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coro ere

esse non

Cùm semel in sylvis imo de stirpe recisum
Matre caret, posuitque comas et brachia ferro;
Olim arbos ; nunc artificis manus ære decoro 210 210. Olim erat arbos
Inclusit, patribusque dedit gestare Latinis.

211. Inclusit eam de-
Talibus inter se firmabant fædera dictis,
Conspectu in medio procerum. Tum ritè sacratas
In flammam jugulant pecudes, et viscera vivis

214. Iisdem vivis Eripiunt, cumulantque oneratis lancibus aras 215 At verò Rutulis impar ea pugna videri

216. Ea pugna cæpit Jamdudum, et vario misceri pectora motu : Tum magis, ut propiùs cernunt non viribus æquis.

218. Cernunt duces Adjuvat incessu tacito progressus, et aram Suppliciter venerans demisso lumine, Turnus, 220

219. Turnus adjuvat Tabentesque genæ, et juvenili in corpore pallor.

hane opinionem, pro

gressus Quem simul ac Juturna soror crebrescere vidit

222. Quem sermonem Sermonem, et vulgi variare labantia corda :

inter Rutulos simul In medias acies, formam assimulata Camerti, Cui genus à proavis ingens, clarumque paternæ 225 Nomen erat virtutis, et ipse acerrimus armis, In medias dat sese acies, haud nescia rerum,

227. Inquam, in meRumoresque serit varios, ac talia fatur:

dias acies, haud Non pudet, Ô Rutuli, cunctis pro

talibus unam
Objectare animam ? numerone, an viribus æqui 230
Non sumus? En, omnes et Troës et Arcades hi sunt,
Fatalisque manus, infensa Etruria Turno.
Vix hostem, alterni si congrediamur, habemus.
Ille quidem ad Superos, quorum se devovet aris,

234. Ille Turnus Succedet famâ, vivusque per ora feretur :

235 235. Per ara hominum

ped of,

NOTES. 208. Cùm semel: since once cut in the 226. Nomen : renown-fame. Acerrimus · woods from the lowest stem, it is deprived in the sense of fortissimus. Erat is to be of the nourishment of its parent stock. repeated with this word, and also with 209. Posuit: hath laid aside—been strip- genus, in the preceding line.

229. Talibus. Servius thinks we are to 210. Manus: the skill of the artist. Ma- understand by this word that all of thein nus: the hand, by meton, art-skill.

were equal to Turnus in valor. Ruæus 211. Patribus : in the sense of regibus.

says, omnibus iis.

Davidson renders it, 214. Pecudes jugulant: they kill the sa " all these.” Animam unam : the life of cred victims over the flames of the altar. Turnus.

215. Cumulant: they heap, or load the 231. Hi: this is the reading of Heyne altars. See Æn. viii. 284. Oneratis : in The common reading is hic. the sense of plenis.

232. Fatalis manus. By these words Ser221. Tabentes gene: lank, or fallen cheeks. vius understands the Trojans, who were Some copies read pubentes : but tabentes is destined to come into Italy. But it is betconfirmed by the authority of the best na ter to understand it of the Tuscans, who nuscripts, and is most agreeable to the de were directed by fate to put themselves sign of the poet. Heyne says, tabentes. under the conduct of Æneas, a foreign 222. Vidit : in the sense of sentit.

leader; and on that condition alone, they 223. Labantia : in the sense of mobilia. were assured of success. See Lib. viii. 501. Variare : in the sense of dissentire: to be This interpretation frees Virgil from the imdissatisfied at the conditions of the treaty, putation of idle repetition. Etruria infensa made between Latinus and Æneas.

Turno: one part of Etruria was hostile to 224. Assimulata : personating the form of Turnus ; and another assisted him, under Camertus, she throws herself, &c. The in the command of Messapus. The fatalis medias acies is to be taken after the same manus is evidently the same as Etruria inwords, in line 227, infra.

fensa Turno. 225. Genus : grigin-descent. Cui: in 233. Alterni : every other one. They the sense of cujus. Ingens: great-illus- were double the number of the enemy. trious.

235. Vivusque feretur per ora.

This im.

Nos, patriâ amissá, dominis parere superbis
Cogemur, qui nunc lenti consedimus arvis.

Talibus, incensa est juvenum sententia dictis

Jam magis atque magis : serpitque per agmina murmur. 240. Mutati sunt men- Ipsi Laurentes mutati, ipsique Latini ;

240 tibus

Qui sibi jam requiem pugnæ, rebusque salutem
Sperabant; nunc arma volunt, fædusque precantur

Infectum, et Turni sortem miserantur iniquam. 244. His rebus

His aliud majus Juturna adjungit, et alto
Dat signum cælo: quo non præsentius ullum 245

Turbavit mentes Italas, monstroque fefellit.
247. Namque aquila, Namque volans rubrâ fulvus Jovis ales in æthrâ,
fulyus ales Jovis

Litoreas agitabat aves, turbamque sonantem
Agminis aligeri: subitò cùm lapsus ad undas
Cycnum excellentem pedibus rapit improbus uncis. 250
Arrexêre animos Itali; cunctæque volucres
Convertunt clamore fugam, mirabile visu!

Ætheraque obscurant pennis, hostemque per auras,
254. Donec ales vic- Factâ nube, premunt : donec vi victus, et ipso
tus vi, et ipso pondere Pondere defecit, prædamque ex unguibus ales

255 суспі

Projecit fluvio, penitùsque in nubila fugit.

Tum verò augurium Rutuli clamore salutant,

Expediuntque manus: primusque Tolumnius augur, 259. Hoc, hoc erat rd, Hoc erat, hoc, votis, inquit, quod sæpe petivi ; quod

Accipio, agnoscoque Deos. Me, me duce, ferrum 260 260. Accipio omen Corripite, ô Rutuli, quos improbus advena bello

NOTES.

plies, that he should be immortal. Succedet: 254. Nube factâ: a cloud being formedin the sense of ascendet.

closing in thick array around him, they form 237. Lenti : idle-lazy-at our ease. a cloud, and darken the sky with their Ruæus says, otiosi.

wings. 238. Sententia : resolution-mind. Heyne 255. Defecit : failed in his strength. says, animus.

257. Augurium. This word here is used 241. Rebus : to the state.

in its proper sense, which is an omen or 243. Infectum : unmade-broken. prognostic, taken from the flight, or chirping

244. His : to these incentives—incite of birds. The Rutulians were right in exments,

plaining the eagle to mean Æneas, the swan, 245. Præsentius : more effectual: an adj. Turnus, and the other birds, to mean themof the comp. neu. agreeing with portentum selves. But they were mistaken, in taking vel monstrum, understood. It governs quo this augury, which Juturna procured, to in the abl. than which. It may be rendered have been sent from the gods. To this an adverbially.

allusion is made in verse 246, monstroque 246. Monstro: deceived them by the pro- fefellit. This interposition of a superior digy. Any thing that is, or happens, con power, was necessary to account for the trary to the ordinary course of things, may sudden change produced in the minds of be called monstrum.

the Rutulians and Latins. 247. Rubrá æthrâ : in the ruddy sky. 258. Expediunt manus. By this, Valpy Litoreas aves : sea-fowls--fowls frequenting understands elevating of their hand in token the sea shore.

that they were prepared and ready for battle. 248. Turbam : in the sense of multitudi- Ruæus says, explicant manus. Davidson nem. Aligeri agminis : of the winged tribe : renders the words, “they put their troops the same in sense with volucrum. Sonan- in array,” which is the sense of Ruæus. tem : rofers to the sound made by the mo- Heyne differs from both these interpretations. tion of their wings, as they passed through He says, expediunt manus ut arma capiunt : the air. Rumus says, strepitantem.

they prepare to take their arms. These had 250. Improbus : in the sense of avidus. been laid aside, while the preparations were 251. Arrerêre: in the sense of sustulerunt. making, and the league was ratifying. See 252. Fugam : their course.

verse 130, supra.

Territat, invalidas ut aves ; et litora vestra
Vi populat. Petet ille fugam, penitùsque profundo
Vela dabit. Vos unanimi densate catervas,
Et
regem vobis pugnâ defendite raptum.

265
Dixit : et adversos telum contorsit in hostes
Procurrens : sonitum dat stridula cornus, et auras
Certa secat. Simul hoc; simul ingens clamor; et omnes

268. Simul hoc fit Turbati cunei, calefactaque corda tumultu.

269. Turbati sunt Hasta volans, ut fortè novem pulcherrima fratrum 270 Corpora constiterant contrà, quos fida creârat Una tot Arcadio conjux Tyrrhena Gylippo; Horum unum ad medium, teritur quà sutilis alvo

273. Hasta volans Balteus, et laterum juncturas fibela mordet,

transadigit unum horum Egregium formâ juvenem et fulgentibus armis, 275.

fratrum per costas, ju

venem egregium formâ, Transadigit costas, fulvâque effundit arena.

et fulgentibus armis, ad At fratres, animosa phalanx, accensaque luctu,

medium corpus, quâ su-
Pars gladios stringunt manibus, pars missile ferrum tilis balteus
Corripiunt, cæcique ruunt: quos agmina contrà
Procurrunt Laurentûm. Hìc densi rursùs inundant 280
Troës, Agyllinique, et pictis Arcades armis.

Sic omnes amor unus habet decernere ferro.
Diripuêre aras : it toto turbida cælo
Tempestas telorum, ac ferreus ingruit imber:
Craterasque, focosque ferunt. Fugit ipse Latinus 285
Pulsatos referens, infecto fædere, Divos.
Infrænant alii currus, aut corpora saltu
Subjiciunt in equos, et strictis ensibus adsunt.
Messapus regem, regisque insigne gerentem,

NOTES.

262. Invalidas aves: this agrees with quos, 279. Cæci: blind to danger. mentioned before, and signifies the same 280. Inundant: deluge the plain. The with it: as week birds.

word is very expressive. They move like a 263 Profundo: in the sense of mari. Pe- devouring flood. Agyllini : the Tuscans, so nitùs : far remote-far distant. Longè, says called from Agylla, one of their cities. Ruæus.

282. Unus amor : one mind-desire. 264. Densate : thicken your ranks.in 283. Diripuêre : they stripped the altars. close and compact array, defend, &c. Ruæus 284. Ingruit : pours down upon them. says, colligite agmina.

Tempestas: a cloud-storm. It: covers the 267. Cornus : this was a spear (hasta) whole heaven. Turbida: thick-terrific. whose shaft was made of the corneil-tree. 285. Focos : in the sense of ignes.

268. Simul hoc. The meaning is, that as 287. Infrenant currus: they prepare their soon as the spear was thrown by Tolumnius, chariots--they harness their horses in them. all the troops were eager to engage, and Subjiciunt: with a spring, they mount, or their courage was roused for battle. This throw themselves upon their horses. Livy they signified by a great shout.

uses this verb in the same sense : pavidum 269. Cunei. The cuneus was a company regem in equum subjecit. of men drawn ap in the form of a wedge: 288. Adsunt: in the sense of instant, vel hence it came to signify troops in general, concurrunt. ag in the present case.

289. Messapus avidus, &c. The meaning 270. Corpora fratrum: simply, fratres. of the passage appears to be this: Messapus

271. Creârat : by syn. for creaverat : in desirous of breaking the league, as soon as the sense of pepererat.

mounted on his horse, made an attack upon 272. Conjux : wife. Una: one.

Tuscan Aulestes, with his horse full in front. 273. Quă sutilis: where the stitched belt This so alarmed him, that attempting to reis worn around the belly.

treat or give back, he fell from his horse 274. Mordet : binds, or fastens. Junctu- among the altars, which had just been ras : the ends or extremities of the belt. erected for the purpose of ratifying the

278. Stringunt : in the sens, of educunt. league. In this situation, Messapus, rising

à tergo

vulnus

Tyrrhenum Aulesten, avidus confundere fædus, 290

Adverso proterret equo: ruit ille recedens, 292. In aris oppositis Et miser oppositis à tergo involvitur aris,

In caput, inque humeros. At fervidus advolat hasta

Messapus, teloque orantem multa trabali 295. Altusque equo Desuper altus equo graviter ferit, atque ita fatur : 295 desuper graviter ferit Hoc habet : hæc melior magnis data victima Divis. eum orantem multa 296. Ille habet hoc Concurrunt Itali

, spoliantque calentia membra.

Obvius ambustum torrem Chorinæus ab ara 299. Obvius Ebuso Corripit, et venienti Ebuso plagamque ferenti venienti

, ferentique pla- Occupat os flammis. Olli ingens barba reluxit, 300 gam

Nidoremque ambusta dedit. Super ipse secutus
Cæsariem lævâ turbati corripit hostis,

Impressoque genu nitens terræ applicat ipsum. 304. Podalirius

se- Sic rigido latus ense ferit. Podalirius Alsum quens nudo ense Pastorem, primâque acie per tela ruentem,

305 Ense sequens nudo superimminet : ille securi 307. Ejus adversi Adversi frontem mediam mentumque reductâ

Disjicit, et sparso latè rigat arma cruore.
Olli dura quies oculos et ferreus urget
Somnus ; in æternam clauduntur lumina noctem. 310

At pius Æneas dextram tendebat inermem
Nudato capite, atque suos clamore vocabat :

Quò ruitis ? quæve ista repens discordia surgit ? 314. Fædus ictum est () cohibete iras! ictum jam fædus, et omnes 315. Jus concurrere Compositæ leges : mihi jus concurrere soli:

315 est mihi soli; sinite me Me sinite, atque auferte metus. Ego fædera faxo pugnare 316. Ego faxo manu,

Firma manu: Turnum jam debent hæc mihi sacra. ut fædera sint.

Has inter voces, media inter talia verba,

NOTES.

high upon his steed to give the blow more the sacrifices; which accounts for his bemg effect, gives him a mortal wound; while he at the altars. Reluxit: his beard caught in the mean time is pleading for his life, fire, and shone-blazed. without avail. Insigne : in the sense of or 301. Super : in the sense of insuper vel namentum.

prætereà. Ipse : Chorinæus. 291. Proterret: affrights—alarms-con 302. Turbati : affrighted-confused. founds. Ruit: in the sense of cadit.

303. Impresso genu; exerting himself with 294. Trabali : in the sense of ingenti. his knee being thrust hard against him, he

296. Melior victima: a better, or more is enabled to pull Ebusus over, and bring effectual victim to appease the gods, than him to the ground. Applicat : Ruæus says, those that had been offered for the league sternit. on the altars, where he had fallen; to wit, 306. Superimninet: in the sense of premit a lamb or a pig. Habet hoc. This was an vel urget. Securi reductâ : his axe being expression made by the spectators at the drawn back to give the blow—with his axe shows of the gladiators, when any one re drawn back. ceived a mortal wound.

308. Disjicit : in the sense of scindit vel 297. Spoliant : strip his limbs yet warm. secat. Ruæus saye, nudant.

309. Olli : for illi, and this again in the 298. Obvius : in the sense of adversus. sense of illius. Ruæus says, occurrens.

311. Inermem: unarmed: of in, and arma. 300. Occupat os: he strikes him on the 313. Repens : in the sense of subita. face with the fire-brand. This prevented the 315. Leges: the terms or conditions of the blow that was intended by Ebusus to be treaty, given to him. Occupat os : Ruæus says, in 316. Ego faro: the meaning is : I will Percepit vultum flammis. Heynę says, ferit make good my part of the treaty, and these occupando. This Chorineus was a Trojan sacred rites give me security, that Turnus priest. He had been engaged in offering will perform his part. Fato: for facero.

Ecce, viro stridens alis allapsa sagitta est :
Incertum quâ pulsa manu, quo turbine adacta ;

320

320. Est incertum, que Quis tantam Rutulis laudem, casusne, Deusne,

manu pulsa sit Attulerit. Pressa est insignis gloria facti ; Nec sese Æneæ jactavit vulnere quisquam.

Turnus, ut Æneam cedentem ex agmine vidit,
Turbatosque duces, subitâ spe fervidus ardet :

325
Poscit equos, atque arma simul, saltuque superbus
Emivat in currum, et manibus molitur habenas.
Multa virûm volitans dat fortia corpora

leto :
Semineces volvit multos, aut agmina curru
Proterit, aut raptas fugientibus ingerit hastas. 330
Qualis apud gelidi cùm flumina concitus Hebri

331. Qualis sangui-
Sanguineus Mavors clypeo increpat, atque furentes neus Mavors, cùm
Bella movens immittit equos : illi æquore aperto
Ante Notos Zephyrumque volant: gemit ultima pulsu
Thraca pedum : circùmque atræ Formidinis ora, 335
Iræque, Insidiæque, Dei comitatus, aguntur.

336. Cırcumaguntur Talis equos alacer media inter prælia Turnus Fumantes sudore quatit, miserabilè cæsis Hostibus insultans : spargit rapida ungula rores

339. Ungula ejus equoSanguineos, mixtâque cruor calcatur arenâ.

342. Congressus est Jamque neci Sthenelumque dedit, Thamyrimque, Pho

hunc et hunc cominùs ; lumque,

illum, nempe, Sthenelum Hunc congressus et hunc ; illum eminùs : eminùs ambos eminùs ; congressus est Imbrasidas, Glaucum atque Ladem ; quos Imbrasus ipse eminùs ambos

eum

340 rum

NOTES.

..

.

319. Viro: to the hero, i. e. Æneas. Alis: and half dead they rolled and tumbled along here denotes the swiftness of the arrow. It as they lay prostrate on the field. Ingerit : moved on wings.

he hurled-threw. Raptas: in the sense of 320. Quo turbine: by what whirling force: correptas vel arreptas. Ruæus says, immittit simply, by what force. Quo impetu, says fugientibus hastas abstractas iisdem: which Ruæus. Pulsa : in the sense of missa. implies that Turnus took the spears from the

322. Pressa est: is concealed. No one fugitives, and then threw them at them., has the glory of so illustrious a deed. The word raptas frequently signifies no

325. Fervidus ardet: the absence of Æneas more than, snatched up-suddenly taken. raises the courage of Turnus, and inflames 331. Flumina Hebri : along the streams him for battle. He is once more victorious, of Hebrusalong the river Hebrus. See as he had been before on the banks of the Ecl. x. 65. Tiber, when Æneas was absent in Etruria. 332. Increpat : in the sense of sonat. This indirect method of praising his hero, 333. Immittit : lets loose-gives full reins Virgil had learned from Homer, who makes to his furious steeds. his victory to lean on the side of the Tro 335. Ora atræ formidinis : the form or jans during the absence of Achilles ; so, here, countenance of grim terror-grim terror the absence of Æneas makes the scales turn itself. in favor of the Latins. The absence of 336. Comitatus Dei : the retinue of the Æneas was sudaen and unexpected by Tur- god, i. e. Mars. The word comitatus agrees nus; and as soon as he saw him withdraw in apposition with the preceding nominafrom the field, he was fired with the hope of tives Ora, Irã, Insidiæ. retrieving the lost fortunes of his country. 338. Quatit: in the sense of impellil.

326. Superbis : in the sense of animosus. Miserabilè cæsis : miserably slain. 327. Molitur : in the sense of tractat. 339. Sanguineos rores : simply, blood.

330. Proterit : he crushed. Ruæus says, 342. Hunc, et hunc: the two last he ensternit. Agmina : the troops--the enemy. gaged in close fight; the former at a dis

As Turnus drove furiously through the tance. Hic sometimes signifies the latter, ranks of the enemy, the wheels of his chariot or last mentioned ; ille, the former, or first crushed some to death, and others wounded mentioned, as in the present case.

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