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à tergo

vulnus

Tyrrhenum Aulesten, avidus confundere fædus, 290

Adverso proterret equo: ruit ille recedens, 292. In aris oppositis Et miser oppositis à tergo involvitur aris,

In caput, inque humeros. At fervidus advolat hasta

Messapus, teloque orantem multa trabali 295. Altusque equo Desuper altus equo graviter ferit, atque ita fatur : 295 desuper graviter ferit Hoc habet : hæc melior magnis data victima Divis. eum orantem multa 296. Ille habet hoc Concurrunt Itali

, spoliantque calentia membra.

Obvius ambustum torrem Chorinæus ab ara 299. Obvius Ebuso Corripit, et venienti Ebuso plagamque ferenti venienti

, ferentique pla- Occupat os flammis. Olli ingens barba reluxit, 300 gam

Nidoremque ambusta dedit. Super ipse secutus
Cæsariem lævâ turbati corripit hostis,

Impressoque genu nitens terræ applicat ipsum. 304. Podalirius

se- Sic rigido latus ense ferit. Podalirius Alsum quens nudo ense Pastorem, primâque acie per tela ruentem,

305 Ense sequens nudo superimminet : ille securi 307. Ejus adversi Adversi frontem mediam mentumque reductâ

Disjicit, et sparso latè rigat arma cruore.
Olli dura quies oculos et ferreus urget
Somnus ; in æternam clauduntur lumina noctem. 310

At pius Æneas dextram tendebat inermem
Nudato capite, atque suos clamore vocabat :

Quò ruitis ? quæve ista repens discordia surgit ? 314. Fædus ictum est () cohibete iras! ictum jam fædus, et omnes 315. Jus concurrere Compositæ leges : mihi jus concurrere soli:

315 est mihi soli; sinite me Me sinite, atque auferte metus. Ego fædera faxo pugnare 316. Ego faxo manu,

Firma manu: Turnum jam debent hæc mihi sacra. ut fædera sint.

Has inter voces, media inter talia verba,

NOTES.

high upon his steed to give the blow more the sacrifices; which accounts for his bemg effect, gives him a mortal wound; while he at the altars. Reluxit: his beard caught in the mean time is pleading for his life, fire, and shone-blazed. without avail. Insigne : in the sense of or- 301. Super : in the sense of insuper vel namentum.

prætereà. Ipse : Chorinæus. 291. Proterret: affrights—alarms-con- 302. Turbati : affrighted-confused. founds. Ruit: in the sense of cadit.

303. Impresso genu; exerting himself with 294. Trabali : in the sense of ingenti. his knee being thrust hard against him, he

296. Melior victima: a better, or more is enabled to pull Ebusus over, and bring effectual victim to appease the gods, than him to the ground. Applicat : Ruæus says, those that had been offered for the league sternit. on the altars, where he had fallen; to wit, 306. Superimninet: in the sense of premit a lamb or a pig. Habet hoc. This was an vel urget. Securi reductâ : his axe being expression made by the spectators at the drawn back to give the blow—with his axe shows of the gladiators, when any one re- drawn back. ceived a mortal wound.

308. Disjicit : in the sense of scindit vel 297. Spoliant : strip his limbs yet warm. secat. Ruæus saye, nudant.

309. Olli : for illi, and this again in the 298. Obvius : in the sense of adversus. sense of illius. Ruæus says, occurrens.

311. Inermem: unarmed: of in, and arma. 300. Occupat os: he strikes him on the 313. Repens : in the sense of subita. face with the fire-brand. This prevented the 315. Leges: the terms or conditions of the blow that was intended by Ebusus to be treaty, given to him. Occupat os : Ruæus says, in- 316. Ego faro: the meaning is : I will Percepit vultum flammis. Heynę says, ferit make good my part of the treaty, and these occupando. This Chorineus was a Trojan sacred rites give me security, that Turnus priest. He had been engaged in offering will perform his part. Fato: for facero.

Ecce, viro stridens alis allapsa sagitta est :
Incertum quâ pulsa manu, quo turbine adacta ;

320

320. Est incertum, que Quis tantam Rutulis laudem, casusne, Deusne,

manu pulsa sit Attulerit. Pressa est insignis gloria facti ; Nec sese Æneæ jactavit vulnere quisquam.

Turnus, ut Æneam cedentem ex agmine vidit,
Turbatosque duces, subitâ spe fervidus ardet :

325
Poscit equos, atque arma simul, saltuque superbus
Emivat in currum, et manibus molitur habenas.
Multa virûm volitans dat fortia corpora

leto : Semineces volvit multos, aut agmina curru Proterit, aut raptas fugientibus ingerit hastas.

330 Qualis apud gelidi cùm flumina concitus Hebri

331. Qualis sanguiSanguineus Mavors clypeo increpat, atque furentes neus Mavors, cùm Bella movens immittit equos : illi æquore aperto Ante Notos Zephyrumque volant: gemit ultima pulsu Thraca pedum : circùmque atræ Formidinis ora, 335 Iræque, Insidiæque, Dei comitatus, aguntur.

336. Cırcumaguntur Talis equos alacer media inter prælia Turnus Fumantes sudore quatit, miserabilè cæsis Hostibus insultans : spargit rapida ungula rores

339. Ungula ejus equoSanguineos, mixtâque cruor calcatur arenâ. Jamque neci Sthenelumque dedit, Thamyrimque, Pho

342. Congressus est

hunc et hunc cominùs ; lumque,

illum, nempe, Sthenelum Hunc congressus et hunc ; illum eminùs : eminùs ambos eminùs ; congressus est Imbrasidas, Glaucum atque Ladem ; quos Imbrasus ipse eminùs ambos

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340 rum

NOTES.

319. Viro: to the hero, i. e. Æneas. Alis: and half dead they rolled and tumbled along here denotes the swiftness of the arrow. It as they lay prostrate on the field. Ingerit : moved on wings.

he hurled-threw. Raptas: in the sense of 320. Quo turbine: by what whirling force: correptas vel arreptas. Ruæus says, immittit simply, by what force. Quo impetu, says fugientibus hastas abstractas iisdem: which Ruæus. Pulsa : in the sense of missa. implies that Turnus took the spears from the

322. Pressa est: is concealed. No one fugitives, and then threw them at them., has the glory of so illustrious a deed. The word raptas frequently signifies no

325. Fervidus ardet: the absence of Æneas more than, snatched up-suddenly taken. raises the courage of Turnus, and inflames 331. Flumina Hebri : along the streams him for battle. He is once more victorious, of Hebrusalong the river Hebrus. See as he had been before on the banks of the Ecl. x. 65. Tiber, when Æneas was absent in Etruria. 332. Increpat : in the sense of sonat. This indirect method of praising his hero, 333. Immittit : lets loose-gives full reins Virgil had learned from Homer, who makes to his furious steeds. his victory to lean on the side of the Tro- 335. Ora atræ formidinis : the form or jans during the absence of Achilles ; so, here, countenance of grim terror-grim terror the absence of Æneas makes the scales turn itself. in favor of the Latins. The absence of 336. Comitatus Dei : the retinue of the Æneas was sudaen and unexpected by Tur- god, i. e. Mars. The word comitatus agrees nus; and as soon as he saw him withdraw in apposition with the preceding nominafrom the field, he was fired with the hope of tives Ora, Irã, Insidiæ. retrieving the lost fortunes of his country. 338. Quatit: in the sense of impellil.

326. Superbis : in the sense of animosus. Miserabilè cæsis : miserably slain. 327. Molitur : in the sense of tractat. 339. Sanguineos rores : simply, blood.

330. Proterit : he crushed. Ruæus says, 342. Hunc, et hunc: the two last he ensternit. Agmina : the troops--the enemy. gaged in close fight; the former at a dis

As Turnus drove furiously through the tance. Hic sometimes signifies the latter, ranks of the enemy, the wheels of his chariot or last mentioned ; ille, the former, or first crushed some to death, and others wounded mentioned, as in the present case.

cere

Nutrîerat Lycia, paribusque ornaverat armis,
Vel conferre manum, vel equo prævertere ventos. 345

Parte aliâ, media Eumedes in prælia fertur,
347. Qui erat proles Antiqui proles bello præclara Dolonis,
antiqui

Nomine avum referens, animo manibusque parentem :

Qui quondam, castra ut Danaûm speculator adiret, 350. Ausus est pos- Ausus Pelidæ pretium sibi poscere currus.

350 Illum Tydides alio pro talibus ausis

Affecit pretio ; nec equis aspirat Achillis.
353. Hunc Eumeden Hunc procul ut campo Turnus conspexit aperto ;

Antè levi jaculo longum per inane secutus,
Sistit equos bijuges, et curru desilit, atque

355
Semianimi lapsoque supervenit: et, pede collo
Impresso, dextræ mucronem extorquet, et alto

Fulgentem tingit jugulo, atque hæc insuper addit : 359. En, Trojane, ja- En, agros, et, quam bello, Trojane, petisti, cens, metire agros Hesperiam metire, jacens : hæc præmia, qui me 360

Ferro ausi tentare, ferunt : sic mạnia condunt.

Huic comitem Buten, conjectâ cuspide, mittit : 363. Interficit Chlo. Chloreaque, Sybarimque, Daretaque, Thersilochumque, reaque

Et sternacis equi lapsum cervice Thymæten.
Ac velut Edoni Boreæ cùm spiritus alto

365
Insonat Ægæo, sequiturque ad litora fluctus ;
Quâ venti incubuêre, fugam dant nubila cælo:
Sic Turno, quâcunque viam secat, agmina cedunt,
Conversæque ruunt acies : fert impetus ipsum ;

NOTES.

344. Ornaverat : and had furnished them wounds, Eumedes held a dagger in his hana. with equal arms—with equal skill, or valor This the conqueror wrenched from him, and in arms. Conferre manum: to engage in buried deep in his throat. close fight.

358. Tingit: stains. Ruæus says, im 347. Proles præclara bello. This is to be mersit. He buries his glittering sword in understood ironically, as appears from what his throat. Immittit in jugulum ut sanguine follows: and particularly, from the charac- tingatur, says Heyne. ter of Dolon in Homer, Iliad, lib. 10, where 359. En agros : after a victory, the conhe appears to have undertaken the adven- querors divided the conquered lands and ture here alluded to, not from true courage, territory; and in the first place took the dibut from mere covetousness. He demanded mensions of them, in order to distribute the chariot of Achilles, as a reward for this them equally among their troops. To this service.

custom Turnus, in this bitter sarcasm, seems 348. Referens : representing-bearing the to allude. name of. He bore the name of his grand- 362. Cuspide : in the sense of jaculo. father, but was like his father in courage 364. Sternacis equi : either stumbling and and valor.

apt to fall himself; or rearing and pitching, 349. Qui: this refers to the father, men- in order to throw his rider. Cervice: shoul. tioned immediately before.

ders-back. Ruæus says, collo. 350. Pelidæ : gen. of Pelides, a name of Achilles; from his father Peleus : a. patro- Thracian Boreas. Boreas, the north wind,

365. Spiritus Edoni Boreæ : the blast of nymic. Pretium : as a reward for his deed. is here called Thracian, because it blew from

352. Affecit alio pretio. It is here inti- that country. The Edoni were a people of mated that Dolon was slain by Diomede. 354. Antè secutus : having thrown a swift the sense of mari. Spiritus : in the sense

Thrace : hence the adj. Edonus. Alio: in dart at him before—having pursued him of Aatus vel ventus. with a swift javelin, &c. Inane: in the sense of aèrem. Longum : distant-at a distance.

367. Dant fugam: in the sense of fugiunt. 357. Mucronem dextræ. Though fallen Incubuêre: blow_rush or press forward. by the spear of Turnus, and dying of his 369. Ruunt : in the sense of fugiunt.

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Et cristam adverso curru quatit aura volantem. 370
Non tulit instantem Phegeus, animisque frementem : 371. Turnum instan-

tem
Objecit sese ad currum, et spumantia frænis
Ora citatorum dextrâ detorsit equorum.
Dum trahitur, pendetque jugis, hunc lata retectum
Lancea consequitur, rumpitque infixa bilicem 375 375. Lata lancea Turni
Loricam, et summum degustat vulnere corpus.
Ille tamen, clypeo objecto, conversus in hostem
Ibat, et auxilium ducto mucrone petebat:
Cùm rota præcipitem, et procursu concitus axis
Impulit, effuditque solo: Turnusque secutus, 380
Imam inter galeam summi thoracis et oras,
Abstulit ense caput, truncumque reliquit arenå.

Atque ea dum campis victor dat funera Turnus ;
Intereà Æneam Mnestheus, et fidus Achates,
Ascaniusque comes, castris statuêre cruentum, 385
Alternos longå nitentem cuspide gressus.
Sævit, et infractâ luctatur arundine telum
Eripere ; auxilioque viam, quæ proxima, poscit :

388. Quæ est proxiEnse secent lato vulnus, telique latebram

ma: jubet ut medici seRescindant penitùs, seseque in bella rernittant.

Jamque aderat Phæbo ante alios dilectus Iapys Iasides ; acri quondam cui captus amore

392. Cui quondam Ipse suas artes, sua munera, lætus Apollo

Apollo ipse captus acri Augurium, citharamque dabat, celeresque sagittas.

amore, lætus dabat

390 cent

NOTES.

370. Adverso curru : in his chariot facing breast-plate, and the lower part of his helthe wind. Aura: in the sense of ventus. met. Cùm : this is the reading of Heyne Volantem : waving. But curru may be for and Davidson. Ruæus reads quem. It apcurrui, in the dat. The wind blowing against pears that Phegeus had let go of the horses, his chariot facing it, (adverso,) causes his and was preparing to attack Turnus, when plumes to wave. Dum currus adversùs ven- they sprang forward, and the wheel in its tum fertur, says Heyne.

rapid motion struck him. 573. Detorsit ora : with his right hand he 386. Nitentem alternos : supporting his turned around the heads, &c. This he did alternate steps, &c. Cuspide : in the sense to stop them, that on more equal terms he of hasta, by synec. might engage Turnus. These were the 387. Arundine: the shaft of the arrow. horses of Turnus. Spumantia: foaming at It is placed absolutely with infracta. Tethe bit. Citatorum : in the sense of animo- lum : the barb or point of the arrow. sorum, vel celerum.

388. Auxilio: for relief. He orders them 375. Rumpit : in the sense of penetrat. to make a gash or incision (vulnus) down

378. Petebat: he sought aid with his to the very blade of the dart or javelin, drawn sword. He hoped to succeed against (latebram teli,) and extract it without delay, Turnus by attacking him sword in hand. that he may again enter the fight, and check Ruæus says, vocabat auxilium. Davidson the career of Turnus. Proxima: the speedrenders it, “he sought assistance from his iest—quickest. unsheathed sword.” Mucrone: in the sense 390. Rescindant: in the sense of aperian:. of gladio.

392. Cui : in the sense of cujus : with an 379. Axis : the extremities of the axle- ardent love of whom, Apollo, &c. tree extended beyond the hub of the wheel. 393. Suas artes dabat : he gave to him the It was most probably this part that struck choice of his arts. This appears to be the Phegeus, and threw him headlong on the meaning from verse 396, infra, maluit scire, ground. Concitus : quickened and accele- &c. The arts of Apollo were, 1. Prophecy. rated by its rapid career. The impetus it 2. Music: whence, he is often represented had acquired in its course served to increase with a lyre, and considered the god of poets. its velocity. Turnus seeing him in that si- 3. Skill in archery: hence, he is represented tuation sprang from his chariot, and took with a quiver. 4. Medicine. This last was off his head between the upper part of his the choice of Iapys.

Ille, ut depositi proferret fata parentis,

395 Scire potestates herbarum, usumque medendi Maluit, et mutas agitare inglorius artes.

Stabat acerbà fremens, ingentem nixus in hastam 399. Immobilis mag. Æneas, magno juvenum, et mærentis Jüli no concursu juvenum Concursu, lachrymisque immobilis. Ille retorto 400

400. Ille senior lapys Pæonium in morem senior succinctus amictu,
succinctus amictu retor-
to in Pæonium Multa manu medicâ Phæbique potentibus herbis

Nequicquam trepidat; nequicquam spicula dextrâ
Sollicitat, prensatque tenaci forcipe ferrum.
Nulla viam fortuna regit; nihil auctor Apollo 405
Subvenit : et sævus campis magis ac magis horror
Crebrescit; propiùsque malum est. Jam pulvere cælum
Stare vident; subeunt equites, et spicula castris
Densa cadunt mediis. It tristis ad æthera clamor
Bellantûm juvenum, et duro sub Marte cadentûm. 410

Hìc Venus, indigno nati concussa dolore,
Dictamnum genitrix Cretæâ carpit ab Idâ,

Puberibus caulem foliis, et flore comantem 414. Illa gramina sunt Purpureo. Non illa feris incognita capris non incognita

Gramina, cùm tergo volucres hæsêre sagittæ. 415 416. Venus circum- Hoc Venus, obscuro faciem circumdata nimbo, data quoad faciem

Detulit: hôc fusum labris spendentibus amnem
Inficit, occultè medicans ; spargitque salubres
Ambrosiæ succos, et odoriferam panaceam.

NOTES.

395. Depositi : sick—dangerously ill. Fa- make the sense of malum easy. See Æn. ta : in the sense of mortem. Proferret : put ii. 301. off-defer.

407. Jam vident : they see the air or sky 396. Medendi : the gerund in di, of me- stand thick with dust to be overspread or deor : in the sense of medicina. Potestates : filled with dust. properties--qualities.

411. Indigno: unmerited-undeserved. 397. Mutas artes : silent arts-arts more

412. Dictamnum: the herb dittany. It useful than showy. The other arts of Apollo is said to have grown only in Crete, whence were more ostentatious and showy. Agi- it had its name from Dicte, a mountain in tare: practice or exercise.

that island. Its stalk bears soft downy 398. Acerbà : an adj. neu. plu., used ad- leaves; and its blossoms are not single, but verbially: in the sense of acerbè. 399. "Mærentis : of grieving--afflicted. said to be comantem flore purpureo : this last

grow upon almost every leaf: whence, it is Tülus : Heyne connects lachrymis with Jüli denotes the color of the flower. Caulem : mærentis. In this construction, Tülus alone the stem or stalk : it is here put in apposi. is represented as shedding tears. The others tion with dictamnum. assemble to see the wounded hero.

415. Gramina : in the sense of herba. 401. Pæonium : an adj. from Pæon the physician of the gods; here put for any the following line is in the abi. with this she

416. Hoc: this herb dittany. The hoc in physician. Retorto : turned back after the manner of Pæon, that he might perform the tinged. Ruæus says, imbuit. Amnem: in

the sense of aquam. operation more conveniently. 403. Trepidat multa. in the sense of fes

417. Labris : the vessel in which the tinat multa : he tries many expedients to herbs of lapys were infused. extract the arrow, to no purpose. Multa 419. Succos ambrosio. Homer makes tentat, says Heyne.

ambrosia to be the food of the gods. It 404. Sollicitat: he moves, or pulls. Fer- properly signifies immortality. Panacea : rum : the blade, or barbed part of the spear. a salutary herb, of which Pliny mentions Fortuna : success--advantage.

three kinds. According to the etymology 406. Subvenit : in the sense of adjuvat. of the word, it should be a remedy for all Auctor: the author of medicine. Horror : diseases. Spargit: she diffuses in it the in the sense of terror, says Heyne. It may healing juices of ambrosia. Rueus says, mean a din or clashing of arms; which will miscet.

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