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64. Extemplò à primis 65 mensilus

anni fortes tauri

Castorea, Eliadum palmas Epirus equarum?
Continuò has leges æternaque fædera certis
Imposuit natura locis, quo tempore primùm
Deucalion vacuum lapides jactavit in orbem :
Unde homines nati, durum genus. Ergò age, terræ
Pingue solum primis extemplò à mensibus anni
Fortes invertant tauri: glebasque jacentes
Pulverulenta coquat maturis solibus æstas.
At si non fuerit tellus fæcunda, sub ipsum
Arcturum tenui sat erit suspendere sulco :
Illic officiant lætis ne frugibus herbæ ;
Hìc, sterilem exiguus ne deserat humor arenam.
Alternis idem tonsas cessare novales,
Et segnem patiere situ durescere campum.
Aut ibi Aava seres mutato sidere farra ;
Unde priùs lætum siliquâ quassante legumen,
Aut tenues fætus viciæ, tristisque lupini
Sustuleris fragiles calamos, sylvamque sonantem.
Urit enim lini campum seges, urit avenæ :
Urut Lethæo perfusa papavera somno.

70

71. The idem patiere tonsas novales cessare alternis annis, et

74. Unde priùs sustuleris lætum legumen 75 quassante siliquâ, aut

tenues fætus viciæ, fragilesque

77. Seges avenæ urit cum.

NOTES. 59. Virosa castorea : strony-scented castor. furrow, and some time in the fall, about the According to Pliny, the castor was contain- rising of Arcturus. In the former case, ed in the testicles of the beaver. But the (illic) that the grass and weeds may not moderns have found that the castor is con- injure the springing crop; in the latter case tained in certain odoriferous glands about (hc) that the scanty moisture may not the groin, and in both sexes. Epirus pal- leave the barren land. mas, &c. Epirus (produces) the victors of 71. Tonsas novales, &c. You should suffer the Olympic mares-produces those mares your reaped fallow grounds to rest every that obtain the palm of victory in the other year. Novalis terra, is properly new Olyınpic races. Pulmas equarum ; Ruæus ground, or ground newly broken up. Hence says equas victrices in Olympico cursu. Epi- it came to signify fallow ground, because rus, once a powerful kingdom, is bounded by resting it is recruited, and, as it were, by the Ionian sea on the south and west, renewed. and by Thessalia, Macedonia, and Achaia 72. Silu: with a sword. Situs here on the north and east, famous for its excel means the grass, weeds, &c. which overlent horses. Elidum: an adj. gen. plu. spread the ground, and bind it down into from Elis, or Elea, a maritime country of what is commonly called a sword. Campum the Peloponnesus, the chief cities of which segnem: your field lying idle. were Elis, on the river Peneus, aud Olympia, 73. Sidère mulato: the year being changed. on the river Alpheus, famous for the games Some copies read semine mulalo. Sidus, ir. there celebrated in honor of Jupiter. They the sense of annus, is frequently used by were instituted 1458 years before Christ, Virgil. and celebrated every fifth year.

74. Lælum : in the sense of fertile vel 60. Fædera: in the sense of conditiones. copiosum. Siliqua : in the rattling pod, or 62. Deucalion. See Ecl. vi. 41.

shell. 63. Nali: in the sense of orti sunt.

75. Tristis: bitter. Tenues fætus, Ruæus 66. Solibus: Sol, properly the sun, by me- interprets by parva grana. ton. heat. Maturis: in the sense of vehe 76. Sylvam. This word is frequently used mentibus, vel ardentibus. Coqual: emoliat for a thick luxurious crop or growth of any et rarefaciat, says Heyne.

thing. 68. Sub ipsum Arcturum: about the rising 78. Papavera perfusa: poppies impregof Arcturus. This is a star of the first nated with oblivious sleep, or possessing the magnitude in the constellation Bootes, near quality of causing sleep. Leihæo : an adj. the tail of the great Bear. The poet recom from Lethe, a word of Greek origin, immends, if the soil be rich, to turn it up plying forgetfulness or oblivion. The with a deep furrow carly, that it may lie poets feigned it to be one of the rivers of and bake through the heat of the summer; hell, the water of which the dead were said but if the land be of a thin soil, and light, to drink after they had been in the regions it will be sufficient to turn it up with a thin below some time. It was represented as

80

85

79. Labor erit facilis Sed tamen alternis facilis labor : arida tantùm alternis annis :

Ne saturare fimo pingui pudeat sola ; neve
80. Tantùm ne pudeat Effcetos cinerem immundum jactare per agros.
te saturare sola

Sic quoque mutatis requiescunt fætibus arva .
Nec nulla intereà est inaratæ gratia terræ.
Sæpe etiam steriles incendere profuit agros,
Atque levem stipulam crepitantibus urere flammis
Sive inde occultas vires et pabula terræ
Pinguia concipiunt; sive illis omne per ignem
Excoquitur vitium, atque exudat inutilis humor:

Seu plures calor ille vias, et cæca relaxat
91. Seu ille calor ma- Spiramenta, novas veniat quà succus in herbas :
gis durat terram, et

Seu durat magis, et venas astringit hiantes : 92. Ne tenues pluviæ Ne tenues pluviæ, rapidive potentia solis penetrent altiùs ; acriorve potentia

Acrior, aut Boreæ penetrabile frigus adurat. 95. Adeò ille juvat Multùm adeò, rastris glebas qui frangit inertes, arva multùm, qui frangit Vimineasque trahit crates, juvat arva ; neque illum

97. Et ille multùm ju- Flava Ceres alto nequicquam spectat Olympo : vat arva, qui perrumpit Et qui, procisso quæ suscitat æquore, terga terga, que suscitat in primo procisso æquore,

Rursus in obliquum verso perrumpit aratro:

rursus in Exercetque frequens tellurem, atque imperat arvis. obliquum :

Humida solstitia atque hyemes orate serenas,

90

95

aratro verso

100

NOTES.

having the power of causing them to for- abundantly repay the farmer for this indul. get whatever they had done, seen, or heard gence. before. A river in Africa of that name, 86. Sive inde, &c. The poet here gives which flowed under ground for some dis- four reasons for the farmer's firing his lands. tance, and then rose to its surface, is sup- 1. That they might hence receive an inposed to have given rise to this extravagant crease of nutriment. 2 That the noxious fable,

moisture might be dried up to them. 3. 79. Labor facilis. The meaning appears That the close and dense soil might be loosento be this: that the above mentioned crops ed. And 4. That the loose soil might be may be sown every other year, notwith- rendered closer. This he founds upon the standing their injurious qualities, provided principle of those philosophers who taught the land be well manured.

that fire was the universal element. 80. Arida sola : dry or thirsty soils.

88. Vitium : the bad quality. 81. Effælos : worn out-exhausted. 90. Spiramenta cæca : secret avenues, or 82. Fætibus: in the sense of segetibus. passages, by which moisture is drawn into

83. Nec nul'a gratia est inaratæ terræ : the new plants. nor, in the mean time is there no gratitude 93. Penetrabile : in the sense of penetrans, in the land untilled-left fallow every other etrating-searching. Rapidi: in the year.

sense of ardentis. The whole of this section contains a num 97. Et qui, &c. The poet recommends ber of excellent precepts and instructions for to the farmer to harrow his ground well, the husbandman. In the first place, he ad- before he commit the seed to it; but if it be vises the farmer to let his land rest every hard and obstinate, and lie up in ridges, other year; or, if he cannot do that with (terga) so that it will not yield to the ha:convenience, then to change the crops, and row, then it will be profitaole to plough it to sow wheat after the several kinds which he again crosswise. Proscisso æquore: in breakmentions, but not to sow flax, oats, or pop- ing up his field. Suscitat : raises uppies : for these burn and impoverish the makes. land. He says, notwithstanding this, they 99. Exercet, &c. He exercises his land may be sown in turn, provided care be taken frequently, and commands his fields. This to recruit and enrich the land by manure. is a metaphor taken from a general training The poet concludes by observing, that if the or exercising his troops giving thein comground be left fallow, as he at first advised, mands, and dispensing discipline among instead of being sown with any of those them. grains, it would not be ungrateful-it would 100. Solstitia : summers.

ager est lætus

105 eo, qui

Agricolæ : hyberno lætissima pulvere farra,

101. Farra sunt lætisLætus ager: nullo tantùm se Mysia cultu

sima hyberno pulvere: Jactat, et ipsa suas mirantur Gargara messes. Quid dicam, jacto qui semine cominùs arva

104. Quid dicam de Insequitur, cumulosque ruit malè pinguis arenæ ? Deinde satis fluvium inducit, rivosque sequentes? Et cùm exustus ager morientibus æstuat herbis, Ecce, supercilio clivosi tramitis undam Elicit: illa cadens raucum per levia murmur Saxa ciet, scatebrisque arentia temperat arva. 110 Quid, qui, ne gravidis procumbat culmus aristis,

111. Quid dicam de Luxurier segetum tenerâ depascit in herbâ,

illo, qui, ne culmus pro

cumbat gravidis aristis, Cùm primùm sulcos equant sata ? quique paludis

depascit Collectum humorem bibulâ deducit arena ?

113. Quique deducit Præsertim incertis si mensibus amnis abundans 115 humorein collectum inExit, et obducto latè tenet omnia limo,

star paludis bibulâ arenâ Unde cavæ tepido sudant humore lacuna. Nec tamen (hæc cùm sint hominumque, boumque labores Versando terram experti) nihil improbus anser, Strymoniæque grues, et amaris intuba fibris, 120 Officiunt, aut umbra nocet. Pater ipse colendi

121. Colendi terram

NOTES,

101. Farra: in the sense of segetes. native. This appears to be the opinion of 102. Mysia. There were two countries Heyne. Humorem: in the sense of aquam. of this name: the one in Europe, and bound 115. Incertis mensibus: in the variable ed on the north by the Danube; the other months—those months when the weather in Asia Minor, near the Propontis and Hel- is most changeable. lespont. The latter is here meant. Mysia 118. Nec tamen, &c. Though the farmer delights herself so much in no cultivation, be never so careful in the culture of his land, as in moist summers and dry winters-no the poet reminds him not to stop there. culture renders her so fruitful, as to have After the crop is put into the ground, it still moist, &c.

requires his attention. For the foul or 103. Gargara : neu. plu. A part of mount greedy goose, the Thracian cranes, the sucIda, the country near which was much famed cory, or endive, as also the shade, injure it. for its fertility.

The two negatives, nec-nihil, amount to an 104. Quid dicam, &c. What shall I

say

of affirmative. him, who, the seed being sown, closely plies 120. Strymoniæ: an adj. from Strymon, a his fields, and breaks down the ciods or river in the confines of Macedonia and ridges (cumulos) of his barren soil? For malè Thrace, where cranes abounded. pinguis; Ruæus says, malè compacte; and 121. Pater ipse voluit: father Jupiter himValpy, too rich and adhesive. Ruit: in the self willed that the way of cultivating the sense of frangit.

earth should not be easy. He was fabled to 106. Sequentes rivos: in the sense of fluo have been the son of Saturn and Ops; and entes rivulos.

called the father of gods, and king of men 108. Ecce, elicit aquam, &c. Lo! he leads Saturn, who received the kingdom of the down a stream of water from the brow of world from his brother Titan, on the condia hilly tract. Æstuat: is parched, or burn- tion of his raising no male offspring, devoured.

ed his sons as soon as they were born; but 110. Scatebris: with its streams, or rills. his mother, regretting that so fair a child Temperat : Ruæus says, humectat.

should be destroyed, concealed him from 114. Quique deducit. The probable mean- his father, as she also did Neptune and Pluto, ing of this passage is: that the husbandman, and intrusted him to the care of the Coryfor the purpose of watering his fields in the bantes, or Curetes, who educated him on dry season, should form reservoirs or ponds, mount Ida, in Crete. As soon as he came by collecting into them the water that fell to mature years, he made war against the in the rainy season. He had already ad- Titans, who had made his father a prisoner. vised the plan of bringing water from the He was victorious and set him at liberty. higher grounds upon his fields. But where But growing jealous of his son's power, he that could not be done, he advises to substi- conspired against him; whereupon Jupiter tute the reservoir or pond, as the only alter- expelled him from his kingdom, and he fled

Haud facilem esse viam voluit, primusque per artem
Novit

agros, curis acuens mortalia corda :
Nec torpere gravi passus sua regna veterno.
- Ante Jovem nulli subigebant arva coloni :

125
Nec signare quidem, aut partiri limite campum
Fas erat: in medium quærebant: ipsaque tellus
Omnia liberiùs, nullo poscente, ferebat.
Ille malum virus serpentibus addidit atris,
Prædarique lupos jussit, pontumque moveri, 130
Mellaque decussit foliis, ignemque removit,
Et passim rivis currentia vina repressit:
Ut varias usus meditando extunderet artes
Paulatim, et sulcis frumenti quæreret herbam,
Et silicis venis abstrusum excuderet ignem.

135 Tunc alnos primùm fluvii sensêre cavatas :

Navita tum stellis numeros et nomina fecit,
eas Pleïadas, Hyadas, claramque Lycaonis Arcton.

Tum laqueis captare feras, et fallere visco,
Inventum; et magnos canibus circumdare saltus. 140
Atque alius latum fundâ jam verberat amnem

138. Appellans Pleiadas

NOTES. for safety to Italy, where Janus was king. found necessary to man. Decussit : he After this, Jupiter divided the empire of the shook off the honey from the leaves, i. e. he world with his two brothers, reserving to him- caused the honey to cease. self the empire of heaven and earth. The 133. Ut usus extunderet : that experience, Giants, the offspring of the earth, to avenge by observation, might find out the various the death of the Titans, whom Jupiter slew, arts by degrees. rebelled against him. Piling mountains, one 134. Sulcis: by agriculture—by the plough. upon another, they hoped to scale heaven 136. Cavatas alnos: simply, boats; beitself, and attack Jupiter in person. He, cause, at first, they were made of the alderhowever, completely vanquished them, and tree. inflicted on them the severest punishment 138. Pleïadas: acc. plu. of Greek termifor their crimes. He married his sister Juno, nation. They are seven stars in the neck who was very jealous of him, and sometimes of Taurus, and are called Pleïades, from a very troublesome. His power was the most Greek word signifying, to sail; because by extensive of any of the gods. His worship their rising, they indicated the proper time was general, and surpassed that of any of to put to sea. They were sometimes called the gods in dignity and solemnity. He had Atlantides, from Atlas, a king of Mauritaseveral celebrated oracles, but that at Do- nia, whose daughters they were fabled to dona, in Epirus, and at Ammon, in Lybia, per- be, by the nymph Pleżone. The Romans Haps took the lead. He had several names, sometimes called them Vergiliæ. Their chiefly derived from the places where he was names were, Electra, Alcynoë, Celæno, Steworshipped, and from his offices and func- rope, Taygeta, Maia, and Merope. Hyadas. tions. He was called Hospitalis, because These are seven stars in the front of Taurus, he was the protector of strangers; Optimus, so called from a Greek word signifying, to because he was the best; Maximus, because rain. They were fabled to have been the he was the greatest; Olympius, because he daughters of Alias and Æthra. Refusing was worshipped at Olympia, &c. Jupiter, consolation for the death of their brother is sometimes put for the air, or weather. Hyas, who was slain by a lion, Jupiter, ta

123. Movil : in the sense of coluit. king pity on them, changed them into as

124. Gravi veterno. Veternus, or veternum, many stars. Their names are Ambrosia, is a disease causing a stupor both of mind Eudoxa, Pasithoë, Cirone, Plexauris, Pytho, and body, something like the lethargy. and Syche. Arolon. A constellation near Torpere gravi veterno, is highly metaphorical. the north pole, called the Ursa Major. LyVeterno: in the sense of otio, vel desidia, caon was a king of Arcadia, whose daughsays Ruæus.

ter Calisto, out of jealousy, was transform131. Removit ignem: he removed fire from ed by Juno into a bear; and Jupiter, for his the sight of men, and concealed it in the regard to her, translated her in that form to ins of the flint. Prometheas is said to heaven, and made her the constellation e stolen it from heaven, because it was Arcton.

144. Primi homines

145

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150

Alta petens, pelagoue alius trahit humida lina.
Tum ferri rigor, atque argutæ lamina serræ ;
(Nam primi cuneis scindebant fissile lignum)
Tum variæ venêre artes. Labor omnia vincit
Improbus, et Juris urgens in rebus egestas.

Prima Ceres ferro mortales vertere terram
Instituit : cùm jam glandes atque arbuta sacræ
Deficerent sylvæ, et victum Dodona negaret
Mox et frumentis labor additus; ut mala culmos
Esset rubigo, segnisque horreret in arvis
Carduus : intcreunt segetes, subit aspera sylva,
Lappæque, tribulique : interque nitentia culta
Infelix lolium et steriles dominantur avenæ.
Quòd nisi et assiduis terram insectabere rastris,
Et sonitu terrebis aves, et ruris opaci
Falce premes umbras, votisque vocaveris imbrem :
Heu, magnum alterius frustrà spectabis acervum,
Concussâque famem in sylvis solabere quercu.

Dicendum, et quæ sint duris agrestibus arma :
Queis sinè, nec potuere seri, nec surgere messes.
Vomis, et inflexi primùm grave robur aratri,
Tardaque Eleusinæ matris volventia plaustra,
Tribulaque, traheæque, et iniquo pondere rastri :
Virgea prætereà Celei vilisque supellex,
Arbuteæ crates, et mystica vannus Iacchi.

155

160 160. Dicendum

nobis, et que

162. Primùm vomis, et grava

165

NOTES.

142. Petens alta : seeking the deep parts 159. Solabere famem, &c. The poet asof the sea, or river. Al!um, when it is used sures the farmer that, unless he follow the for the sea, properly signifies the channel, directions just given, he will behold the or the deepest part of it; while pelagus pro- abundant crops of hiş neighbor, while his perly signifies that part of the sea near the will fail him, and he be under the necessity land.

of allaying the craving of nature upon no143. Tum rigor ferri ; then the hardening thing better than acorns. of iron, and the blade of the grating saw, 160. Arma : implements, tools, &c. ncceswere invented.

sary to the farmer. Et: in the sense of 145. Improbus labor : constant, perseve- quoque. ring labor overcomes all difficulties. Du 163. Tarda volventia : the slow-moving ris rebus : in poverty. Egestas : in the sense wagons of mother Ceres. Elusinæ : an adj. of neccssitas. Venere : in the sense of in- from Elcusis, a city of Attica, where she venta sunt.

was worshipped. Inflexi: in the sense of 148. Arbuta : the fruit of the arbute tree. curvi. Dodona: a famous grove in Epirus, abound 164. Tribula. This was a kind of sledge ing in mast trees. See Ecl. ix. 13.

or carriage, used among the ancients to thresh 150. Labor: in the sense of morbus, dis- their corn with. It was pointed with iron. ease. Mala rubigo esset : that the noxious and drawn over the grain by oxen. Trahea mildew should consume the stalks. Esset, This was an instrument something like the for ederet.

tribulum, and made use of for the same 152. Segnis carduus: the useless thistle purpose; a sledge. wave, or loo's rough. Sylva. See 76, supra.

164. Iniquo : Ruæus says, magno.

165. Vilis virgeaque supellex: the cheap 153. Lappe: burrs, a species of herb.

or common wicker-baskets. Celei : Celeus Tribuli : the brambles-land-caltrops. In

was the father of Triptolemus, whom Ceres, feliz: noxious—irjurious.

it is said, instructed in the art of tillage and 154. Dominantur : bear rule—have the husbandry. See Ecl. v. 79. ascendency.

166. Arbuteæ crates : hurdles of the ar157. Premes umbras: you should trim off bute tree. Vannus : a sieve, or winnowing the limbs (of the trees) of a shaded field, machine. It is called mystica, mystic, be&c. Umbras : in the sense of ramos, by cause used in the mysteries of Bacchu meton.

lacchi : lacchus, a name of Bacchus.

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