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Diomede, did Latinus call a council of state What was the nature of the ground over to receive the answer ?
which each division was to pass ? What was the nature of that answer ? How did Turnus receive this information? What effect had it upon the Latins?
What resolution did he take on receiving Who was the principal person of that this intelligence ? embassy?
Would this give him any particular adWho was Diomede ?
vantage over Æneas ? Why did he come to Italy?
In what would it consist? What were his reasons for declining to Where does Turnus meet Camilla ? take part with Turnus and the Latins? Does he confer upon her the command of
What does he say of the valor of Æneas? the cavalry?
What course did he advise Latinus to What direction does he give her ? take?
Who was Camilla ? What city did he build in Italy?
Who was her father? Where was it situated ?
What did his subjects do to him? What is said of his companions in arms ? What was the age of Camilla at that Is this a ridiculous and improbable story? time?
What is the conclusion of Latinus in re How did he save his child from the fury gard to the war?
of his subjects ? Did he make any speech upon the occa How did he save himself? sion ?
To whom did he dedicate his daughter? What did he propose to do?
What was the manner of her education? What is the character of the speech of Was she a favorite of Diana? Drances ?
Did she afterward succeed to the throne Of what did he accuse Turnus?
of the Volsci ? What is the character of the reply of How was Camilla armed? Turnus?
For what was she distinguished ? What is his object in this reply?
Who assisted her in command, during the Were there any political parties at this action? time among the Latins?
Who commenced the fight? Who may be said to have been at the How many times did the combatants head of the party in favor of Turnus? charge each other and retreat ?
Who was at the head of the other party? What took place after this?
How did Camilla distinguish herself? Was any proposition made to Turnus to What were some of her deeds of valor? decide the dispute with Æneas in single By whom was she finally killed ? combat?
What effect' had her death upon the issue Who made the proposition ?
of the battle? How was it received by Turnus?
By whom was Aruns slain? Did he express any reluctance to meet By whose orders was he slain? Æneas?
And by whose arrow ? During the deliberations of the council, Did Aruns conduct in a cowardly manner what information reaches Laurentum? on this occasion ?
What effect had this advance of the enemy Was he sensible of it? upon Latinus?
Finding herself mortally wounded, what What did Turnus do upon this emer
did Camilla do? gency?
Whom did she send to acquaint Turnus In how many divisions were the enemy of the state of the battle? to advance ?
What effect had the news upon hiin: Under whose command were the infantry Did he leave his place of concealment? to march?
What took place immediately afterward? In what way were they to approach the Was this an unlucky circumstance for city?
Turnus? How were the cavalry to advance ?
What prevented a renewal of the fight? Could they come in any other way? When was the decisive action fought?
TURNUS, perceiving his troops to be disheartened by their reverses, resolves to accept the
proposal of deciding the dispute by single combat with Æneas. Latinus, in a tender and pathetic speech, endeavors to dissuade him from it. He advises him to relinquish his claim to Lavinia, and seek a wife among the daughters of the Italian princes. He plainly tells him, that the gods forbid him to unite his daughter to any other than a foreigner. He recounts the disastrous consequences of his opposition to the Trojans, and concludes by reminding him of his aged father, and the sorrow that would fall upon him, if the issue were to prove disastrous. At this critical moment, the queen comes in, seconds her husband's entreaties, and beseeches him to relinquish his rash purpose. She declares, the safety of their family and kingdom depends upon his life ; and that she is resolved to perish with him, and not to see Lavinia transferred to Æneas. But the hero is not moved from his purpose, and prefers to die rather than part with his
beloved Luvinia. The virgin heard the expostulation of her mother, and love kindled a blush upon her
cheeks. This thrilled through the heart of Turnus, and all the tender emotions of his soul were roused. Forthwith he sends Idmon to the Trojan camp to proclaim, that on
the following day, he would decide the dispute with Æneas. In the mean time, he prepares his armor, and examines his steeds. At the return of day,
the parties repair to the field. Latinus accompanies Turnus. Here he ratifies a league with Æneas, and calls the gods to witness. To prevent its execution, Juno sent the nymph Juturna, the sister of Turnus, to rouse the Rutulians to arms, and kindle the war. For this purpose, she caused a portentous sign in the heavens, which the augur interpreted favorably for the Italians. Forth with he hurled a spear among the Trojans, and the two armies rushed to the combat with great impetuosity. Latinus hastens from the field. Æneas is wounded by an arrow, which caused great confusion among the Trojans. Turnus, observing this, mounts his car, and drives over the field, spreading death and desolation in his course. Wherever he directs his way, whole troops and
squadrons flee before him. He performs prodigious feats of valor. In the mean time, Æneas retires from the field, and demands the speediest relief. He is
miraculously healed by Venus. This being done, the hero calls for his arms, embraces Ascanius, and goes in search of Turnus. The fight now is renewed on the part of the Trojans, and the victorious Rutulians fly. At this crisis, Juturna takes the reins of her brother's steed, and drives him victorious over the plain. Æneas pursues, and seeks by every method to meet and engage him; but Juturna baffles all his efforts. Unable to effect his purpose, he resolves to wreak his vengeance upon the Rutulians; and here he commenced a dreadful slaughter: the noblest of the Italians fall. Turnus, too, drives
on with no less impetuosity, and Trojan, Tuscan, and Arcadian bite the ground. Æneas, at the suggestion of Venus, resolves to attack the city, and by one decisive blow, either force Turnus to the combat, or overthrow the empire of Latinus.
For this purpose he assembles his troops, explains his designs, and exhorts them to assault the city with vigor. They instantly mount the walls, and spread the devouring flames. At this sudden change of affairs, all hearts are filled with dismay. The queen, expecting that Turnus was slain, and his troops routed, resolved not to survive the sad catastrophe,
and frantic with despair, hung herself. In this state of things, Sages flies to Turnus, and informs him that Æneas was thundering
in arms; that the city was in the hands of the enemy; that all looked to him for protection; and that, in despair, the queen, his faithful friend, had deprived herself of life. At this information the hero is struck with amazement, and turning his eyes, he beholds the very tower, which he himself had built for the defence of the city, wrapt in flames, He could not bear the sight; and leaving his sister, he sprang from his chariot, and rushed through darts and foes, calling upon the hostile armies to desist from the fight; that he was come to enter the lists with Æneas. Instantly a cessation of arms took place, and the two heroes prepare for the combat. At first they throw their javelins from a. distance, and rush to close combat with great violence. They blows on blows redouble. Turnus, rising high to give his blow more effect, breaks his sword by the
hilt. He now discovers a fatal mistake. When first he mounted his car, ardent for the fight, he had taken the sword of his charioteer, Mitescus, instead of his own trusty sword, which Vulcan had made for his father Daunus. He is now left defenceless, and at the mercy of his foe. He flies off swift as the wind, pursued by Æneas, and pressed on all sides by the Trojans. He calls for his heavenly-tempered sword, and chides the Rutulians. None of them dare to interfere, being prevented by the threats of Æneas. Juturna, at length, restored his sword to him, and Venus disengaged the spear of Æneas.
The two heroes again prepare for the combat. At this juncture, Jove interposes in favor of Æneas. His first care is to withdraw Juturna
from the contest. For this purpose, he despatches one of the furies to the field of battle, which, assuming the form of an owl, flies backward and forward before the face of Turnus. The hero knew the portentous omen. A shivering pervaded his limbs : coldness unnerved his arm. His reason left him: his speech forsook him. As soon as Juturna heard the whizzing of the fury's wings, she recognised the direful messenger ; and in all the agony of grief and distress, and uttering the tenderest expressions of affectionate attachment to her brother, she fled from his sight, and plunged herself in
the deep river. Æneas in the mean time urges on the attack, and calls upon Turnus no longer to decline
the contest. He replied, " I fear not thee, nor thy boasting words: I fear the gods alone : I fear Jove, who is my enemy.” At this moment, he seizes a huge stone that lay near him, and hurled it at Æneas; but it reached him not. The fury had deprived him of his wonted strength. His efforts, therefore, were unavailing. His knees sunk under him; and trembling seized his who body. Æneas throws a javelin, which wounds him in the thigh, and caused him to fall upon his knee. In this situation, he acknowledges himself vanquished, and resigns Lavinia, the royal bride, to the victor. One favor he asked, on account of his aged father, that his body might be restored to his friends. Æneas, moved with compassion at the mention of his aged father, was about also to spare his life; when, discovering upon his shoulder Ine belt which Pallas wore, he became indignant, and plunged into his bosom his naked sword.
3. Oculis omnium
5 5. Qualis ille leo in
arvis Penorum, saucius quoad pectus gravi
TURNUS ut infractos adverso Marte Latinos
1. Infractos : broken--disheartened. Mar 7. Latronis : tha bunter. Fixum : that te: in the sense of pugna vel bello.
had pierced his breast. 2. Promissa : his promises that he would 9. Gliscit : in the sense of crescita meet Æneas in single combat.
11. Retractent dicta: that they should re3. Ultrò. This word implies, that Turnus tract their words. Æneas was the first who was impelled by some violent, but voluntary proposed to decide the dispute in single emotion.
combat with Turnus; and he had pledged 4. Ponorum: the Carthaginians, here put himself to accept the proposition: to this for the Africans in general.
reference is made verse 2, supra. Quòd i, a 6. Movet arma: he moves his arms—he conj. or in the sense of ob quod. prepares for the attack. Comantes toros : 13. Fer: in the sense of offer. Concepe: the shaggy, or bushy mane. Ille leo: a lion, in the sense of sanci. by way of eminence.
16. Refellam : in the sens of avertam vel
17. Aut Trojanus ha- Aut habeat victos ; cedat Lavinia conjux beat nos victos ; et La
Olli sedato respondit corde Latinus : vinia conjux cedat illi o præstans animi juvenis, quantùm ipse feroci victori. 20. Consulere tibi Virtute exsuperas, tantò me impensiùs æquum est
2G Consulere, atque omnes metuentem expendere casus. Sunt tibi regna patris Dauni, sunt oppida capta
Multa manu: nec non aurumque animusque Latino est. 24. Innuptæ virgines Sunt aliæ innuptæ Latio et Laurentibus agris,
Nec genus indecores. Sine me hæc haud mollia fatu 25
Conjugis et mæstæ lachrymis, vincla omnia rupi ; 36 31. Eripui eam pro- Promissam eripui genero; arma impia sumpsi. missam 32. Ex illo tempore, O
Ex illo qui me casus, quæ, Turne, sequantur
Bella, vides ; quantos primus patiare labores.
35 Sanguine adhuc, campique ingentes ossibus albent.
Quò referor toties ? quæ mentem insania mutat ? 38. Si paratus sum Si, Turno exstincto, socios sum accire paratus ; accire Trojanos
Cur non, incolumi, potiùs certamina tollo ? 39. Eo incolumi Quid consanguinei Rutuli, quid cætera dicet
40 41. Fors refutet hæe Italia, ad mortem si te ; fors dicta refutet !
Prodiderim, natam et connubia nostra petentem?
refutabo. Crimer: either the common dis- upon him. He advises him to seek a wife grace, by the preceding defeat and flight: or among the Italian princesses; among whom the inputation thrown upon him by Drances he would find some one worthy of so disand others, of his wanting courage to meet tinguished a prince. Manu : by valor. Æneas. This last appears to be the sense 26. Dolis sublatis : guile, or deceit being of Ruæus.
taken away-in plain words. Fatu: sup. 19. Feroci: bold-daring. Quantùm: in in u of the verb for: to be spoken, or said. the sense of quantò, corresponding with Hauri : in the sense of audi. tantò. Præstans animi : excelling in cou 28. Canebant : in the sense of prædice rage-valor.
bant vel moncbant. 20. Tantò impensiùs æquum :( by so much 29. Cognato sanguine. Turnus was the the more anxiously, it is just that I should son of Venilia, the sister of Amata, the wife consult your safety.
of Latinus. Hence the propriety of cognato 21. Casus : hazard-dangers.
sanguine : kindred blood.
Vincla : 23. Nec non aurumque : Servius takes the straints obligations. sense of these words to be: Latinus satis 33. Primus: in the sense of princeps. opulentus est, et nobilis etiam absque his nup 34. Bis victi. They were first beaten on tiis : implying that, as Turnus was power- the banks of the Tiber, when Æneas landed ful and wealthy enough without contracting his reinforcements from Etruria ; and a sean alliance with Latinus, so Latinus needed cond time vanquished under the walls of not to match his daughter with him for the Latium, in the horse fight, when Camilla sake of aggrandizing himself. Though this was slain. See the preceding book. makes sense of aurum, it puts a forced sig 37. Quò referor: why am I carried so nification animus. Ruæus says, sunt often backward ?-why do I change my requoque Latino divitiæ et benevolentia. solution so often, of giving my daughter to
The expression implies, that Latinus en Æneas ? tertained a friendly disposition towards Tur 39. Certamina : disputes contests. nus, and desired to promote his happiness in 41. Fors : fortune-the issue of the conany way that his wealth could contribute to test. it; but he could not bestow his daughter 43. Res : state-condition.
Longævi, quem nunc mæstum patria Ardea longè 44. Longè à te
precor ut deponas hanc Et nos tela, pater, ferrumque haud debile dextrâ 50 curam pro me, quam
geris Spargimus, et nostro sequitur de vulnere sanguis. Longè illi Dea mater erit, quæ nube fugacem
52. Eum fugacem Fæmineâ tegat, et vanis sese occulat umbris.
At regina, novâ pugnæ conterrita sorte,
56. O Turne, precor Tangit honos animum. Spes tu nunc una senectæ,
te per has lachrymas,
per honorem Amatæ, si Tu requies miseræ : decus imperiumque Latini quis honos ejus tangit Te penès.: in te omnis domus inclinata recumbit. Unun oro; desiste manum committere Teucris. 60 58. Tu es sola requies
mihi misere Qui te cunque manent isto certamine casus, Et me, Turne, manent. Simul hæc invisa relinquam
61. Quicunque casus
62. Iidem manent et Lumina, nec generum Æneam captiva videbo. Accepit vocem lachrymis Lavinia matris, Flagrantes perfusa genas : cui plurimus ignem 65 Subjecit rubor, et calefacta per ora cucurrit. Indum sanguineo veluti violaverit ostro Si quis ebur; vel mixta rubent ubi lilia multa Alba rosâ : tales virgo dabat ore colores. Illum turbat amor, figitque in virgine vultus.
70 Ardet in arma magis; paucisque affatur Amatam : Ne, quæso, ne me lachrymis, neve omine tanto
72. O mater, quæso, Prosequere in duri certamina Martis euntem,
ne, ne prosequere ma
44. Ardea : the capital city of the Rutuli. Turnus were slain, that Lavinia should fall The whole address of Latinus is tender and to Æneas; that the Rutuli should be his pathetic, and bespeaks the goodness of his subjects, &c. Verse 17, supra. heart. Among other arguments to dissuade 57. Honos : respect-regard. Turnus from the combat, he mentions his 59. Domus : in the senso of familia. Inaged father.
clinata : in the sense of prona vel labens. 45. Dividit : in the sense of separat. 60. Desiste : in the sense of omitte. Com
46. Agrescit medendo : he grows more mittere manum: to engage in close combat. obstinate by being persuaded-by applying Ruæus says, conserere manum. remedies. Medendo : a gerund. in do, of 63. Lumina : in the sense of lucem vel medeor.
This is said by way of metaphor. vitam, 47. Institit : he proceeded-began to 64. Accepit : in the sense of audiit. speak.
65. Perfusa genas : wet as to her blush. 48. Geris : in the sense of habes.
ing cheeks with tears. A Grecism, See 49. Pacisci : to exchange death for glory Ecl. i. 55. -to obtain glóry and renown in the room of 66. Rubor : modesty, by meton. Ignem. death—for death.
the glow, or blush, which her extreme mo. 51. De vulnere nostro : from the wound desty diffused, or spread over her cheeks. inflicted by us.
Subjecit properly signifies, spread under the 52. Dea mater erit longè illi. This is a skin. Calefacta : red (or blushing) counteLatin idiom. The meaning is : his mother will be far from affording him any assistance, 67, Violaverit : in the sense of tinxerit, as she had done on, former occasions. It 70. Turbat : in the sense of agitat, will not be in her power to do it.
72. Tanto: in the sense of infausto. The 54. Sorte : sors here means the terms, or repetition of the ne is emphatical. Prose. conditions of the combat. These were, if quere properly signifies, to convoy : here, to