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Cùm fremit ilicibus quantus, gaudetque nivali
Vertice, se attollens pater Apenninus ad auras.

Jam verò et Rutuli certatim, et Troës, et omnes
Convertêre oculos Itali; quique alta tenebant 705
Mônia, quique imos pulsabant ariete muros ;
Armaque deposuere humeris. Stupet ipse Latinus,
Ingentes genitos diversis partibus orbis

708. Duos ingentes. Inter se coiïsse viros, et cernere ferro.

viros genitos in Atque illi, ut vacuo patuerunt æquore campi, 710

710. Ut primum
Procursu rapido, conjectis eminùs hastis,
Invadunt Martem clypeis atque ære sonoro.
Dat gemitum tellus : tum crebros ensibus ictus
Congeminant: fors et virtus miscentur in unum.
Ac velut, ingenti Silâ, summove Taburno,

715
Cùm duo conversis inimica in prælia tauri
Frontibus incurrunt; pavidi cessêre magistri ;
Stat pecus omne metu mutum ; mussantque juvencæ,
Quis pecori imperitet; quem tota armenta sequantur :

719. Quis taurus Illi inter sese multâ vi vulnera miscent,

720

21. Cornua inter se Cornuaque obnixi infigunt, et sanguine largo

invicem
Colla armosque lavant: gemitu nemus omne remugit.
Haud aliter Tros Æneas et Daunius heros
Concurrunt clypeis : ingens fragor ætherą complet.
Jupiter ipse duas æquato examine lances

725
Sustinet, et fata imponit diversa duorum ;
Quem damnet labor, et quo vergat pondere letum.

NOTES.

projecting into the Ægean sea. It is said Apennine mountains in Calabria. Taburno: to be sixty miles in length, and so high that this was a mountain in the confines of Camit overshadows the island of Lemnos. Ho- pania, which blocks up the famous straits of die, Monte Santo. It is so called from the Caudi or Caudium. Here the Roman army number of monasteries upon it. Eryx : a was obliged to surrender to the Samnites, mountain in Sicily, next in height to Ætna, and to pass under the yoke. so called from a king of that name who was 717. Magistri : in the sense of pastores. slain by Hercules. It is situated near the Cessêre : in the sense of fugerunt. western side of the island. Hodie, Monte 718. Mussant: Heyne says, tacitè experGiuliano.

tant. Ruæus says, timidè, et quasi tacitè 703. Pater Apenninus : mount Apennine mugiunt. is here called pater, either as being the pa- 721. Largo : in the sense of multo. Fent of so many noble rivers and woods; 722. Lavant: Ruæus says, tingunt. or by way of dignity, as being the greatest 723. Daunius heros : Turnus. He was mountain in Italy. The Apennines are pro- the son of Daunus and Venilia. perly a range of mountains running the 725. Æquato examine : equal poise or whole length of Italy, and dividing it nearly balance. Examen is the tongue, or needle im the middle.

of the balance, which, being exactly in equa704. Certatim : eagerly.

librio, shows the scales to be equal. 708. Ingentes viros : that two mighty he- 727. Quem labor damnet: whom the comroes born in, &c.

bat should devote or doom to death. The 709. Coïïsse : in the sense of congredi. fates, or destiny, were not at the disposal of Cernere : in the sense of pugnare, vel decer- Jove. He could only examine into futurity. nerc.

He puts (imponit) the fates of the combat710. Campi: the ground—the space clear- ants into the scales of the balance, to see ed for the combatants.

which end of the beam would rise. Servius, 712. Invadunt Martem : in the sense of and some others, take the words in the sense incipiunt pugnam.

of quem felix labor damnet votis : whom the 714. Congeminant : they repeat-redou- combat shall coom to pay his vows—who ble. In unum : into one-together.

shall be the successful combatant. But it 715. Sila : a vast forest, or tract of hills, is easier to consider the expression as refercovered with wood, that formed part of the ring to one and the same person : whom the

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Emicat hìc, impunè putans, et corpore toto horn 729. Putans futurum Altè sublatum consurgit Turnus in ensem, impunè sibi, Turnus hìc Et ferit. Exclamant Troës, trepidique Latini, 730 emicat

Arrectæque amborum acies. At perfidus ensis
Frangitur, in medioque ardentem deserit ictu,
Ni fuga subsidio subeat. Fugit ocyor Euro,

Ut capulum ignotum, dextramque adspexit inermem. 735. Fama est, eum Fama est, præcipitem, cùm prima in prælia junctos 735 præcipitem, cùm scendebat equos junctos

con: Conscendebat equos, patrio mucrone relicto, in prima prælia, dum tre

Dum trepidat, ferrum aurigæ rapuisse Metisci : pidat, rapuisse

Idque diu, dum terga dabant palantia Teucri,
Suffecit : postquam arma Dei ad Vulcania ventum est,
Mortalis mucro, glacies ceu futilis, ictu

740
Dissiluit: fulvå resplendent fragmina arena.
Ergò amens diversa fugâ petit æquora Turnus,
Et nunc huc, inde huc, incertos implicat orbes.
Undique enim densâ Teucri inclusêre coronâ :

Atque hinc vasta palus, hinc ardua menia cingunt. 745 746. Æneas insequi- Nec minùs Æneas, quanquam tardata sagittà tur, quanquam genua Interdum genua impediunt, cursumque recusant, tardata sagitta 748. Pedem trepidi

Insequitur : trepidique pedem pede fervidus urget. Turni

Inclusum veluti si quando flumine nactus 749. Si quando canis Cervum, aut puniceæ septum formidine pennæ, 750 venator nactus Venator cursu, canis et latratibus instat :

Ille autem, insidiis et ripâ territus altâ,
Mille fugit refugitque vias : at vividus Umber

Gulisan

NOTES

* * * combat shall devote to ruin, as above. This 734. Capulum: the hilt only remained in is the opinion of Valpy. Davidson renders his hand. He now discovered the fatal misthe words, " whom the toilsome combat take. Ut: when—as soon as. destines to victory.” Labor : in the sense 737. Trepidat : in the sense of properat. of pugna, says Heyne. The poet here imi- 739. Suffecit : in the sense of satis fuit. tates Homer, who makes Jove, in like man- Vulcania arma Dei : in the sense of arma ner, weigh the fates of Hector and Achilles. Dei Vulcani, vel Divina arma Vulcani. Quo pondere : in which scale. Death was Those arms which Vulcan made for Æneas. to fals to the party, whose scale sunk or fell. This construction is imitated from the Ruæus says, mors inclinat.

Greeks. 729. Altè: this is to be taken with subla- 740. Mortalis mucro: a sword made by tum.

men-a mortal sword. Futilis: in the sense 730. Ferit: Ænean is understood. Tre- of fragilis. pidi: trembling—in anxious fear. Consur- 741. Dissiluit: in the sense of fractus est. git : in the sense of insurgit.

742. Diversa æquora : different parts of 731. Arrectæ : in the sense of suspensæ. the plain. Amens : alarmed. Of a priv. The verb sunt is understood.

and mens. 732. Deserit : leaves him ardent for the 743. Implicat : in the sense of facit vel fight, at the mercy of his antagonist. These format. He wheels around in his flight, last, or words of the like import, are neces- forming irregular figures, or circles, sary to make the sense complete. When 744. Corona densa : in close ranks in a he mounted his chariot, it was his intention close compact body. to take his trusty, heavenly tempered sword 746. Sagitta : the arrow by which he was —that sword made by Vulcan for his father; wounded in the beginning of the action. but in his haste and perturbation, he took Heyne says, vulnere. the sword of Metiscus, his charioteer; which 748. Fervidus : in the sense of ardens. here deceived him. It is therefore, called 749. Flumine : some copies have in fire perfidus ensis.

mine. Heyne omits the in. This is the read. 733. Ni fuga : had not flight come to his ing of the Roman MS. Inclusum: enclosed, aid-had he not instantly Pud, he would or confined by a river. have fallen under the arm of Æneas, being 750. Formidine. The formido, as Dr. left in that defenceless state.

Trapp observes, was a rope stuck thick with

Hæret hians, jam jamque tenet, similisque tenenti

754. Hians hæret illia Increpuit malis, morsuque elusus inani est.

755 jam jamque tenet eum Tum verò exoritur clamor : ripæque lacusque Responsant circà, et cælum tonat omne tumultu. Ille simul fugiens, Rútulos sirnul increpat,omnes,

758. Ille Turnus seNomine quemque vocans; notumque efflagitat ensem. rul est fugiens Æneas mortem contrà, præsensque minatur 760 Exitium, si quisquam adeat: terretque trementes,

761. Adeat Turnum : Excisurum urbem minitans, et saucius instat.

terretque eos trementes,

minitans se excisurum Quinque orbes explent cursu, totidemque retexunt Huc, illuc : nec enim levia aut ludicra petuntur Præmia ; sed Turni de vitâ et sanguine certant. 765

Fortè sacer Fauno foliis oleaster amaris Hìc steterat, nautis olim venerabile lignum ; Servati ex undis ubi figere dona solebant

768. Ubi illi servati

ex undis
Laurenti Divo, et votas suspendere vestes :
Sed stirpem Teucri nullo discrimine sacrum 770
Sustulerant, puro ut possent concurrere campo.
Hìc hasta Æneæ stabat; huc impetus illam

772. Impetus ejus dex
Detulerat, fixam et lentâ in radice tenebat.
Incubuit, voluitque manu convellere ferrum,
Dardanides ; teloque sequi, quem prendere cursu

775 775. Sequique Tur Non poterat. Tum verò amens formidine Turnus,

num telo, quem
Faune, precor, miserere, inquit: tuque optima ferrum
Terra tene: colui vestros si semper honores,
Quos contrà Æneadæ bello fecêre profanos.
Dixit: opemque Dei non cassa in vota vocavit. 780

træ

NOTES. red or crimson feathers to enclose, and Explent: in the sense of conficiunt. Retexfrighten the deer, or other animals. See uni: Ruæus says, relegunt. Geor. iii. 371.

764. Enim: in the sense of equidem. Lu753. Umber: a dog of Umbria, in the dicra : trifling—of no value. north of Italy. Canis is understood. Vivi

766. Oleaster. The wild olive was fredus: quick scented.

755. Increpuit: Ruæus says, insonuit.— quently planted before temples, that the He shuts his jaws, as if in the act of seizing

consecrated offerings might be suspended him,

upon its boughs. It was a very durable tree, 1761. Si quis adeat. Virgil here outrages

and not apt to receive any injury, though the character of his hero. It is true he has wood. Its leaves were bitter.

ever so many nails were driven into its the example of Homer for it. But it is to be remembered the two poets lived in very

767. Lignum: in the sense of arbor. Vedifferent states of society. Turnus is forced nerabile : in the sense of venerandum. to the contest with unequal weapons. Of 769. Votas: in the sense of devotas. his sword he is deprived, and left without 770. Nullo discrimine: with no regard to arms. In this situation, he is pursued by its sacredness. Nullo respectu habito, says Æneas, who threatens to put the person to Heyne. death, who shall give him his sword, that he 771. Puro: in the sense of aperto, vel may be in a condition to defend himself, vacuo. Sustulerant : in the sense of abscinand be on more equal terms with his adver- derant. sary. This is a course of conduct, which 773. Lenta radice: in the tough root. It no age or nation, however barbarous, can stuck fast in the root, so that it could not be justify. Much less is it becoming in the sol- drawn out. dier, and the hero. The putting to death 775. Dardanides : Æneas. A patronymic of unarmed and defenceless persons may be from Dardanus. Incubuit : Ruæus says, practised, but cannot be justified. Valpy. insistit.

763. Retexunt totidem : they retrace, or 776. Amens : Ruæus says, exanimatus. form back again, as many more. The mean- 778. Colui : I have regarded, or held saing is, that Turnus went five times around cred. the field of combat, pursued by Æneas.- 780. Cassa: in the sense of inutilia.

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Namque diu luctans, lentoque in stirpe .noratus'
Viribus haud ullis valuit discludere morsus ex

Roboris Æneas. Dum nititur acer et instat, his
784. Rursùs Daunia Rursùs in aurigæ faciem mutata Metisci
Dea mutata in faciem

Procurrit, fratrique ensem Dea Daunia reddit. 785 in American Quod Venus audaci Nymphæ indignata licere;

Accessit, telumque altă ab radice revellit.
ex Olli sublimes, armis, animisque refecti,

Hic gladio fidens, hic acer et arduus hastå,
Adsistunt contrà certamine Martis anheli.

790
Junonem intereà rex omnipotentis Olympi
Alloquitur, fulvâ pugnas de nube tuentem.

Quæ jam finis erit, conjux ? quid denique restat ? 794. Tu ipsa scis, et Indigetem Æneam scis ipsa, et scire fateris, tateris te scire Æneam Deberi cælo, fatisque ad sidera tolli.

795 indigetem deberi

Quid struis ? aut quâ spe gelidis in nubibus hæres ?
Mortalin' decuit violari vulnere Divum ?

Aut
799. Decuit-ne' eum ensem (quid enim sinè te Juturna valeret ?)

reddi Turno, et vim crescere victis ? Divum violari

Desine jam tandem, precibusque inflectere nostris : 800
Nec te tantuš edat tacitam dolor; et mihi curæ
Sæpe tuo dulci tristes ex ore recursent.

Ventum ad supremum est. Terris agitare vel undis 805. Domum Latini Trojanos potuisti ; infandum accendere bellum,

806. Veto te tentare Deformare domum, et luctu miscere hymenæos : 805 « quicquam

Ulteriùs tentare veto. Sic Jupiter orsus :

NOTES.

782. Discludere morsus roboris : to loosen, side of his mother, was of divine descent. or separate the hold of the wood. The Valpy says, “ destined to divinity.” poet here represents the root of the tree 798. Valeret: in the sense of posset facere. (stirpe) as a fierce dog, or wild beast, whose 799. Ereptum. This alludes to his trusty tusks take so fast hold of the prey, that sword, which he forgot to take with him there is no disengaging them. Lento: in when he mounted his chariot at the beginthe sense of tenace. Discludere: in the sense ning of the fight. It was taken, or snatched of solvere.

from him, by his forgetfulness. 783. Acer : in the sense of ardens. Æneas 800. Inflectere: in the sense of movere. is to be supplied.

Edat: consume—waste away. Ruæus says, 785. Daunia Dea: Juturna, the sister of angat. Et. The et here connects, and conTurnus, and daughter of Daunus : hence tinues the preceding negative. The nec is the adj. Daunia. See 139, supra, et seq. to be repeated after the et; or the et is to

786. Quod: in the sense of hoc. It is be taken in the sense of nec. This last is governed by indignata : indignant-angry. the opinion of Valpy. Heyne observes, the

788. Refecti : in the sense of reparati vel nec is to be repeated. Negativa nec repeanimati.

tenda est, says he. Curæ : troubles. Solici789. Arduus: in the sense of elatus. tudines, says Ruæus.

790. Contrà : against each other-faee 804. Accendere bellum: to kindle horrid each other. Anheli: Ruæus refers it to war. See Æn. vii. 323; where Juno raises Turnus and Æneas. Heyne connects it Alecto from the infernal regions, who broke with Martis; and it is a very appropriate the league which Latinus had made with epithet of a fight, like the present. The Æneas, and kindled the war. sense is the same in either construction. 805. Deformare : to afflict-trouble-dis

794. Indigetem. Indiges is, properly, a dei. grace. Davidson says, “ dishonor.” Heyne fied hero à demi-god. Such an one was thinks reference is here made to the death Æneas after his death.

of Amata, who hung herself. Disgrace and 796. Hæres: in the sense of manes. ignominy always attend suicide. Hymenæos: 797. Divum: this is said by anticipation. the match of Lavinia and Æneas. Miscere: Æneas was not yet a god. Or divum may in the sense of turbare. be in the sense of divinum; and then it will 806. Orsus: in the sense of locutus est. zefer to the origin of Æneas; who, on the Of the verb ordior.

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Sic Dea submisso contrà Saturnia vultu :
Ista quidem quia nota mihi tua, magne, voluntas,

808. O magne Jupi. Jupiter, et Turnum et terras invita reliqui.

ter, quia quidem ista

tua voluntas est nota Nec tu me aëriâ, solam nunc sede videres

810
Digna indigna pati ; sed flammis cincta sub ipsâ
Starem acie, traheremque inimica in prælia Teucros.
Juturnam misero, fateor, succurrere fratri
Suasi, et pro vitâ majora audere probavi : in Ba

ut tela tamen, non ut contenderet arcum. 815 815. Tamen non suaAdjuro Stygii caput implacabile fontis,

si, nec probavi ut jaceret

tela, non suasi, nec proUna superstitio superis quæ reddita Divis.

bavi ut
Et nunc cedo equidem, pugnasque exosa relinquo.
Illud te, nullâ fati quod lege tenetur,
Pro Latio obtestor, pro majestate, tuorum :

820 820. Obtestor te conCùm jam connubiis pacem felicibus, esto, vect

cedere illud pro Component; cùm jam leges et fædera jungent: Ne vetus indigenas nomen mutare Latinos,

823. Ne jubeas Latini Neu Troas fieri jubeas, Teucrosque vocari ;

nos indigenas mutare Aut vocem mutare viros, aut vertere vestes. 825 825. Sit Latium in Sit Latium ; sint Albani

æternum
per
sæcula

reges :
Sit Romana potens Italâ virtute propago :
Occidit, occideritque sinas cum nomine Troja.

828. Troja occidit, tu Olli subridens hominum rerumque repertor:

que sinas ut Et germana Jovis, Saturnique altera proles, 830

830. Ait : lu, et gerIrarum tantos volvis sub pectore fluctus ? Verùm age, et inceptum frustrà submitte furorem :

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mana

NOTES.

807. Submisso : in the sense of tristi. in the sense of data vel facta. Others take The verb respondit, or some other of the like it to imply, imposed or retaliated upon the import, is understood.

gods above, by the infernal gods: as if this 810. Nec tu nunc : some words appear fear, or dread of swearing by Styx, made necessary here to make the sense complete: the gods above subject, in their turn, to the otherwise, you would not, &c. If I had not gods below, as much as these latter are lo known it to be your will, you would not the former. now see, &c. Aëriâ sede : in the aerial re- 819. Tenetur : withheld—prohibited. gions. Reference is here had to verse 792, 820. Tuorum. The Latin kings derived where Juno is represented as viewing the their descent from Saturn, the brother of field of battle, seated on a cloud.

Jove. 811. Pati digna indigna: to bear things, 822. Component : in the sense of constibecoming and unbecoming. This is a pro- tuent. verbial expression, the import of which is, 823. Indigenas : natives—those born in * to bear every thing, even the greatest in

the country. sults and indignities."

825. Vocem: language. The meaning is: 812. Inimica. Ruæus says, adversa. do not order the men to change their lan1816. Stygii fontis : Styx, a fabulous river

guage, or their dress. of hell. The gods were wont to swear by 827. Romana propago sit : let the Roman it; and if they swore falsely, they were offspring be poweriul, by Italian valor: i. e. doomed to lose their divinity for a length of let all the future glory and grandeur of the time. Hence it is called implacabilis : in- Romans be grafted on the valor of the exorable. Fontis : in the sense of fluvii. Latins. Propago : in the senso of proles. Caput : the head, or source ; put for the 829. Repertor : in the sense of auctor vel whole stream, by synec. Adjuro caput pater. Stygii : simply for, juro per Stygem, says 830. Et germana Jovis : Ruæus and som Heyne.

others read es, in the place of et. Heyne 817. Una superstitio : the fear, or dread. reads et. Servius says, the sole, or only obligation. 831. Volvis : why dost thou roll such Heyne takes superstitio for religio, et metus mighty, &c. e: ea ortus. Reddita. Servius takes this 832. Submitte : restrain-curb.

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