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85 arborum.

Indutosque jubet truncos hostilibus armis
Ipsos ferre duces, inimicaque nomina figi.

84. Figi his truncis
Ducitur infelix ævo confectus Acætes,
Pectora nunc fædans pugnis, nunc unguibus ora :
Sternitur et toto projectus corpore terræ.
Ducunt et Rutulo perfusos sanguine currus.
Pòst bellator equus, positis insignibus, Æthon
It lachrymans, guttisque humectat grandibus ora. 90
Hastam alii galeamque ferunt; nam cætera Turnus
Victor habet. Tum mesta phalanx, Teucrique sequun-
Tyrrhenique duces, et versis Arcades armis. (tur,
Postquam omnis longè comitum processerat ordo,
Substitit Æneas, gemituque hæc addidit alto : 95
Nos alias hinc ad lachrymas eadem horrida belli
Fata vocant. Salve æternùm mihi, maxime Palla,
Æternùmque vale. Nec plura effatus, ad altos
Tendebat muros, gressumque in castra ferebat.
Jamque oratores aderant ex urbe Latina,

100 Velati ramis oleæ, veniamque rogantes,

103. Ut ille redderet Corpora, per campos ferro quæ fusa jacebant,

illis corpora, quæ

104. Esse illi nullum Redderet, ac tumulo sineret succedere terræ :

certamen cum victis, et Nullum cum victis certamen, et æthere cassis ;

iis cassis æthere, ut parParceret hospitibus quondam, socerisque vocatis.

105 ceret iis

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NOTES.

shade of Pallas. Eight prisoners were sent being laid aside, he is now dressed in
as victims to be offered at the funeral pile of mourning. Pòst: behind.
Pallas. The poet mentions this circum 90. It lachrymans: he moves on weeping.
stance, without any expression of disappro- Virgil here is indebted to Homer for this
bation. It is true, Achilles, in the Iliad, thought, Iliad. 17. Where the horses of
does the same thing at the tomb of his friend Achilles are represented as weeping at the
Patroclus; but he is represented as a person death of their inaster, and obstinately re-
of a very different character from Æneas, fusing to obey their driver. Both Aristotle
the hero of the Æneid. And moreover, the and Pliny say, that horses often lament their
loss which he had sustained was more se masters slain in battle, and even shed tears
vere, and his grief more poignant. But over them.
above all, he lived in a state of society very 94. Processerat. This is the common read-
different from that in which Virgil lived. ing. Davidson reads præcesserat, upon the
These things serve in some measure to miti- authority of Pierius, who assures us he found
gate the enormity of the deed. And yet that reading in the Roman, and other manu-
there is one passage of Homer, which Eu- scripts, which he consulted. Heyne reads
stathius understands as conveying a strong processerat. Ordo : the procession.
censure of the barbarous act.

96. Ad alias lachrymas : to other scenes The practice of sacrificing prisoners at of sorrow-to the burial of the other dead. the funerals of their generals, in process of 97. Salve mihi. This is after the manner time, appeared to the Romans barbarous of the Greeks, who used their personal proand cruel. They therefore changed it, says noun in the same manner. Salve-vale : Servius, for the milder shows of the gladia- these were the novissima verba, or last words, tors! See Æn. x. 518. et seq.

with which they departed from the funerale 83. Truncos: trunks of trees. These were Farewell for ever, farewell for ever, most illus considered the less trophy, and were carried trious Pallas. Fata : state-condition. in the hand. They were dressed in the 101. Veniam: the favor, that he would spoils of the enemy.

restore to them, &c. 84. Inimica nomina : the names of the 102. Fusa : in the sense of cosa vel strata. enemies to be inscribed upon them.

103. Succedere tumulo : to be buried, or 87. Sternitur terræ : he grovels, or rolls interred in the earth. on the ground.

104. Cassis : deprived of: a part. from 89. Æthon: the name of the horse of careo. Æthere : in the sense of luce. Pallas. Insignibus positis : bis trappings 105. Quondam : his former host-friend.

nos

110

115

106. Quor precantes Quos bonus Æneas, haud aspernanda precantes, ea quæ sunt haud

Prosequitur veniâ, et verbis hæc ipsuper addit.

Quænam vos tanto fortuna indigna, Latini, 109. Vos, qui fugiatis Implicuit bello, qui nos fugiatis amicos ?

Pacem me exanimis, et Martis sorte peremptis 111. Concedere pacem Oratis ? equidem et vivis concedere vellem. et vivis

Nec veni, nisi fata locum sedemque dedissent; 12. Nec veni huc, nisi

Nec bellum cum gente gero. Rex nostra reliquit
Hospitia, et Turni potiùs se credidit armis.

Æquiùs huic Turnum fuerat se opponere morti
116. Si ille apparat Si bellum finire manu, si pellere Teucros
finire

Apparat, his decuit mecum concurrere telis :
Vixêt, cui vitam Deus aut sua dextra dedisset.
Nunc ite, et miseris supponite civibus ignem.

Dixerat Æneas. Olli obstupuere silentes ;
Conversique oculos inter se atque ora tenebant.
Tum senior, semperque odiis et crimine Drances
Infensus juveni Turno, sic ore vicissim
Orsa refert: O famâ ingens, ingentior armis,
Vir Trojane, quibus cælo te laudibus æquem ?

Justitiæ-ne priùs mirer, belli-ne laborum ? 127. Hæc tua verba

Nos verò hæc patriam grati referemus ad urbem .

Et te, si qua viam dederit fortuna, Latino 129. Alia fædera

Jungemus regi : quærat sibi fædera Turnus. 130. Quin juvabit nos, Quin et fatales murorum attollere moles,

Saxaque subvectare humeris Trojana juvabit.
Dixerat hæc: unoque omnes eadem ore fremebant
Bis senos pepigêre dies ; et, pace sequestra,

120

125

130

et

NOTES.

Soceris : parents-in-law, Latinus and Ama- ing the war by single combat was made by ta. By marrying Lavinia, he would become Æneas. related to the whole Latin nation.

122. Odiis et : in hatred and crimination 107. Prosequitur veniâ: he follows, or inimical, &c. Drances embraced every opaccompanies them with the desired favor. portunity to vent his envy

and hatred against He granted their request as soon as asked. Turnus, and to throw upon him all the blame It was reasonable in its nature, and conso of the war.

It is supposed, that under the nant with the laws of war.

character of Drances, the poet portrays 109. Implicuit: hath entangled-involved. Cicero, who was no friend of Virgil. See

110. Pacem, me. This is the reading of infra, 336. et seq. Heyne, and Valpy after him. Some ancient 124. Orsa : in the sense of verba. copies have the same. The common read 126. Justitiæ-ne : this is the common ing is pacem-ne. Peremptis : for those slain reading. Catrou however reads, justitia-ne by the lot of war. Martis : for belli. priùs mirer, belli-ne laborê, which Pierius

112. Veni: in the sense of venissem. says, is the reading of the Roman, and of

115. Æquiùs fuerat: it had been more some other manuscripts of antiquity. Serjust that Turnus, &c. It may here be re vius justifies the common reading, by making marked, that Latinus did not take part with it a Grecism. Priùs: chiefly, or most. Shali *Turnus of his own free will and accord; but I most admire thy justice, or thy achievewas forced into it by the importunities of ments in war? Ruæus says: Admirabor te his wife Amata. He was convinced that he ob justitiam, an ob opera bellica. Heyne acted against the will and purposes of the reads, as in the text. gods, in so doing.

130. Moles murorum : your wallsmor the 117. Apparat: in the sense of statuit. towers and fortifications built upon them. Manu : by force, or valor.

Fatales : destined by the fates. 118. Vixét: by syncope, for vixisset : the 133. Sequestra : intervening—intermedione of us would have lived, to whom, &c. ate. They had agreed upon a truce, or It appears here that the first proposal of end- cessation of hostilities for twelve days, for

Per sylvas Teucri, mixtique impunè Latini,
Erravêre jugis. Ferro sonat alta bipenni

135 135. Et in jugis
Fraxinus : evertunt actas ad sidera pinus :
Robora nec cuneis, et olentem scindere cedrum,

137. Nec cessant scin

dere Nec plaustris cessant vectare gementibus ornos.

Et jam fama volans, tanti prænuntia luctus, Evandrum Evandrique domos et mænia complet; 140 Quæ modò victorem Latio Pallanta ferebat.

141. Eadem fama, quæ

modò ferebat Latio PalArcades ad portas ruêre, et de more vetusto

lanta esse victorem
Funereas rapuêre faces ; lucet via longo
Ordine flammarum, et latè discriminat agros.
Contrà turba Phrygum veniens plangentia jungunt 145
Agmina. Quæ postquam matres succedere tectis

146. Quæ agmina
Viderunt, mæstam incendunt clamoribus urbem. postquam matres
At non Evandrum potis est vis ulla tenere;
Sed venit in medios. Feretro Pallanta repôsto
Procumbit super, atque hæret lachrymansque gemensque :
Et via vix tandem voci laxata dolore est :

151 151. Præ dolore
Non hæc, ô Palla, dederas promissa parenti,
Cautiùs ut sævo velles te credere Marti !
Haud ignarus eram, quantum nova gloria in armis,
Et prædulce decus primo certamine posset.

155 Primitiæ juvenis miseræ! bellique propinqui

156. O miseræ primi. Dura rudimenta ! et nulli exaudita Deorum

tiæ juvenis
Vota, precesque meæ! tuque, ô sanctissima conjux,
Felix morte tuâ, neque in hunc servata dolorem !
Contrà ego vivendo vici mea fata, superstes

160 Restarem ut genitor. Troûm socia arma secutum

161. Ut ego genitor Obruerent Rutuli telis ! animam ipse dedissem ;

restarem superstes filio.

Rutuli obruerent me Atque hæc

pompa domum me, non Pallanta, referret! Nec vos arguerim, Teucri, nec fædera, nec quas

NOTES.

the purpose of burying the dead, and other 149. Repôsto: for reposito. The bier being rites of sepulture. This was intermediate placed on the ground. between the war, before and after; during 151. Tandem vix dolore via. At the first which time no act of hostility could be done sight of the corpse, he was overwhelmed by either party. Hence the propriety of the with grief, which entirely prevented his word impunè in the following line, in safety, speech. At length, however, recovering or without fear of injury.

from it, he gives utterance to the effusions 135. Ferro bipenni: an axe with two of his heart, but with difficulty. A true edges, one that cuts both ways. '

pathos pervades this whole speech of Evan136. Actas : raised-grown up to. der. The various turns of passion, and the

139. Prænuntia : a forerunner, or har- alternate addresses to the living and the binger, in apposition with fama.

dead, are the very language of sorrow. 140. Complet. This is the common read. 155. Decus: in the sense of honor. Posset : ing. But Pierius observes that most of the in the sense of valeret. ancient manuscripts have replet.

156. Primitiæ: beginnings-essays. Pro143. Longo ordine : in a long train, or pinqui : neighboring—confederated, or alsuccession. Ruæus says, longa serie. lied. Evander assisted Æneas as an ally:

144. Discriminat. This word Ruæus in their arms were associated in the war. Ru terprets by dividit. Davidson renders it æus says, vicini. “ illuminates.”

157. Rudimenta: in the senso of experi145. Contrà: in an opposite direction- menta. meeting the mourners from the city.

160. Ego vici mea fata : I have overcome 147. Incendunt : in the sense of concitant. my time by living- I have outlived my time. Ruæus says, commovent.

Or, fata may mean the purposes and de148. Potis est: the same as potest. crees of the gods; that regular and ordinary

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Junximus hospitio, dextras: sors ista senectæ 165
Debita erat nostræ ! Quòd si immatura manebat
Mors natum ; cæsis Volscorum millibus antè,
Ducentem in Latium Teucros, cecidisse juvabit.
Quin ego non alio digner te funere, Palla,

169 Quàm pius Æneas, et quàm magni Phryges, et quàm 171. Dignati sunt te. Tyrrhenique duces, Tyrrhenûm exercitus omnis. Idi ferunt magna tro- Magna trophæa ferunt, quos dat tua dextera leto. phæa ex illis, quos

Tu quoque nunc stares immanis truncus in armis, 174. Si esset mihi par Esset par ætas, et idem si robur ab annis, ætas, et idem robur ab Turne. Sed infelix Teucros quid demoror armis ? 175 annis tecum ; tu, Turne

Vadite, et hæc memores regi mandata referte: 176. Vestro regi: o Quòd vitam moror invisam, Pallante perempto, Ænea, tua dextra est Dextera causa tua est ; Turnum natoque patrique causa, quòd

Quam debere vides meritis. Vacat hic tibi solus 179. Quam dextram Fortunæque locus. Non vitæ gaudia quæro,

180 vides

181. Nec est fas: sed Nec fas : sed nato Manes perferre sub imos. cupio perferre hunc nun

Aurora intereà miseris mortalibus almam tium mortis Turni Extulerat lucem, referens opera atque labores.

Jam pater Æneas, jam curve in litore Tarchon
Constituêre pyras : huc corpora quisque suorum

185
More tulere patrum : subjectisque ignibus atris
Conditur in tenebras altum caligine cælum.

Ter circum accensos, cincti fulgentibus armis, 189. Rogos suorum Decurrêre rogos : ter mæstum funeris ignem amicorum Lustravêre in equis, ululatusque ore dedêre.

190 Spargitur et tellus lachrymis, sparguntur et arma.

It cælo clamorque virûm, clangorque tubarum. 195. Pars conjiciunt

Hinc alii spolia occisis direpta Latinis mortuis nota munera,

Conjiciunt igni, galeas, ensesque decoros, nempe, clypeos Frænaque, ferventesque rotas : pars, munera nota, 195

NOTES.

course of things, which takes place in the trophy to grace his triumph. See 6. supra. world: which is, that the son should outlive 175. Armis : in the sense of ab bello. the father. This is the sense given by Heyne. 179. Quam : which (right hand) you see, Valpy says, “ I have survived my own fate owes Turnus to the son and father desery-I have exceeded the natural bounds of ing it. Meritis : a part. plu. agreeing with life.”

the nouns nato and patri. Heyne connects 165. Sors: calamity.

meritis with vacat. Ruæus and Davidson, 168. Juvabit: it will console me that he with nato patrique. fell leading, or preparing the way for, the 180. Hic locus vacat : this method alone Trojans, &c.

remains to thee, and thy fortune. Modus 169. Digner non: I cannot honor thee, solandi me restat tibi, says Ruæus. For va&c. Rueus says, non honorabo.

cat, Heyne says relictus est. 170. Phryges: the Trojans. They are so 187. Caligine: in the sense of fumo. In tecalled from Phrygia, a country of the losser nebras. Ruæus says, in similitudinem noctis. Asia. It was divided into the greater and 189. Cincti : clad in shining armor they the less. The less Phrygia was also called marched, &c. Lustravêre in equis : they Troas, the ancient kingdom of the Trojans. rode around. The former has reference to

174. Par ætas, &c. This may refer to that part of the ceremony performed by the Pallas or Evander; neither of whom was infantry, or foot; the latter, to that perable by inequality of age and strength to formed by the horse, or cavalry. Funeris : meet Turnus. Ďavidson refers it to the in the sense of pyre. father: who, had his age permitted, would 192. It cælo : in the sense of tollitur ad gone to the war in person. And in cælum.

had he met Turnus, he would 193. Hinc: in the next place after this victorious, and brought back his 195. Ferventes : in the sense of rapides,

Ipsorum clypeos, et non felicia tela.
Multa boum circà mactantur corpora morti :
Setigerosque sues, raptasque ex omnibus agris
In flammam jugulant pecudes. Tum litore toto
Ardentes spectant socios, semiustaque servant 200
Busta : neque avelli possunt, nox humida donec
Invertit cælum stellis fulgentibus aptum.

Nec minùs et miseri diversâ in parte Latini
Innumeras struxêre pyras ; et corpora partim
Multa virûm terræ infodiunt ; avectaque partim 205
Finitimos tollunt in agros, urbique remittunt :
Cætera, confusæque ingentem cædis acervum,
Nec numero, nec honore cremant. Tunc undique vasti
Certatim crebris collucent ignibus agri.
Tertia lux gelidam cælo dimoverat umbram : 210

210. Umbram noctis Merentes altum cinerem et confusa ruebant

cælo: illi merentes Ossa focis, tepidoque onerabant aggere terræ.

Jam verò in tectis, prædivitis urbe Latini, Præcipuus fragor, et longè pars maxima luctûs.

214. Era: præcipuus Hìc matres, miseræque nurus, hìc chara sororum 215 Pectora mærentûm, puerique parentibus orbi, Dirum execrantur bellum, Turnique hymenæos : Ipsum armis, ipsumque jubent decernere ferro ;

218. Jubent ipsum

decernere armis Qui regnum Italiæ, et primos sibi poscat honores. Ingravat hæc sævus Drances; solumque vocari

220 Testatur, solum posci in certamina, Turnum.

222. Contrà est multa Multa simul contrà variis sententia dictis

sententia Pro Turno; et magnum reginæ nomen obumbrat : Multa virum meritis sustentat fama trophæis.

NOTES.

vel celeres. Nota munera : offerings of the they collected together the ashes and the arms which had been theirs, and consequent bones mingled on the places (focis) where ly known to them.

the funeral piles had been erected. After 196. Non feliciu : unsuccessful darts— this they covered them with a mound of those that failed to do execution, when earth. Altum implies that the ashes lay thrown against the enemy.

thick, or deep upon the ground. Ruæus 197. Morti : to the divinity Mors. says, evertebant. Heyne says, legebant. Ruo,

199. Jugulant: they kill over the flame, is here taken as an active verb. &c. This they did, probably, that the blood

213. In tectis urbe : in the houses throughof the victim might fall upon the pile.

out the city. Davidson says, " in the courts 201. Busta. Bustum properly is the fune- of Latinus, and in the city.” ral pile after it is consumed. Semiusta : of

214. Fragor: in the sense of plangor. semi and ustus.

Præcipuus : in the sense of magnus, vel

maximus. 204. Partim infodiunt. The meaning is: 215. Nurus. Nurus here may mean any that they buried a part of the slain, and a

young

married woman. part they sent to the city of Latinus. Par- merentum : dear hearts of sisters mourning tim may be considered here, a sub. in appo- _dear, or affectionate sisters mourning the sition with multa corpora. Virûm : of their loss of their brothers and friends. heroes. Avecta : a part. of the verb avehor :

218. Decernere : to decide, or settle the

dispute by the sword. 208. Numero. Numerus here may be 220. Sævus : in the sense of acerbus, says taken in its usual acceptation ; but it may Ruæus. also mean decency, or regard. They burned 221. Testatur: in the sense of dicit. all the rest, a confused heap of slain, with 222. Multa : various-manifold. out any particular marks of regard, or ho 223. Obumbrat : in the sense of protegit nor, by way of distinction.

vel tutatur. 211. Ruebant. The meaning is : that 234. Multa fama. Multa here is plainly

Chara pectora

carried away.

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