbruing a storm. Hyems : rina is properly the keel ; by synec. the in the sense of tempestas. whole ship.

322. Immensum agmen, &c. Nothing can 305. Stringere : in the sense of colligere. surpass, in grandeur and sublimity, the de309. Balearis fundæ : the Balerian sling. scription which we here have of a sudden The islands Majorca, Minorca, and Uvica, storm, of its rise, and effect. An immense on the coast of Spain, were called by the band or army of vapors march along the ancients Balearides ; the inhabitants of heavens; the clouds, impregnated deeply which were famous for the use of the sling. with vapor, collect together from the sea ; Stupea verbera : the hempen strings. and, forming themselves into globous

312. Æstas : in the sense of calor, vel wreaths, brew a deep and threatening storm. estus. The verb est is to be supplied. Vi. They then burst, and discharge such a derilanda : curanda, vel providenda, says luge of water, that the whole heaven seems Viris : for agricolis.

dissolved, and pouring upon the fields. The Ruit: hastens to a close. Ruæus foods sweep away the fertilo (læta) crops, sinit, and Servius, præcipitatur, the labors of man and beast; the ditches

e.

325

330

Et fædam glomerant tempestatem imbribus atris
Collectæ ex alto nubes: ruit arduus æther,

Et pluviâ ingenti sata læta, boumque labores
• Diluit : implentur fossæ, et cava flumina crescunt

Cum sonitu, fervetque fretis spirantibus æquor.
Ipse pater, mediâ nimborum in nocte; corusca
Fulmina molitur dextrâ: quo maxima motủ
Terra tremit: fugêrc feræ, et mortalia corda
Per gentes humilis stravit pavor: ille flagranti
Aut Atho, aut Rhodopen, aut alta Ceraunia telo
Dejicit: ingeminant Austri, et densissimus imber :
Nunc nemora ingenti vento, nunc litora plangunt.

Hoc metuens, cæli menses et sidera serva :
Frigida Saturni sese quò stella receptet:
Quos ignis cæli Cyllenius erret in orbes.
Imprimis venerare. Deos, atque annua magnæ
Sacra refer Cereri, lætis operatus in herbis,
Extremæ sub casum hyemis, jam vere sereno.
Tunc agni pingues, et tunc mollissima vina :
Tunc somni dulces, densæque in montibus umbræ.
Cuncta tibi Cererem pubes agrestis adoret :
Cui tu lacte favos, et miti dilue Baccho,

335

340

341. Tunc agni sunt

NOTES. are filled; the winding rivers swell, and the from the circumstance of its great distance sea roars in its foaining friths.

from the sun, and the small degree of heat 327. Fretis. Fretum is properly a strait, it receives from him. On the other hand, or arm of the sea. Spirans, as here used, the planet Mercury is called ignis, on acis beautiful and expressive. The figure is count of its nearness to the sun, and the detaken from water boiling, which seems to gree of heat it probably receives from him. breathe (spirare) by emitting a steam or Cyllenius. A name of the god Mercury. vapor, and is all in commotion.

He was the son of Jupiter and Maia, the 329. Molitw: in the sense of vibrat, vel god of eloquence, and messenger of the jacit. Quo motu. By this we are to under- gods. He had a winged cap called Petasus, stand probably the act of vibrating or hurl- and winged feet called Talaria. The ining the thunder-bolt-the thunder itself. vention of the lyre, and its seven strings, is What the ancients supposed to be the bolt, attributed to him; which he gave to Apollo, was nothing more than the lightning—the and received in return the celebrated Caelectric matter, passing from one cloud, or duceus, which was a rod or wand encircled part of the atmosphere, to another, that was with serpents, and said to possess extraordifferently electrified, and thus became vi- dinary virtues and qualities. It was his sible.

business to conduct the manes of the dead 330. Feræ fugere: the wild beasts have to the infernal regions. He presided over fed. There is a peculiar force in the use of orators, merchants, and thieves. The worthe per.ect tense here. The beasts of the ship of Mercury was established in Greece, forest fear, and they are gone, and are out Egypt, and Italy. He was called Cyllenius, of sight in a moment, seeking their wonted from a mountain in Arcadia of that name,

where he is said to have been born; Caducea332. Atho: a Greek acc. A mountain tor, Triplex, Delius, &c. According to Cicero, in Macedonia, which overlooked the Ægean there were four others to whom the name sea. Rhodopen. A mountain, or rather of Mercury was given. Of these, was a range of mountains in Thrace. Ceraunia: famous philosopher of Egypt, whom they acc. plu, neu. mountains in Epirys. They called Hermes Trismigistus. Cyllenius ignis: were so called from a Greek word signify- the planet Mercury. ing thunder, because, from their height, they

337. Erret: in the sense of moveat. Ora were much exposed to it. 333. Imber densissimus. Ruæus says:

bes: planets. pluvia est copiocissima.

344. Cui tu dilue favos: for whom do 336. Quò frigida stella: to wha' part of thou mingle honey with milk and sweet heaven the cold star of Saturn betakes it- wine. Favos: the comb; by meton. che self. Saturn is called cold most probably honey contained it. it.

retreats.

345

350

355

Terque novas circùm felis eat hostia fruges,
346. Quam hosliam Omnis quam chorus et socii comitentur ovantes ;
onnis chorus, et tui socii Et Cererem clamore vocent in tecta: neque antè

Falcem maturis quisquam supponat aristis,
Quàm Cereri, tortâ redimitus tempora quercu,
Det motus incompositos, et carmina dicat.

Atque hæc ut certis possimus discere signis,
Ætusque, pluviasque, et agentes frigora ventos;
Ipse pater statuit, quid menstrua Luna moneret,
Quo signo caderent Austri, quid sæpe videntes
Agricolæ propiùs stabulis armenta tenerent.
Continuò, ventis surgentibus, aut freta ponti
Incipiunt agitata tumescere, et aridus altis
Montibus audiri fragor ; aut resonantia longè
Litora misceri, et nemorum increbrescere murmur.
Jam sibi tum curvis malè temperat unda carinis :
Cùm medio celeres revolant ex æquore mergi,

Clamoremque ferunt ad litora, cùmque marinæ 363. Sicco litore In sicco ludunt fulicæ; notasque paludes,

364. Ardeaquc deserit Deserit, atque altam supra volat ardea nubem. notas paludes, atquo vó- Sæpe etiam stellas, vento impendente, videbis lat supra altam nubem. Præcipites cælo labi ; noctisque per umbram

Flammarum longos à tergo albescere tractus ;
Sæpe levem paleam et frondes, volitare caducas ,
Aut summâ nantes in aquâ colludere plumas.
At Boreæ de parte trucis cùm fulminat, et cùm
Eurique Zephyrique tonat domus ; omnia plenis
Rura natant fossis ; atque omnis navita ponto

360

365

370

NOTES.

345. Felix hostia. The poet here alludes 360. Jam tum unda malè temperat: then to the sacrificium ambervale, so called, be- the waves scarcely restrain themselves from cause the victim was led three times around (swallowing up) the bending ships. Malè : the field; ab ambire arva.

in the sense of difficilè. 346. Omnis chorus et socii: the same as 361. Mergi: a species of sea-fowl, geomnis chorus sociorum.

nerally taken to be the cormorant: from the 349. Redimitus tempora: bound as to his verb mergo. temples with a wreath of oak. The poet 363. Fulicæ : a species of sea-fowl much enjoins upon the farmer to make two offer- like the common duck; a coot, or moor-hen. ings to Ceres: the first of honey and wine, 364. Ardea: a bird, swift on the wing, at the beginning of spring: dilue favos, &c. and soaring high. From which circumThe other of a victim at the beginning of stance called ardea, quasi pro ardua • a heron, harvest: ter felix hostia, &c.

365. Sæpe videbis stellas: you will also 350. Incompositos motus: the irregular or often see stars, &c. The poet speaks in immethodical dance; such as is performed conformity to the vulgar notion. No star by rustics. Cereri: nempe, in honorem Ce moves from its station. Those appearances reris.

to which the poet alludes are of an electric 351. Hæc: nempe, æstusque, pluviasque. nature-meteors. They are sometimes seen 353. Moneret : in the sense of indicaret. to dart across the heavens, and through the

354. Signo: in the sense of indicio. darkness of the night, appear to draw after Quod indicium esset venti mox cessuri, says them a train (tractus) of light or flame. Heyne. Austri: here put for any boister- Impendente: threatening-being near ous wind: the species for the genus.

hand. 356. Freta ponti: simply, for pontus, vel 371. Domus Eurique, &c. That part of mare. Fretuin, properly a strait, or narrow the heavens from which these winds blow, part of the sea.

the poet calls their house or habitation. 358. Aridus fragor: a dry cracking The expression is highly poetical. Here sound, such as is made among dry trees the poet mentions twelve signs or prognostics when they break.

of rain.

at

Humida vela legit. Nunquam imprudentibus imber
Obfuit. Aut illum surgentem vallibus imis
Aëriæ fugêre grues; aut bucula cælum

375 Suspiciens, patulis captavit naribus auras .

376. Suspiciens ad

lum
Aut arguta lacus circumvolita vit hirundo:
Et veterem in limo ranæ cecinêre querelam.
Sæpius et tectis penetralibus extulit ova
Angustum formica terens iter; et bibit ingens 380
Arcus ; et è pastu decedens agmine magno
Corvorum increpuit densis exercitus alis.
Jam varias pelagi volucres, et quæ Asia circùm

383. Jam videas vaDulcibus in stagnis rimantur prata Caystri,

rias volucres pelagi, et Certatim largos humeris infundere rores ;

385 eas, quæriniantur circum

Asia prata in dulcibus Nunc caput objectare fretis, nunc currere in undas,

stagnis Caystri, certatim Et studio incassùm videas gestire lavandi.

infundere largos rores Tum cornix plenâ pluviam vocat improba voce,

humeris Et sola in siccâ secum spatiatu arenâ. Nec nocturna quidem carpentes pensa puellæ

390 Nescivere hyemem : testâ cùm ardente viderent Scintillare oleum, et putres concrescere fungos.

393. Nec minùs ex Nec minùs ex imbri soles, et aperta serena

imbri poteris prospicere, Prospicere, et certis poteris cognoscere signis.

et, certis signis, cognosNam neque tum stellis acies obtusa videtur, 395 cere sudos soles, et aperta Nec fratris radiis obnoxia surgere

Luna :

et serena cæla.

NOTES.

..

373. Imprudentibus, &c. Never hath a 385. Infundere largos: to throw eagerly shower hurt any person unforwarned: that much water upon their backs. Rores : in is, a shower always gives such certain signs the sense of aquam. of its approach, that any who will attend 387. Studio lavandi : through a desire of to thein, may avoid receiving injury from washing themselves in vain. Incassùm may it. Heyne informs us, that the Medicean, be understood in three senses. 1. Because and some other copies, read prudentibus; he, nothing can add to the whiteness of the however, prefers the usual reading, impru- swan, the fowl here spoken of. 2. Because dentibus. Prudentibus is the easier. they need take no pains to wash themselves,

374. Illum surgentem, &c. This sentence for the impending rain will do it without is capable of two constructions: 1. The their labor. 3. Because, according to Sercranes may flee the shower, rising out of the vius, water will not wet their feathers. valleys; which is the sense Ruæus gives. 2. 390. Carpentes : carding their nightly Davidson takes it to mean that the cranes tasks of wool. flee into the valleys, to avoid the rising 392. Fungos: the clots or spungy substorm. This is also the opinion of Valpy. stance that gathers round the wick of the

378. Et ranæ cecinere, &c. This alludes lamp or candle. Scintillare : to sputter or to the fable of the transformation of the snap in the burning shell. Lycians into frogs for reproaching Latona, 393. Nec minùs. Having mentioned the of which hard treatment, when they croak, signs of a storm, the poet now enumerates they are said to complain. See Ovid. Met. those of fair weather. He makes them in Lib. 6.

number nine. Ex imbri : after a shower.. 380. Ingens arcus : the spacious bow hath Soles : days. drunk; alluding to a vulgar notion that the 395. Acies stellis : Ruæus says, lux stellarainbow drank the water that supplied the rum. Videtur: in the sense of apparet. clouds.

396. Luna surgere obnoxia : nor will the 383. Asia : an adj. from Asius, a lake and moon seem to rise beholden (or indebted) to town between the river Caystrus and the the beams of her brother. The moon will mountain Tmolus, in the confines of Lydia rise so clear and bright, that she will scem and Phrygia Major. Caystrus falls into the to shine by her own inherent light, and not Ægean sea, not far from the onco famous by reflecting the rays of the sun. Sol and city of Ephesus. On its banks the swan Luna in heaven, the same as Apollo and abounded. Rimantur: in the sense of fre- Diana on earth, were said to have been the grueniant.

children of Latona. See Ecl. iv. 10.

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