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Intereâ extremo bellator in

æquore Turnus Palantes sequitur paucos, jam segnior, atque

615 Jam minùs atque minùs successu lætus equorum.

Attulit hunc illi cæcis terroribus aura
618. Commixtum cæ- Commixtum clamorem, arrectasque impulit aures
cis terroribus

Confusæ sonus urbis, et illætabile murmur.
Hei mihi! quid tanto turbantur mænia luctu ? 620
Quisve ruit tantus diversâ clamor ab urbe ?
Sic ait: adductisque amens subsistit habenis.
Atque huic, in faciem soror ut conversa Metisci

Aurigæ, currumque et equos et lora regebat, 625. Occurrit huic in Talibus occurrit dictis : Hâc, Turne, sequamur

625 talibus dictis: hâc parte, Trojugenas, quâ prima viam victoria pandit O Turne

Sunt alii, qui tecta manu defendere possint.
Ingruit Æneas Italis, et prælia miscet:

Et nos sæva manu mittamus funera Teucris. 630. Numero cæsorum Nec numero inferior, pugnæ nec honore recedes. 630 631. Turnus respondet Turnus ad hæc :

O soror, et dudum agnovi, cùm prima per artem

Fædera turbâsti, teque hæc in bella dedisti : 634. Fallis me. Sed Et nunc nequicquam fallis Dea. Sed quis Olympo quis Deorum voluit te Demissam tantos voluit te ferre labores ?

635 lemissam

An fratris miseri letum ut crudele videres ?

Nam quid ago ? aut quæ jam spondet fortuna salutem ? 638. Ego ipse vidi in- Vidi oculos ante ipse meos, me voce vocantem gentem Murranum op- Murranum, (quo non superat mihi charior alter, petere ante meos oculos, vocantem me voce, atque

Oppetere ingentem, atque ingenti vulnere victum. 640 victum

Occidit infelix, ne nostrum dedecus, Ufens, 643. Nostris miseris Aspiceret : Teucri potiuntur corpore et armis. rebus

Exscindi-ne domos, id rebus defuit unum,

NOTES.

614. Æquore : in the sense of campo. 617. Aura: in the sense of ventus. Cæcus : 615. Segnior. Rumus says, tardior. unknown-uncertain. Ruæus says, incertis.

616. Successu equorum. Servius, and most 619. Illætabile: mournful-unjoyous. Of interpreters after him, take the meaning to in, neg. and lætabilis. be: that Turnus was now less pleased with 621. Diversâ : in the sense of ab diversa his horses, because they were out of breath, parte urbis. Ruæus says, dissita. and fatigued. But it seems much better to 625. Occurrit : in the sense of respondet. understand it of his being less pleased with 627. Tecta : in the sense of urbem. the easy victory he gained, now that Æneas 629. Mittamus : in the sense of demus. was retired, and only a few straggling troops Funera sæva : in the sense of crudelem morleft in the field. This agrees with the ex- tem, says Ruæus. “Let us spread cruel pressions paucos palantes. Successu equo- death among the Trojans.” Valpy. rum: this last intimates, that the victory he 630. Numero: in the number of the slain. gained was now so easy, that he had only Turnus should equal Æneas in the number to drive the enemy before his chariot, with- of his slain, and in the glory of the fight. out meeting with any resistance. Turnus 632. Agnovi : the pron. te is understood. might think the victory not worthy of his 633. Turbâsti : in the sense of rupisti. valor, and was therefore less pleased with 634. Fallis : Heyne says, vis latere. it, than if it had more richly rewarded him. 638. Murranum. He was one of the ItaThis better accords with the sentiments of lian princes, and slain by Æneas, verse 529, the soldier. This is the opinion of David- supra. Ingentem : mighty-powerful.

He renders the words; 66 with the 641. Ufens. He cominanded the Agricole. cheap victory of his horses.” Heyne agrees See Æn. vii. 745. with Servius. Ruæus observes: he was 643. Unum: in the sense of solum. The less pleased with his horses, because they only thing wanting to our complete wretchhad carried him so far from the fight. edness and misery.

son.

644

ces

Perpetiar ? dextrâ nec Drancis dicta refellam?
Terga dabo ? et Turnum fugientem hæc terra videbit ?
Usque adeòne mori miserum est ? vos ô mihi Manes

646. Est-ne usque

adeò Este boni ; quoniam Superis aversa voluntas.

647. Voluntas SupeSancta ad vos anima, atque istius inscia culpæ,

ris est aversa mihi Descendam, magnorum haud unquam indignus avorum.

Vix ea fatus erat : medios volat, ecce, per hostes 650
Vectus equo spumante Sages ; adversa sagittà
Saucius ora ruitque, implorans nomine Turnum ;

652. Saucius quoad

adversa ora Turne, in te suprema salus ; \miserere tuorum,

653. Nostra suprema Fulminat Æneas armis, summasque minatur

salus est
Dejecturum arces Italûm, excidioque daturum : 655 655. Daturum eas ar-
Jamque faces ad tecta volant. In te ora Latini,
In te oculos referunt: mussat rex ipse Latinus,
Quos generos vocet, aut quæ sese ad fædera flectat.
Prætereà regina, tui fidissima, dextra
Occidit ipsa suâ, lucemque exterrita fugit.

660
Soli pro portis Messapus et acer Atinas
Sustentant aciem. Circum hos utrinque phalanges
Stant densæ, strictisque seges mucronibus horret

663. E strictis mucro

nibus
Ferrea : tu currum deserto in gramine versas.
Obstupuit variâ confusus imagine rerum

665
Turnus, et obtutu tacito stetit. Æstuat ingens
Imo in corde pudor, mixtoque insania luctu,
Et furiis agitatus amor, et conscia virtus.

Ut primùm discussæ umbræ, et lux reddita menti, 669. Sunt discusse Ardentes oculorum acies ad menia torsit

670 Turbidus, èque rotis magnam respexit ad urbem. Ecce autem, flammis inter tabulata volutus

NOTES. 644. Dicta Drancis. See Æn. xi. 336, the state of Latinus' mind. On the one et sequens.

hand, he was inclined to match his daughter 646. Est-ne usque adeò : is it indeed so with Æneas, and fulfil his engagements : grievous a thing to die?

on the other, he was overawed by Turnus, 647. Superis : in the sense of Superorum. and durst not openly declare his sentiments; Boni : propitious kind. Turnus now plain- but faintly hinted them, like one who mutly sees, that the gods above are against ters what he is afraid to speak out. Ruæus him, and that he must fall beneath the says, dubitat. Heyne says, tacitè deliberat. sword of Æneas. He addresses himself to Referunt: turn-cast. The verb is to be the gods below, (Manes,) not so much with repeated before each objective case. a view to obtain their assistance against 659. Tui: in the sense of tibi. the purposes of Jove, as they might give 662. Aciem: in the sense of pugnam. his shade, his sancta anima, a welcome re- Phalanges : the troops in general. ception; since it would descend to them 664. Deserto gramine : in the sense of excovered with glory, free from any imputa- tremo campo. See 614, supra. tion of cowardice or fault, and no way de 665. Rerum: of distress-affliction. Ima generate from his illustrious ancestors. agine: form_image.

648. Inscia istius culpe : free from the 667. Ingens pudor : this, and the followfault or crime of deserting his friends in ing line are repeated from Æn. X. 870. their distress, and difficulty. This he will 668. Insania : distraction. Ruæus says, not do, though he knows that it must ter- amentia. Furiis. Heyne conjectures referminate in his death.

Sancta : pure-un ence is had to the nuptials of Lavinia, of polluted.

which he now began to despair. 652. Ora: in the sense of vultum. He 670. Acies oculorum : the sight of his eyes; was wounded full in the face-right in front. simply, his eyes. Heyne reads, orbes. Implorans : in the sense of vocans.

671. Rotis : in the sense of curru. 655. Dejecturum: would rase.

672. Vortex flammis : a whirling volume 657. Mussat. This word strongly marks of flame rolled, &c. The prep. è is under

Ad cælum undabat vortex, turrimque tenebat ;
'Turrim, compactis trabibus quam eduxerat ipse,
Subdideratque rotas, pontesque instraverat altos. 675
Jam jam fata, soror, superant; absiste morari :

Quò Deus, et quò dura vocat fortuna, sequamur. 678. Stat mihi pati Stat conferre manum Æneæ : stat, quicquid acerbi est quicquid acerbi est in Morte pati ; nec me indecorem, germana ! videbis morte

Ampliùs. Hunc, oro, sine me furere antè furorem. 680. Ante mortem Dixit : et è curru saltum dedit ocyùs arvís :

681 Perque hostes, per tela ruit; mæstamque sororem Deserit ; ac rapido cursu media agmina rumpit.

Ac, veluti montis saxum de vertice præceps 684. Velut cùm saxum Cùm ruit avulsum vento, seu turbidus imber

685 ruit præceps de vertice 686. Solvit illud è loco

Proluit, aut annis solvit sublapsa vetustas;
Fertur in abruptum magno mons improbus actu,
Exsultatque solo, sylvas, armenta, virosque
Involvens secum : disjecta per agmina Turnus
Sic urbis ruit ad muros, ubi plurima fuso

690 Sanguine terra madet, stridentque hastilibus auræ : Significatque manu, et magno simul incipit ore :

Parcite jam, Rutuli ; et vos, tela inhibite, Latini; 694. Fortuna hujus Quæcunque est

, fortuna mea est ; me veriùs unum pugna est mea : est veriùs Pro vobis foedus luere, et decernere ferro.

695 695. Luere violatum Discessêre omnes medii, spatiumque dedêre. fædus

At pater Æneas, audito nomine Turni, 701. Tantus quantus Deserit et muros, et summas deserit arces ; est Eryx, aut quantus est Præcipitatque moras omnes : opera omnia rumpit

, pater Apenninus ipse, Lætitiâ exsultans, horrendùmque intonat armis : 700 cùm fremit

Quantus Athos, aut quantus Eryx, aut ipse coruscis

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NOTES.

stood to govern flammis. Tabulata : the 681. Arvis : in the sense of terre. stages or stories of the tower.

685. Turbidus imber: a violent heavy rain. 674. Turrim, quam ipse : the

tower which 686. Proluit : washed away-undermined he himself had raised, &c. Eduxerat : in it. Vetustas : in the sense of tempus. Subthe sense of strucerat.

lapsa : having passed away. Ruæus says, 675. Subdiderat : had placed under it labente. Solvit : torn it away-broken it wheels.

loose. Towers were built of wood, and commonly 687. Mons fertur improbus : the massy several stories (tabulata) high. They were rock is carried violent, &c. Mons here evifor the purpose of defence, or assault; and dently means the same as sazum, just bewere so constructed that they could be fore mentioned. In abruptum: down the moved by means of wheels or rollers, placed sides of the mountain. Improbus implies under them, to the place where they were that the rock rushed down with an irresisrequired. Sometimes several of them were tible force. Actu : in the sense of impetu. connected by means of bridges (pontes) at 689. Involvens : in the sense of rapiens. the tops, made of planks and timber. By Disjecta : scattered-fleeing before him. these bridges the men could pass from one 690. Plurima : in the sense of plurimùm. to another, whenever it became necessary. This implies that Turnus rushed into the

678. Stat : the imp. of sto. I am resolved hottest of the battle-where the earth was -it is fixed. Ruæus says, deliberatum est.

wet the most with blood. 680. Furere hunc: in the sense of indul 692. Ore: in the sense of voce. gere huic furori. The construction is ac 693. Parcite: cease, or spare your arms. cording to a Greek idiom. Permit me, O, 694. Verius: in the sense of æqurus. sister! to rage in this manner--to indulge Pro vobis : in your room, and stead. this passion. Ante: this refers to his death, 698. Deserit: in the sense of relinquit. or his engagement with Æneas, in which he 699. Rumpit : in the sense of abrumpit. was persuaded he should be slain : ante 700. Intonat: in the sense of sonat. mortem, vel antiquam moriar.

701. Athos : & mountain in Macedonia,

Cùm fremit ilicibus quantus, gaudetque nivali
Vertice, se attollens pater Apenninus ad auras.

Jam verò et Rutuli certatim, et Troës, et omnes
Convertêre oculos Itali; quique alta tenebant 705
Mônia, quique imos pulsabant ariete muros ;
Armaque deposuere humeris. Stupet ipse Latinus,
Ingentes genitos diversis partibus orbis

708. Duos ingentes. Inter se coiïsse viros, et cernere ferro.

viros genitos in Atque illi, ut vacuo patuerunt æquore campi, 710

710. Ut primum
Procursu rapido, conjectis eminùs hastis,
Invadunt Martem clypeis atque ære sonoro.
Dat gemitum tellus : tum crebros ensibus ictus
Congeminant: fors et virtus miscentur in unum.
Ac velut, ingenti Silâ, summove Taburno,

715
Cùm duo conversis inimica in prælia tauri
Frontibus incurrunt; pavidi cessêre magistri ;
Stat pecus omne metu mutum ; mussantque juvencæ,
Quis pecori imperitet; quem tota armenta sequantur :

719. Quis taurus Illi inter sese multâ vi vulnera miscent,

720

21. Cornua inter se Cornuaque obnixi infigunt, et sanguine largo

invicem
Colla armosque lavant: gemitu nemus omne remugit.
Haud aliter Tros Æneas et Daunius heros
Concurrunt clypeis : ingens fragor ætherą complet.
Jupiter ipse duas æquato examine lances

725
Sustinet, et fata imponit diversa duorum ;
Quem damnet labor, et quo vergat pondere letum.

NOTES.

projecting into the Ægean sea. It is said Apennine mountains in Calabria. Taburno: to be sixty miles in length, and so high that this was a mountain in the confines of Camit overshadows the island of Lemnos. Ho- pania, which blocks up the famous straits of die, Monte Santo. It is so called from the Caudi or Caudium. Here the Roman army number of monasteries upon it. Eryx : a was obliged to surrender to the Samnites, mountain in Sicily, next in height to Ætna, and to pass under the yoke. so called from a king of that name who was 717. Magistri : in the sense of pastores. slain by Hercules. It is situated near the Cessêre : in the sense of fugerunt. western side of the island. Hodie, Monte 718. Mussant: Heyne says, tacitè experGiuliano.

tant. Ruæus says, timidè, et quasi tacitè 703. Pater Apenninus : mount Apennine mugiunt. is here called pater, either as being the pa 721. Largo : in the sense of multo. Fent of so many noble rivers and woods; 722. Lavant: Ruæus says, tingunt. or by way of dignity, as being the greatest 723. Daunius heros : Turnus. He was mountain in Italy. The Apennines are pro- the son of Daunus and Venilia. perly a range of mountains running the 725. Æquato examine : equal poise or whole length of Italy, and dividing it nearly balance. Examen is the tongue, or needle im the middle.

of the balance, which, being exactly in equa704. Certatim : eagerly.

librio, shows the scales to be equal. 708. Ingentes viros : that two mighty he 727. Quem labor damnet: whom the comroes born in, &c.

bat should devote or doom to death. The 709. Coïïsse : in the sense of congredi. fates, or destiny, were not at the disposal of Cernere : in the sense of pugnare, vel decer- Jove. He could only examine into futurity. nerc.

He puts (imponit) the fates of the combat710. Campi: the ground—the space clear ants into the scales of the balance, to see ed for the combatants.

which end of the beam would rise. Servius, 712. Invadunt Martem : in the sense of and some others, take the words in the sense incipiunt pugnam.

of quem felix labor damnet votis : whom the 714. Congeminant : they repeat-redou- combat shall coom to pay his vows—who ble. In unum : into one-together.

shall be the successful combatant. But it 715. Sila : a vast forest, or tract of hills, is easier to consider the expression as refercovered with wood, that formed part of the ring to one and the same person : whom the

Emicat hìc, impunè putans, et corpore toto 729. Putans futurum Altè sublatum consurgit Turnus in ensem, impunè sibi, Turnus hìc Et ferit. Exclamant Troës, trepidique Latini, 730 emicat

Arrectæque amborum acies. At perfidus ensis
Frangitur, in medioque ardentem deserit ictu,
Ni fuga subsidio subeat. Fugit ocyor Euro,

Ut capulum ignotum, dextramque adspexit inermem. 735. Fama est, eum Fama est, præcipitem, cùm prima in prælia junctos 735 præcipitem, cùm scendebat equos junctos

con: Conscendebat equos, patrio mucrone relicto, in prima prælia, dum tre

Dum trepidat, ferrum aurigæ rapuisse Metisci : pidat, rapuisse

Idque diu, dum terga dabant palantia Teucri,
Suffecit : postquam arma Dei ad Vulcania ventum est,
Mortalis mucro, glacies ceu futilis, ictu

740
Dissiluit : fulvâ resplendent fragmina arena.
Ergò amens diversa fugâ petit æquora Turnus,
Et nunc huc, inde huc, incertos implicat orbes.
Undique enim densâ Teucri inclusêre coronâ :

Atque hinc vasta palus, hinc ardua menia cingunt. 745 746. Æneas insequi Nec minùs Æneas, quanquam tardata sagittà tur, quanquam genua Interdum genua impediunt, cursumque recusant,

748. Pedem trepidi Insequitur : trepidique pedem pede fervidus urget. Turni

Inclusum veluti si quando flumine nactus 749. Si quando canis Cervum, aut puniceæ septüin formidine penna, 750 venator nactus Venator cursu, canis et latratibus instat :

Ille autem, insidiis et ripâ territus altâ,
Mille fugit refugitque vias : at vividus Umber

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NOTES

combat shall devote to ruin, as above. This 734. Capulum: the hilt only remained in is the opinion of Valpy. Davidson renders his hand. He now discovered the fatal misthe words, " whom the toilsome combat take. Ut: when—as soon as. destines to victory.” Labor : in the sense 737. Trepidat : in the sense of properat. of pugna, says Heyne. The poet here imi 739. Suffecit : in the sense of satis fuit. tates Homer, who makes Jove, in like man Vulcania arma Dei : in the sense of arma ner, weigh the fates of Hector and Achilles. Dei Vulcani, vel Divina arma Vulcani. Quo pondere : in which scale. Death was Those arms which Vulcan made for Æneas. to fals to the party, whose scale sunk or fell. This construction is imitated from the Ruæus says, mors inclinat.

Greeks. 729. Altè: this is to be taken with subla 740. Mortalis mucro: a sword made by tum.

men-a mortal sword. Futilis: in the sense 730. Ferit: Ænean is understood. Tre- of fragilis. pidi: trembling—in anxious fear. Consur 741. Dissiluit: in the sense of fractus est. git : in the sense of insurgit.

742. Diversa æquora : different parts of 731. Arrectæ : in the sense of suspensæ. the plain. Amens : alarmed. Of a priv. The verb sunt is understood.

and mens. 732. Deserit : leaves him ardent for the 743. Implicat : in the sense of facit vel fight, at the mercy of his antagonist. These format. He wheels around in his flight, last, or words of the like import, are neces- forming irregular figures, or circles, sary to make the sense complete. When 744. Corona densa : in close ranks in a he mounted his chariot, it was his intention close compact body. to take his trusty, heavenly tempered sword 746. Sagitta : the arrow by which he was —that sword made by Vulcan for his father; wounded in the beginning of the action. but in his haste and perturbation, he took Heyne says, vulnere. the sword of Metiscus, his charioteer; which 748. Fervidus : in the sense of ardens. here deceived him. It is therefore, called 749. Flumine : some copies have in fire perfidus ensis.

mine. Heyne omits the in. This is the read. 733. Ni fuga : had not flight come to his ing of the Roman MS. Inclusum: enclosed, aid-had he not instantly Pud, he would or confined by a river. have fallen under the arm of Æneas, being 750. Formidine. The formido, as Dr. left in that defenceless state.

Trapp observes, was a rope stuck thick with

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