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multò antè memor provisa reponcs,

Si te digna manet divini gloria ruris. 169. Continuò in syl- Continuò in sylvis magnâ vi flexa domatur vis flexa ulmus domatur In burim, et curvi formam accipit ulmus aratri. 170 magna vî in burim, et Huic à stirpe pedes temo protentus in octo, accipit 171. Huic buri temo

Binæ aures, duplici aptantur dertalia dorso. prðtentus à stirpe in octo Cæditur et tilia antè jugo levis, altaque fagus, pedes aptatur ; binæ Stivaque, quæ currus à tergo torqueat imos ; aures, et dentalia cum Et suspensa focis explorat robora fumus.

175 duplici dorso aptantur. Possum multa tibi veterum præcepta referre,

Ni refugis, tenuesque piget cognoscere curas. 178. Cum primis rebus Area cum primis ingenti æquanda cylindro,

cst æquanda in- Et vertenda manu, et cretâ solidanda tenaci : genti

Ne subeant herbæ, neu pulvere victa fatiscat: 180
Tum variæ illudunt pestes. Sæpe exiguus mus
Sub terris posuitque domos, atque horrea fecit :

Aut oculis capti fodêre cubilia talpæ. 184. Bufo inventus est Inventusque cavis bufo, et quæ plurima terræ cavis, et plurima mon- Monstra ferunt: populatque ingentem farris acervum

Curculio, atque inopi metuens formica senectæ. 186
Contemplator item, cùm se nux plurima sylvis


stra, quæ


says, beati.

167. Omnia quæ memor: all which things, upon wheels, which is the reason of the being provided long before hand, you should poet's calling it currus, a carriage. Ruæus be mindful to lay up.

says: quibusdam in regionibus aratrum in. 168. Divirti ruris. The country is here struitur rolis; but commentators are by no called divine, either on account of its inno means agreed as to the form and construccence and happiness, or because it was ori- tion of this plough of the poet. ginaliy the habitation of the gods. Gloria:

175. Fumus explorat. Wood seasoned in reward. Ruæus says, laus ; for divini, he the way here mentioned will be less liable

to crack or split, than if seasoned in the 171. Stirpe: from the back part, or bot- usual way, in the sun and open air. tom. 172. Binæ aures : two mould or earth

180. Victa pulvere: overcome with dry

ness, should crack. Pulvere. Ruæus says: boards, one on each side of the temo, or beam. The poet here mentions the several siccitate, quæ creat pulverem. parts of the plough. The buris, or bura,

181. Tum : in the sense of prætereà. was the part which the ploughman held in

183. Tulpæ capti oculis. Talpa, the mole, his left hand—the plough tail

. The dentale, and living chiefly under the ground.

a small animal, supposed to have no eyes, the chip, or part of the plough to which the vomer, or share, is fastened. Duplici dorso : 184. Bufo: the toad. Monstrum, prowith a double back. Some understand du- perly signifies any thing contrary to the plex in the sense of latus; but there is no ordinary course of nature ; also, any misneed of this. The plough, which the poet chievous animal, whether man or brute ; is describing, is altogether of a singular which is the meaning here. kind to us.

It had two inould-boards; two 186. Curculio : the weavel; a mischievous chips or share-beams we might supposed it animal among grain. to have had, one on each side of the temo, 187. Contemplator item, &c. Observe in or main beam, which, being joined together, like manner when the nut-tree in the woods might not improperly be said to form a clothes itself abundantly with blooms. Of double back. Stiva : the handle, which the the nut-tree, there are several kinds. The ploughman holds in his right hand.

one here meant is supposed to be the Ar173. Et levis tilia. Tilia, the linden, or mygdala, or almond-tree, because its flowlime-tree. It is a light wood, and therefore ers or blossoms were supposed to be an ininore suitable for the plough.

dication of the fertility of the year. Plue 174. Quæ torqueat : which may turn the rima: an adj. sup. agreeing with nuz. lowest wheels from behind—may turn the This construction frequently occurs, and is extreme or hinder part of the plough. The more elegantly translated by its correspondplough here described we may suppose run ing adverb.

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Induet in florem, et ramos curvabit olentes :
Si superant fætus, pariter frumenta sequentur,
Magnaque cum magno veniet tritura calore.
At si luxuriâ foliorum exuberat umbra,
Nequicquam pingues paleâ teret area culmos.
Semina vidi equidem multos medicare serentes,
Et nitro priùs et nigrâ perfundere amurcâ,
Grandior ut fætus siliquis fallacibus esset.
Et quamvis igni exiguo properata maderent,
Vidi lecta diu, et multo spectata labore,
Degenerare tamen; ni vis humana quotannis
Maxima quæque manu legeret : sic omnia fatis
In pejus ruere, ac retrò sublapsa referri.
Non aliter quàm qui adverso vix flumine lembum
Remigiis subigit : si brachia fortè remisit,
Atque illum in præceps prono rapit alveus amni

Prætereà tam sunt Arcturi sidera nobis,
Hædorumque dies servandi, et lucidus anguis;
Quàm quibus in patriam ventosa per æquora vectis
Pontus et ostriferi fauces tentantur Abydi.
Libra die somnique pares ubi fecerit horas,

196. Quamvis semina

properata. exiguo igni 195

maderent; tamen vidi ea lecta diu, et spectata multo labore, degenerare; ni

199. Sic vidt omnia 1, fatis ruere in pejus, ac 200 sublapså referri retrò.

202. Si forte remisit brachia, ruit et sublapsus refertur retrò, atque alveus rapit illum in preceps prono amni.

206. Quàm iis vectis 205

per ventosa æquora in suam patriam quibus Pontus et ostriferi fauces Abydi

In the

NOTES. 189. Fætus: in the sense of flores.

198. Humana vis: human care. 190. Magno calore. Calor here seems to sense of homines. Unless men should semean the sweat and heat of the laborer or lect with the hand, &c. Ruæus says, homithresher, rather than the heat of the summer. num industria.

191. At si umbra: but if the boughs 201. Adverso flumine: against the curabound in a luxuriancy of leaves, in vain, rent. &c. The meaning seems to be this: that

203. Atque. Ruæus, on the authority of if the blossoms upon the tree shall exceed Gellius, takes atque in the sense of statim. the leaves, then you may expect a plentiful Davidson and Heyne take it in its usual crop. But if, on the contrary, the leaves be signification as a conjunction, supposing an the most numerous, you may expect a scan- ellipsis of the words: ille ruit ac sublapsus ty crop--a crop rich only in husks and refertur retrò. And carries him headlong chaff. Umbra: in the sense of rami.

down the stream. Alveus : properly the 193. Serentes: part. of the verb, sero, channel or bed of a river; here, the river in taken as a substantive: Sowers. The poet general: the current, or impetus of the wahere gives the husbandınan to understand ter; by meton. that the greatest care is to be taken in se

205. Hædi. Two stars in the shoulder of lecting his seeds; that it is sometimes useful to impregnate them with other qualities Lucidus Anguis: a constellation called Dra

Auriga, a constellation in the heavens. to prevent them from degenerating; and sometimes to soak and steep them over a

co. The poet here intimates thai it is the slow fire, in order to hasten their sprouting the various signs of the weather; and that

duty of the farmer to observe the stars, and and coming forward. And although care be taken in the selection, they will be found he will find it as useful to him in the course nevertheless to degenerate: and all that of his business, as it is to the mariner. reinains for him to do, is, to select every

207. Fauces Abydi. The Hellespont or year with his own hand the fairest and best straits, which separate Europe from Asia: seeds; and in this way only he may keep called ostriferi, because abounding in Oyohus crops from degenerating to any great ters. Abydus: a city on the Asiatic shore, extent. This advice is worthy the atten

over against Sestus. Tentantur : in the tion of every farmer.

sense of navigantur. 194. Perfundere: this may either mean 208. Die : for Diei. The gen. of the to sprinkle them (semina) over with, or put fifth declension was sometimes thus written, them into. Ruæus says, spargere.

Somni, is elegantly put for noctis. Ubi Li195. Fallacious. The pods or ears are bra fecerit. Libra is one of the signs of the called fallacious, because they are some- zodiac, which the sun enters the 23d of times large, when there is very little in September; at which time he is on the equathem. Fetus: the grain or produce. tor, and makes the days and nights equal.

Et medium luci atque umbris jam dividit orbem ·
Exercete, viri, tauros, serite hordea campis, 210
Usque sub extremum brumæ intractabilis imbrem

Necnon et lini segelem et Cereale papaver
213. Tempus est tegere Tempus humo tegere, et jamdudum incumbere rastris,
et segetem lini ot Ce- Dum siccâ tellure licet, dum nubila pendent.
reale papaver humo

Vere fabis satio : tum te quoque, Medica, putres 215 214. Dum licet tibi facere id, tellure sicca, Accipiunt sulci ; et milio venit annua cura : et duin

Candidus auratis aperit cùm cornibus annum 215. Satio fabis est in Taurus, et averso cedens canis occidit astro.

At si triticeam in messem robustaque farra
Exercebis humum, solisque instabis aristis :

« Antè tibi Eoæ Atlantides abscondantur,
oGnossiaque ardentis decedat stella coronæ ;
Debita quàm sulcis committas semina, quàmque
Invitæ properes

anni spem credere terræ.
225. Multi cæpere se- Multi ante occasum Maiæ cæpère: sed illos 225
Tere ante

Expectata seges vanis elusit aristis.
Si verò viciamque seres, vilemque faselum,

vere: tum




211. Brumæ: properly the shortest day month of March: but Virgil dissents from of winter, or the winter solstice: this is its the received opinion, and assigns it to Taumeaning here. By synec. it is sometimes rus, or the month of April; because, as the put for the whole winter. The ineaning is, etymology of the word implies, all nature that the farmer may extend his sowing as seems to be released from the fetters of winlate as the winter solstice, which is about ter, and vegetation opens and shoots forth. the 21st of December. Intractabilis : in the Canis cedens, &c. The dog giving way to sense of duræ, vel aspere.

the retrograde sign, sets. Sirius (commonly 212. Cereale: an adj. from Ceres. The called the dog star) is a star in the mouth of poppy was so called, most probably, because the great dog, a constellation in the hea. it was consecrated to her. Her statues

Averso Astro. Astrum here is the were generally adorned with it. Necnon: constellation or sign Argo, which immediin the sense of quoque.

ately follows the dog, and sets after him. 213. Incumbere rastris: to ply the har. It rises with its stern foremost, and in that

The poet is speaking of sowing, or manner goes through the heavens, contrary committing to the earth the several crops: to the ordinary motion of a ship. The epiwhich could not be done til after the thet averso, inverted, or turned about, is ploughing. Besides it requires dry weather very proper. to use the harrow: to which reference is 221. Eow Atlantides. The morning Plemade in the following line. But the plough iades; that is, when they set in the mornmay be used in wet weather. Heyne reads ing, or go below the horizon about the riaratris. But he informs us that Heinsius, sing of the sun. This is called their cosmiPierius, and others read rastris, which the cal setting. See 138. supra. sense seems to require.

222. Corona. The Corona is a constella. 214. Pendent: in the sense of suspensa tion in the heavens called Ariadne's Crown. sunt.

Gnossia: an adj. from Gnossus, a town in 215. Medica. A species of grass, or plant, the island of Crete, where Minos reigned, brought into Greece by the Medes in the whose daughter Ariadne was carried off by time of the Persian wars. Hence called Theseus, and left in the island Naxus, where medica, now lucerne. It made the best pro- she married Bacchus. At the time of their vender for cattle, and when sown, it is said nuptials, among the other presents she reto last in the ground thirty years.

ceived from the gods, was a Corona or 216. Milio. The milium was a species of crown from Venus; which Bacchus transgrass, or plant, which required to be sown lated to the heavens. Ardentis : in the every year. Hence annua cura. Now call sense of splendentis. ed millet.

225. Maiæ. The name of one of the Plez218. Cum candidus Taurus. Taurus is a ades, by synec. put for the hole of them. of the ecliptic. The sun enters it about 227. Ficiam. The vicia is a species of st of April. The year was coinmonly pulse called the vetch. Faselum: the fasct to be opened by Aries, or the Jus was a kind of pulse, common and

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Wec Pelusiacæ curam aspernabere lentis ;
Haud obscara cadens mittet tibi signa Bootes :
Incipe, et ad medias sementem extende pruinas.

Idcirco certis dimensum partibus orbem
Per duodena regit mundi Sol aureus astra.
Quinque tenent cælum zonæ : quarum una corusco
Seinper Sole rubens, et torrida semper ab igni :
Quam circùm extremæ dextrâ lævâque trahuntur,
Cæruleâ glacie concretæ atque imbribus atris.
Has inter mediamque, duæ mortalibus ægris
Munere concessæ Divûm, et via secta per ambas,
Obliquus quà se signorum verteret ordo.
Mundus ut ad Scythiam Riphæasque arduus arces
Consurgit ; premitur Libyæ devexus in Austros.
Hic vertex nobis semper sublimis; at illum
Sub pedibus Styx atra videt, Manesque profundi.
Maximus hìc flexu sinuoso elabitur anguis
Circùm, perque duas in morem fluminis Arctos :
Arctos, Oceani metuentes æquore tingi.

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Ut · as.

cheap, which is the meaning of vilis, in 235. Trahuntur: are extended-stretched this place.

228. Lentis. The lens was a kind of pulse, 239. Obliquus ordo : the ecliptic. It is
shich abounded in Egypt, and particularly called obliquus, because it makes an angle

t Pelusium, a town situated near the east with the equator. The quantity of the angle
ern mouth of the Nile. Hence the adj. Pe is 23° 28'.

240. Scythiam: a vast country lying to229. Bootes cadens : the Bootes setting ward the arctic circle. See Ecl. i. 66. Ri. will give, &c. Bootes, a star in the constel- phæas arces: the Riphæan inountains. An lation of the same name, near the north extensive range stretching along the north pole. It sets acronically, or with the sun, of Europe, and covered with perpetualsnow. about the beginning of November; and cos

In austros : simply, to the south. mically, or at the time of his rising, about 242. Hic vertex. The poles are two innathe beginning of March. The former is ginary points in the heavens directly in a here meant. Mittet : in the sense of dabit. line with the axis of the earth. On the

232. Duodena astra. Astronomers divide equator these points are in the horizon. In the ecliptic, or the circle in which the sun all places on the north of the equator, the appears to move, into 12 equal parts, called north pole is visible; while the south pole signs, and each of these signs into 30 equal will be depressed below the horizon. Illum : parts called degrees. A space 8 degrees in the south pole. breadth on each side of this circle is called 244. Maximus angreis. The dragon, the zodiac, because it contains the 12 con- (Draco,) the keeper of the garden of the stellations, which take the naines of certain Hesperides, after he was killed by Hercuanimals: as Aries, Taurus, &c. It also con les, was translated to heaven, and made a tains the orbits of the planets.

constellation near the north pole. With his 233. Quinque zone. Geographers divide tail he touches Ursa major, and with the the surface of the earth into five grand por- flexure of his body einbraces Ursa minor: tions caled zones : one of which they de- the greater and lesser bears : here called nominate the torrid or burning; two the Arctos. This will be seen by looking upon temperate; and two the frozen zones. The a celestial globe. torrid is that portion of the earth's surface 246. Arctos metuentes : fearing to be included between the tropics of Cancer and touched in the waters of the ocean. The Capricorn. In every part of which the sun elevation of the pole at any given place is is vertical twice in every year. The ancients always equal to the latitude of thai place. supposed it to be uninhabitable on accoun Consequently all those stars that are nearof its great heat. Those parts of the earth's er the pole than the distance any place is surface that lie between the two tropics and from the equator in degrees, will not set bepolar circles, are denominated the tempe- low the horizon at that place, but continue

The two frozen zones embrace to revolve about the pole. This is the ca' those parts between the polar circles and the with the two constellations here ment poles

in the latitude of Italy.

rate zones.

247. Illic, (ad austra- Illic, ut perhibent, aut intempesta silet nox
lem polum) ut perhibent Semper, et obtentâ densantur nocte tenebræ :
homines, aut

Aut redit à nobis Aurora, diemque reducit ;
Nosque ubi primus equis oriens afflavit anhelis, 250
Illic sera rubens accendit lumina Vesper.
Hinc tempestates dubio prædicere cælo
Possumus ; hinc messisque diem, tempusque serendi ,
Et quando infidum remis impellere marmor
Conveniat ; quando armatas deducere classes, 255
Aut tempestivam sylvis evertere pinum.

Nec frustrà signorum obitus speculamur et ortus,

Temporibusque parem diversis quatuor annum. 259. Si quando frigi- Frigidus agricolam si quando continet imber: dus imber continet agri- Multa, forent quæ mox cælo properanda sereno,

260 colam domi, tunc tempus Maturare datur: durum procudit arator datur maturare multa, quæ mox forent prope

Vomeris obtusi dentem ; cavat arbore lintres : randa, cælo sereno: Aut pecori signum, aut numeros impressit acervis.

Exacuunt alii vallos, furcasque bicornes,
Atque Amerina parant lentæ retinacula viti. 265
Nunc facilis rubeâ texatur fiscina virgâ :
Nunc torrete igni fruges, nunc frangite saxo.
Quippe etiam festis quædam exercere diebus
Fas et jura sinunt : rivos deducere nulla
Religio vetuit, segeti prætendere sepem,

Insidias avibus moliri, incendere vepres,
Balantûmque gregem fluvio mersare salubri.


248. Densantur : is thickened—rendered dug out of the solid body of trees-troughs still more dark, night being extended, or-bowls,&c. lengthened out. At the poles there are six 263. Signum : in the sense of notas. Acer. months day, and six months night, alter- vis. Acervus is a heap or pile of any thing nately,

-a heap of grain. Here, probably, it is 249. Aurora : Aurora returns to them, taken for the sacks or bags that contained from us. She was goddess of the morning, the grain. the daughter of Titan and Terra. She fell 265. Amerina retinacula : osier strings, in love with Tithonus, the son of Laome- to fasten the limber vine. Amerina : an don, king of Troy, by whom she had Mem- adj. from Ameria, a town in Umbria, a non, who came to assist Priam against the spacious country in Italy, where osiers Greeks, and was slain by Achilles. She abounded. oblained for her lover immortality; but for 266. Rubea virgâ: with the osier or wickgot, at the same time, to ask for perpetual er twig. Rubea : an adj. probably from youth and beauty. At last he grew old Rubi, a town of Campania, near which the and infirm; and requested her to reinove virga, or wicker abounded. Dr. Trapp unhim from the world; but as that could not derstands it in this sense, and as a reason be done, she is said to have changed him for so doing, he observes that rubeus, from into a grasshopper: which, as often as it rubus, the bramble, is no where found. grows old, renews its age. By meton. ele- Heyne is of the same opinion. gantly put for the morning.

267. Torrete : dry. Fruges: grain-corn. 250. Oriens: in the sense of Sol.

269. Fas et Jura sinunt exercere, &c. 255. Deducere: to launch the armed fleets. There is a difference of signification between Marmor : in the sense of mare.

fas and jus. "The former implies a divine 256. Tempestivam: seasonable-denoting law, or what may be done, or is permitted the time proper for cutting the pine. Ever- to be done, by the laws of God. The lattere: in the sense of cædere.

ter a natural right—or a law founded in 261. Maturare: to do in season-or, at reason-common law. Deducere rivos : to leisure.

drain the water from his fields. 262. Dentem : the edge of his dull or 272. Balanlûm: gen. plu. of the pres. part. lunt share. Lintres. Those were vessels of balo, here used as a substantive--sheep.

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