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Corpus ubi exanimi positum Pallantis Acætes 30
Servabat senior, qui Parrnasio Evandro
Armiger antè fuit; sed non felicibus æquè

32. Sed tum ibat coTum comes auspiciis charo datus ibat alumno..

mes datus charo alumno Circùm omnis famulûmque manus, Trojanaque turba,

non æquè

34. Omnisque manus Et mæstum Iliades crinem de more solutæ.

35 &c, stant circům Ut verò Æneas foribus sese intulit altis

S;

35. Solutæ

quoad Ingentem gemitum tunsis ad sidera tollunt

mestum crinem
Pectoribus, mestoque immugit regia luctu.
Ipse caput nivei fultum Pallantis et ora
Ut vidit, levique patens in pectore vulnus
Cuspidis Ausoniæ, lachrymis ita fatur oboris :
Te-ne, inquit miserande puer, cùm læta veniret,
Invidit fortuna mihi ? ne regna

videres
Nostra, neque ad sedes victor veherere paternas ?
Non hæc Evandro de te promissa parenti

45 Discedens dederam ; cùm me complexus euntem Mitteret in magnum imperium ; metuensque moneret Acres esse viros, cum durâ prælia gente.

48. Moneret me LaliEt nunc ille quidem spe multùm captus inani,

nos esse acres viros, et Fors et vota facit, cumulatque altaria donis.

50

prælia esse mihi cum Nos juvenem exanimum, et nil jam cælestibus ullis Debentem, vano mæsti comitamur honore. Infelix, nati funus crudele videbis ! Hi nostri reditus, expectatique triumphi !

54. Hi sunt nostri proHæc mea magna fides! At non, Evandre, pudendis 55 missi reditus Vulneribus pulsum aspicies : nec sospite dirum

NOTES.

to the custom of laying out the dead in the with which Turnus killed the noble youth : vestibule, or entrance before the door, after here called Ausonian, or Italian. it was washed, anointed, and crowned with 42. Invidit-ne fortuna : did fortune, when garlands. In such a place was the dead she came propitious, (læta,) envy thee to me, body of Pallas laid out, and watched by his O lamented youth? aged friend Acætes.

44. Veherere: in the sense of reducereris. 31. Parrhasio. Evander is called Par- 47. In magnum imperium : against a powe shasian, from Parrhasia, a country, and also erful empire. Or it may mean, in prospect a city, of Arcadia, where he was born. of a mighty empire. The former best agrees

with what follows. Ruæus says, in magnum 33. Comes : guardian, or tutor. Datus : appointed.

imperium Etruscorum : which is the sense of 35. Iliades moestum. The poet here

Valpy. Heyne refers it to Latium, to the

represents the Trojan matrons standing around government of which Æneas was about to the corpse of Pallas, in monrning attire. He succeed. It was by the aid of Evander that

he overcame the Rutuli and Latini. had before told us, Æn. ix. 216, that Æneas

50. 'Fors: in the sense of fortasse. left them all in Sicily, except the mother of

51. Nil debentem ullis. Commentators Euryalus. Servius understands female slaves in this place . But they are never called subject of the gods above, but in the power

understand by this, his being no longer a Iliades. The poet would have, probably, of the gods below. But it may mean,

that altered the passage, had he lived to put the he was now discharged from every yow last hand to the Æneid.

which he had made to the celestial gods39. Nivei Pallantis. The epithet niveus that he would never return to perform any here may refer to the fairness of his face he had made himself, or which his father and countenance while living; or more pro- was making for him. Vano: unavailing. bably to his countenance now white, and Inutili, says

Ruæus. All their pomp (honore) pale, and cold in death. Fultum : support and parade were of no avail to him. “The ed-bolstered up.

living are subject to the gods above, the 41. Cuspidis. Cuspis is here taken for dea:1 to those below :” Valpy. the whole spear, by synec. It is the spear 56. Pulsum: in the sense of cæsum.

Optabis nato funus pater. Hei mihi! quantum 58. Tu, O Ausonia, Præsidium, Ausonia, et quantum tu perdis, Iüle! perdis, in Pallante

Hæc ubi deflevit, tolli miserabile corpus
Imperat; et toto lectos ex agmine mittit

60 Mille viros, qui supremum comitentur honorem, 62. Quæ sunt exigua Intersintque patris lachrymis: solatia luctûs colatia

Exigua ingentis, misero sed debita patri. 64. Alii haud segnes Haud segnes alii crates et molle feretrum texunt crates Arbuteis texunt virgis, et vimine querno,

65 Extructosque toros obtentu frondis inumbrant.

Hìc juvenem agresti sublimem in stramine ponunt : 68. Talem, qualem Qualem virgineo demessum pollice forem florem seu mollis violæ, Seu mollis violæ, seu languentis hyacinthi ; seu languentis hyacin- Cui neque fulgor adhuc, necdum sua forma recessit ; 70 thi, demessum

Non jam mater alit tellus, viresque ministrat.

Tum geminas vestes, auroque ostroque rigentes,
Extulit Æneas : quas illi læta laborum
Ipsa suis quondam manibus Sidonia Dido

75 Fecerat, et tenui telas discreverat auro. 76. Quasi supremum 77. Alterâque veste

Harum unam juveni, supremum mestus honorem quasi amictu obnubit Induit, arsurasque comas obnubit amictu.

Multaque prætereà Laurentis præmia pugnæ 81. Manus

eorum, Aggerat, et longo prædam jubet ordine duci. quos mitteret tanquam Addit equos et tela, quibus spoliaverat hostem.

80 inferias umbris Pallantis

Vinxerat et post terga manus, quos mitteret umbris 82. Flammam rogi Inferias, cæso sparsuros sanguine flammam ;

comas

NOTES.

Though it would be a source of grief to see 67. Stramine agresti. By this we are to his son a corpse ; it would nevertheless be understand the bed mentioned in the presome mitigation of that sorrow, to find that ceding line. It is called agresti, rural, or rushe fell not by dishonorable woundsthat he tic, because it was made of the green boughs fell facing his enemy, and not in flight. It of trees, leaves, &c. Stramen, from sterno, was considered disgraceful to be slain, or to properly signifies any thing placed, or receive a wound in the back. Pudendis : in strewed under as a bed; such as straw, the sense of indecoris.

leaves, &c. 57. Nec pater optabis: These words are 68. Qualem florem : This is a beautiful susceptible of a double meaning: the father simile. He looks fair, and still blooming will not imprecate a cruel death to himself, like a flower, just plucked by the the virin consequence of the disgrace of his son: gin's hand. or, he will not imprecate a cruel death upon 69. Languentis. This very beautifully his son, whose life had been disgracefully represents the hyacinth, just after it is preserved. This last is the sense given to the plucked, beginning to fade, and droop its passage by Davidson. Ruæus says, nec op- head. tabis tibi mortem acerbam, filio turpiter salvo, 70. Forma: beauty-comeliness. taken it in the former sense. This is also 74. Quas Sidonia Dido ipsa : which Sithe opinion of Heyne.

donian Dido herself, pleased with the labor, 58. Præsidium: protection.

had made, &c. 59. Ubi deflevit : when he said these 75. Discreverat. Ruæus says, distinzerat. things weeping—having spoken these things Tenui auro : with a slender thread of gold. with tears.

77. Obnubit : he binds up, or veils. 62. Intersint: may be present at, or bear 78. Pugna: of the battle, fought upon a part with.

the plains of Laurentum. 64. Segnes: in the sense of tardi.

81. Vinxerat manus : he bound the hands 65. Arbuteis : of the arbute tree.

of those, &c. This barbarous custom the 66. Toros : here is the bed raised, or made poet takes from Homer. It might suit the high upon the fevetrum, or bier. Obtentu temper of Achilles, but does not agree with frondis. Ruæus says, umbraculo foliorum. that of Æneas. They shaded the bed by spreading (obtentu) 82. Cæso: in the sense of fuso. Inferias : deafy branches over it.

sacrifices for the dead. Ümbris : to the

85 arborum.

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Indutosque jubet truncos hostilibus armis
Ipsos ferre duces, inimicaque nomina figi.

84. Figi his truncis
Ducitur infelix ævo confectus Acætes,
Pectora nunc fædans pugnis, nunc unguibus ora :
Sternitur et toto projectus corpore terræ.
Ducunt et Rutulo perfusos sanguine currus.
Pòst bellator equus, positis insignibus, Æthon
It lachrymans, guttisque humectat grandibus ora. 90
Hastam alii galeamque ferunt; nam cætera Turnus
Victor habet. Tum mesta phalanx, Teucrique sequun-
Tyrrhenique duces, et versis Arcades armis. (tur,
Postquam omnis longè comitum processerat ordo,
Substitit Æneas, gemituque hæc addidit alto : 95
Nos alias hinc ad lachrymas eadem horrida belli
Fata vocant. Salve æternùm mihi, maxime Palla,
Æternùmque vale. Nec plura effatus, ad altos
Tendebat muros, gressumque in castra ferebat.
Jamque oratores aderant ex urbe Latina,

100 Velati ramis oleæ, veniamque rogantes,

103. Ut ille redderet Corpora, per campos ferro quæ fusa jacebant,

illis corpora, quæ

104. Esse illi nullum Redderet, ac tumulo sineret succedere terræ :

certamen cum victis, et Nullum cum victis certamen, et æthere cassis ;

iis cassis æthere, ut parParceret hospitibus quondam, socerisque vocatis.

105 ceret iis

3

NOTES.

shade of Pallas. Eight prisoners were sent being laid aside, he is now dressed in
as victims to be offered at the funeral pile of mourning. Pòst: behind.
Pallas. The poet mentions this circum- 90. It lachrymans: he moves on weeping.
stance, without any expression of disappro- Virgil here is indebted to Homer for this
bation. It is true, Achilles, in the Iliad, thought, Iliad. 17. Where the horses of
does the same thing at the tomb of his friend Achilles are represented as weeping at the
Patroclus; but he is represented as a person death of their inaster, and obstinately re-
of a very different character from Æneas, fusing to obey their driver. Both Aristotle
the hero of the Æneid. And moreover, the and Pliny say, that horses often lament their
loss which he had sustained was more se- masters slain in battle, and even shed tears
vere, and his grief more poignant. But over them.
above all, he lived in a state of society very 94. Processerat. This is the common read-
different from that in which Virgil lived. ing. Davidson reads præcesserat, upon the
These things serve in some measure to miti- authority of Pierius, who assures us he found
gate the enormity of the deed. And yet that reading in the Roman, and other manu-
there is one passage of Homer, which Eu- scripts, which he consulted. Heyne reads
stathius understands as conveying a strong processerat. Ordo : the procession.
censure of the barbarous act.

96. Ad alias lachrymas : to other scenes The practice of sacrificing prisoners at of sorrow-to the burial of the other dead. the funerals of their generals, in process of 97. Salve mihi. This is after the manner time, appeared to the Romans barbarous of the Greeks, who used their personal proand cruel. They therefore changed it, says noun in the same manner. Salve-vale : Servius, for the milder shows of the gladia- these were the novissima verba, or last words, tors! See Æn. x. 518. et seq.

with which they departed from the funerale 83. Truncos: trunks of trees. These were Farewell for ever, farewell for ever, most illus considered the less trophy, and were carried trious Pallas. Fata : state-condition. in the hand. They were dressed in the 101. Veniam: the favor, that he would spoils of the enemy.

restore to them, &c. 84. Inimica nomina : the names of the 102. Fusa : in the sense of cosa vel strata. enemies to be inscribed upon them.

103. Succedere tumulo : to be buried, or 87. Sternitur terræ : he grovels, or rolls interred in the earth. on the ground.

104. Cassis : deprived of: a part. from 89. Æthon: the name of the horse of careo. Æthere : in the sense of luce. Pallas. Insignibus positis : bis trappings 105. Quondam : his former host-friend.

nos

110

115

106. Quor precantes Quos bonus Æneas, haud aspernanda precantes, ea quæ sunt haud

Prosequitur veniâ, et verbis hæc ipsuper addit.

Quænam vos tanto fortuna indigna, Latini, 109. Vos, qui fugiatis Implicuit bello, qui nos fugiatis amicos ?

Pacem me exanimis, et Martis sorte peremptis 111. Concedere pacem Oratis ? equidem et vivis concedere vellem. et vivis

Nec veni, nisi fata locum sedemque dedissent; 12. Nec veni huc, nisi

Nec bellum cum gente gero. Rex nostra reliquit
Hospitia, et Turni potiùs se credidit armis.

Æquiùs huic Turnum fuerat se opponere morti
116. Si ille apparat Si bellum finire manu, si pellere Teucros
finire

Apparat, his decuit mecum concurrere telis :
Vixêt, cui vitam Deus aut sua dextra dedisset.
Nunc ite, et miseris supponite civibus ignem.

Dixerat Æneas. Olli obstupuere silentes ;
Conversique oculos inter se atque ora tenebant.
Tum senior, semperque odiis et crimine Drances
Infensus juveni Turno, sic ore vicissim
Orsa refert: O famâ ingens, ingentior armis,
Vir Trojane, quibus cælo te laudibus æquem ?

Justitiæ-ne priùs mirer, belli-ne laborum ? 127. Hæc tua verba

Nos verò hæc patriam grati referemus ad urbem .

Et te, si qua viam dederit fortuna, Latino 129. Alia fædera

Jungemus regi : quærat sibi fædera Turnus. 130. Quin juvabit nos, Quin et fatales murorum attollere moles,

Saxaque subvectare humeris Trojana juvabit.
Dixerat hæc: unoque omnes eadem ore fremebant
Bis senos pepigêre dies ; et, pace sequestra,

120

125

130

et

NOTES.

Soceris : parents-in-law, Latinus and Ama- ing the war by single combat was made by ta. By marrying Lavinia, he would become Æneas. related to the whole Latin nation.

122. Odiis et : in hatred and crimination 107. Prosequitur veniâ: he follows, or inimical, &c. Drances embraced every opaccompanies them with the desired favor. portunity to vent his envy

and hatred against He granted their request as soon as asked. Turnus, and to throw upon him all the blame It was reasonable in its nature, and conso of the war.

It is supposed, that under the nant with the laws of war.

character of Drances, the poet portrays 109. Implicuit: hath entangled-involved. Cicero, who was no friend of Virgil. See

110. Pacem, me. This is the reading of infra, 336. et seq. Heyne, and Valpy after him. Some ancient 124. Orsa : in the sense of verba. copies have the same. The common read 126. Justitiæ-ne : this is the common ing is pacem-ne. Peremptis : for those slain reading. Catrou however reads, justitia-ne by the lot of war. Martis : for belli. priùs mirer, belli-ne laborê, which Pierius

112. Veni: in the sense of venissem. says, is the reading of the Roman, and of

115. Æquiùs fuerat: it had been more some other manuscripts of antiquity. Serjust that Turnus, &c. It may here be re vius justifies the common reading, by making marked, that Latinus did not take part with it a Grecism. Priùs: chiefly, or most. Shali *Turnus of his own free will and accord; but I most admire thy justice, or thy achievewas forced into it by the importunities of ments in war? Ruæus says: Admirabor te his wife Amata. He was convinced that he ob justitiam, an ob opera bellica. Heyne acted against the will and purposes of the reads, as in the text. gods, in so doing.

130. Moles murorum : your wallsmor the 117. Apparat: in the sense of statuit. towers and fortifications built upon them. Manu : by force, or valor.

Fatales : destined by the fates. 118. Vixét: by syncope, for vixisset : the 133. Sequestra : intervening—intermedione of us would have lived, to whom, &c. ate. They had agreed upon a truce, or It appears here that the first proposal of end- cessation of hostilities for twelve days, for

Per sylvas Teucri, mixtique impunè Latini,
Erravêre jugis. Ferro sonat alta bipenni

135 135. Et in jugis
Fraxinus : evertunt actas ad sidera pinus :
Robora nec cuneis, et olentem scindere cedrum,

137. Nec cessant scin

dere Nec plaustris cessant vectare gementibus ornos.

Et jam fama volans, tanti prænuntia luctûs, Evandrum Evandrique domos et mænia complet; 140 Quæ modò victorem Latio Pallanta ferebat.

141. Eadem fama, quæ

modò ferebat Latio PalArcades ad portas ruêre, et de more vetusto

lanta esse victorem
Funereas rapuêre faces ; lucet via longo
Ordine flammarum, et latè discriminat agros.
Contrà turba Phrygum veniens plangentia jungunt 145
Agmina. Quæ postquam matres succedere tectis

146. Quæ agmina
Viderunt, mæstam incendunt clamoribus urbem. postquam matres
At non Evandrum potis est vis ulla tenere;
Sed venit in medios. Feretro Pallanta repôsto
Procumbit super, atque hæret lachrymansque gemensque :
Et via vix tandem voci laxata dolore est :

151 151. Præ dolore
Non hæc, 6 Palla, dederas promissa parenti,
Cautiùs ut sævo velles te credere Marti !
Haud ignarus eram, quantum nova gloria in armis,
Et prædulce decus primo certamine posset.

155 Primitiæ juvenis misera! bellique propinqui

156. O miseræ primi. Dura rudimenta ! et nulli exaudita Deorum

tiæ juvenis
Vota, precesque meæ! tuque, ô sanctissima conjux,
Felix morte tuâ, neque in hunc servata dolorem !
Contrà ego vivendo vici mea fata, superstes

160 Restarem ut genitor. Troûm socia arma secutum

161. Ut ego genitor Obruerent Rutuli telis ! animam ipse dedissem ;

restarem superstes filio.

Rutuli obruerent me Atque hæc

pompa domum me, non Pallanta, referret! Nec vos arguerim, Teucri, nec fædera, nec quas

NOTES.

the purpose of burying the dead, and other 149. Repôsto: for reposito. The bier being rites of sepulture. This was intermediate placed on the ground. between the war, before and after; during 151. Tandem vix dolore via. At the first which time no act of hostility could be done sight of the corpse, he was overwhelmed by either party. Hence the propriety of the with grief, which entirely prevented his word impunè in the following line, in safety, speech. At length, however, recovering or without fear of injury.

from it, he gives utterance to the effusions 135. Ferro bipenni: an axe with two of his heart, but with difficulty. A true edges, one that cuts both ways. '

pathos pervades this whole speech of Evan136. Actas : raised-grown up to. der. The various turns of passion, and the

139. Prænuntia : a forerunner, or har- alternate addresses to the living and the binger, in apposition with fama.

dead, are the very language of sorrow. 140. Complet. This is the common read. 155. Decus: in the sense of honor. Posset : ing. But Pierius observes that most of the in the sense of valeret. ancient manuscripts have replet.

156. Primitiæ: beginnings-essays. Pro143. Longo ordine : in a long train, or pinqui : neighboring—confederated, or alsuccession. Ruæus says, longa serie. lied. Evander assisted Æneas as an ally:

144. Discriminat. This word Ruæus in their arms were associated in the war. Ru terprets by dividit. Davidson renders it æus says, vicini. “ illuminates.”

157. Rudimenta: in the senso of experi145. Contrà: in an opposite direction- menta. meeting the mourners from the city.

160. Ego vici mea fata : I have overcome 147. Incendunt : in the sense of concitant. my time by living- I have outlived my time. Ruæus says, commovent.

Or, fata may mean the purposes and de148. Potis est: the same as potest. crees of the gods; that regular and ordinary

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