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Would this give him any advantage over Who assault him with fury? the enemy?
Why do the Tuscans attack him in this How did Æneas effect a landing ?
manner? Into how many divisions were his troops What effect had their assault upon him? arranged ?
Whom of them did he kill? Was any loss sustained in landing?
Dare any of them engage him hand to Who commanded that division of the hand ? fleet?
Does he finally put them all to fight' Did Turnus effectually prevent the land At this time, how stands the scale of ing of Æneas?
victory? What took place after the landing ?
Æneas observed Mezentius thundering What feats of valor did Æneas perform? through the thickest of the enemy, putting Who was the first killed by him?
whole squadrons to flight; and what did he What took place in the wing commanded resolve to do? by Pallas
Is Mezentius ready to meet him? Why were the Arcadians beaten by the Who commences the assault? Latins ?
Did his spear hit Æneas? What was the nature of the ground, where Whom did it kill ? they were engaged ?
Who was this Antores? Was he a valiant Upon this occcasion, what did Pallas do? champion?
What effect had his address upun his Had the spear of Æneas any effect upon troops
Who succors him in this critical moment?
What effect had the sight of him upon Who was Lausus ?
What were the ages of these young com Is it a source of regret to him, to kill so manders ?
noble a youth? Why did not the poet make them engage
What becomes of his father in the mean each other?
time? By whom were they slain?
Does he express any concern about his In what pious duty did Lausus meet his son? death?
What does he do? After the death of Pallas, what took place? After being informed of his death, what
Who was the principal agent in effecting ' resolution does he take? this defeat of the Trojans?
Having arrived on the field of battle, does At this crisis, what did Æneas do to re he challenge the foe? store the fight?
Is Æneas ready to meet him? Why does he go in search of Turnus? Who commenced the fight?
By whom are the Trojans enabled to per What effect had his darts upon his antaform such feats of valor?
gonist? What did Juno do in the mean time?
Where did Æneas direct his dart? What effect had her speech upon Jove? Did he kill the faithful courser? Does she give any assistance to the Latins? What effect had the pain of the wound
What then is she permitted to do for upon him? Turnus?
Did he throw his rider? And what did he How does she effect that object?
do afterwards ? Where does she conduct him?
Did Æneas kill Mezentius in this situaWhen he discovered the deception, what tion? effect had it upon him?
Was this a fair trial of strength and dexWhat did he do?
terity? What was the character of that address ? Did Mezentius beg any favor of the victor?
Is he in any way thankful for the favor of What was that favor? Juno?
Does the poet here agree with historians, If he must die, where did he desire to in this particular? do it?
Do they inform us that Mezentius was Who prevented him from killing himself slain by Æneas? in this state of distraction?
Who then was the victor in the combat? Whither was he finally carried by the Where was the battle fought? winds?
How long after his settlement in Italy, Who succeeded Turnus in the command? and the building of Lavinium? What feats of valor did he perform? What became of the body of Æneas?
The death of Mezentius turned the scale of victory in favor of the Trojans, and their
allies. This book opens with preparations for burying the dead, and performing the funeral rites
to Pallas. A thousand men accompany his corpse to the city of Evander, in slow and
solemn procession. In the mean time, ambassadors arrive from Latinus, praying for a truce, for the purpose
of burying their dead. Æneas grants their request. While these things are going on in the field, fear and alarm pervade the city of Latinus.
Here Turnus had arrived. Drances, an aged and influential counsellor, accuses him of being the cause of the war, and the author of their calamities; and urges him to decide the dispute by single combat. Turnus however has many friends, who recount his noble deeds of valor. At this juncture, the ambassadors, who had been sent to the court of Diomede (Lib. 8.) returned. Latinus calls a council of all his senators and nobles to receive the replý, and to consult upon the present state of affairs. Venulus, the chief of the embassy, gives a full account of the mission; of his reception by Diomede; of the opinion of that monarch concerning the war, and the reason of his declining any interference in it. Latinus gives his opinion in favor of peace, and proposes to send ambassadors with rich presents to Æneas, bearing proposals of peace and amity. Drances follows in a speech of much virulence and invective against Turnus, accusing him of flight and cowardice, and proposed, if he were the mighty champion he claimed to be, that he should decide the dispute by single combat with Æneas, and prevent
further effusion of blood. Turnus replies in a manly strain: he repels the charge of cowardice by adverting to his
noble achievements, to the thousands whom he had slain, and to the dismay which he had occasioned to the whole Trojan camp. He endeavors to allay their fears, and to inspire them with the hope of success. He recounts the valor of his troops; he mentions the cause in which they were engaged—the cause of their country: nor does he omit to mention the number, and fidelity of his allies. He concludes by observing, that he would not decline to meet the conqueror, if the common good required it; nor had he been so much abandoned by victory, as to refuse an enterprise of so glorious prospect, even though his enemy should prove hintself a great Achilles. The whole of Turnus
speech bespeaks the soldier and the hero. A messenge now arrives informing of the approach of the Trojans. The council dis
solves. All prepare to defend the city. Turnus gives commands to several of his officers, arms himself, and appears at the head of his troops. Here he has an interview with Camilla. He confers on her the chief command of the horse, assisted by Messapus, with direction to engage the Tuscan cavalry in close fight, while he, with a chosen body of troops, would lie
in ambush in a woody vale, through which, according to his information, Æneas would, with the main body of his army, advance upon the city. The Tuscan horse in the mean tine approach the city, and the embattled squadrons are
arranged in order of battle in front of each other. The Trojans commence the attack and repulse the Latins, who rally, and in turn drive the Trojans. At length a most desperate conflict takes place. Camilla displayed distinguished skill and valor. She rode among the thickest combatants, and whole squadrons fled before her. Tarchon rallies his flying Tuscans, and renews the fight. Camilla is at last slain by Aruns; who also loses his life. The Trojans gain a victory. The expiring queen sends a messenger to inform Turnus of the event of the contest. He instantly leaves his retreat, and marches into the plain. No sooner had he done this, than Æneas, with his army, entered
the defile, passed it, and reached the plain. The battle would have been renewed between the rival princes, but night approached..
Both armies encamp in sight of each other, and wait the coming day.
OCEANUM intereà surgens Aurora reliqui 2. Æneas, victor sol- Æneas, quanquam et sociis dare tempus humandie vebat vota Deûm primo Præcipitan: curæ, turbataque funere mens est, Eöo, quanquam Vota Deûm primo victor solvebat Eöo. Ingentem quercum decisis undique ramis
5 Constituit tumulo, fulgentiaque induit arma, 7. Quod erat trophæum Mezentî ducis exuvias; tibi, magne, trophæum, tibi, O magne
Bellipotens: aptat rorantes sanguine cristas,
Turba ducum, sic incipiens hortatur ovantes : 14. O viri, maxima Maxima res effecta, viri : timor omnis abesto. res est
Quod superest : hæc sunt spolia, et de regc superbo 15 16. Mezentius cæsus Primitiæ : manibusque meis Mezentius hic est. est
Nunc iter ad regem nobis murosque Latinos.
Arma parate, animis et spe præsumite bellum : 19. Ne qua mora im- Ne qua mora ignaros, ubi primùm vellere signa pediat vos ignaros, sen- Annuerint Superi, pubemque educere castris, 20 tentiaque tardet vos seg. Impediat, segnesque metu sententia tardet. nes metu, ubi primùm
Intereà socios inhumataque corpora terræ
Sic ait illachrymans, recipitque ad limina gressum :
3. Funere : at the death of Pallas. hung around with his arms. Hic est : here 4. Primo Eöo. Eoüs here is taken as a
is Mezentius slain by my hand. substantive: with the first dawning light.
16. Primitiæ: the first fruits; put in apThe first business of the pious Æneas is to position with hæc spolia. These neas here return thanks to the gods for his victory, dedicated to "Mars, the warrior god, in the although he wished to perform the last offi
same manner as the first fruits of the earth ces to his friends and companions in arms, were offered to the gods. and especially to Pallas.
18. Præsumite: anticipate. Bellum: in
the sense of pugnam. 6. Tumulo : on a rising ground. This trophy was consecrated to Mars, the god of
19. Ubi primùm Superi : when first the It consisted of trunk of a tree
gods permit us, &c. They never raised or placed in the ground, with its branches cut pulled up the standards to march, without off, and dressed in shining armor, the spoils
first consulting the gods.
21. Sententia metu : resolution-purpose (exuvias) of Mezentius, whom it was intended to represent. Ít had his waving accompanied by fear. The same as dubia
sententia. plumes, his breast-plate, perforated in several places, his brazen shield bound to his left opinion, that those who were unburied could
23. Qui honos solus. It was the received arm, and his ivory handled sword suspended not pass over the river Styx into the peacefrom his neck.
ful abodes of the happy, till after the revo8. Rorantes : besmeared with blood lution of a hundred years; which time the dripping with blood.
shade or umbra, roamed at large along its 9. Petitum : struck, or hit.
banks, in anxious expectation of the appoint15. Hæc sunt spolia. By the rex superbus ed period. See Æn. vi. 325, et sequens. here, some understand Turnus: from him he Acheronte. Acheron here is used for the rehad won the spoils in general, to which he gions below, in general. first points; then to the trophy representing 25.Peperêre: gotten--obtained--procured. Mezentius, which he had just erected, and 29. Recipitque gressum.
Corpus ubi exanimi positum Pallantis Acætes 30
32. Sed tum ibat coTum comes auspiciis charo datus ibat alumno..
mes datus charo alumno Circùm omnis famulumque manus, Trojanaque turba,
34. Omnisque manus Et mæstum Iliades crinem de more solutæ.
35 &c, stant circům Ut verò Æneas foribus sese intulit altis
35. Solutæ quoad Ingentem gemitum tunsis ad sidera tollunt
45 Discedens dederam ; cùm me complexus euntem Mitteret in magnum imperium ; metuensque moneret Acres esse viros, cum durâ prælia gente.
48. Moneret me LaliEt nunc ille quidem spe multùm captus inani,
nos esse acres viros, et Fors et vota facit, cumulatque altaria donis.
prælia esse mihi cum Nos juvenem exanimum, et nil jam cælestibus ullis Debentem, vano mæsti comitamur honore. Infelix, nati funus crudele videbis ! Hi nostri reditus, expectatique triumphi !
54. Hi sunt nostri proHæc mea magna fides! At non, Evandre, pudendis 55 missi reditus Vulneribus pulsum aspicies : nec sospite dirum
to the custom of laying out the dead in the with which Turnus killed the noble youth : vestibule, or entrance before the door, after here called Ausonian, or Italian. it was washed, anointed, and crowned with 42. Invidit-ne fortuna : did fortune, when garlands. In such a place was the dead she came propitious, (læta,) envy thee to me, body of Pallas laid out, and watched by his O lamented youth? aged friend Acætes.
44. Veherere: in the sense of reducereris. 31. Parrhasio. Evander is called Par 47. In magnum imperium : against a powe shasian, from Parrhasia, a country, and also erful empire. Or it may mean, in prospect a city, of Arcadia, where he was born. of a mighty empire. The former best agrees
with what follows. Ruæus says, in magnum 33. Comes : guardian, or tutor. Datus :
imperium Etruscorum : which is the sense of appointed. 35. Iliades moestum. The poet here
Valpy. Heyne refers it to Latium, to the
represents the Trojan matrons standing around government of which Æneas was about to the corpse of Pallas, in monrning attire. He succeed. It was by the aid of Evander that
he overcame the Rutuli and Latini. had before told us, Æn. ix. 216, that Æneas
50. 'Fors: in the sense of fortasse. left them all in Sicily, except the mother of
51. Nil debentem ullis. Commentators Euryalus. Servius understands female slaves in this place . But they are never called subject of the gods above, but in the power
understand by this, his being no longer a Iliades. The poet would have, probably, of the gods below. But it may mean,
that altered the passage, had he lived to put the he was now discharged from every yow last hand to the Æneid.
which he had made to the celestial gods39. Nivei Pallantis. The epithet niveus that he would never return to perform any here may refer to the fairness of his face he had made himself, or which his father and countenance while living; or more pro was making for him. Vano: unavailing. bably to his countenance now white, and Inutili, says
Ruæus. All their pomp (honore) pale, and cold in death. Fultum : support and parade were of no avail to him. “The ed-bolstered up.
living are subject to the gods above, the 41. Cuspidis. Cuspis is here taken for dea:1 to those below :” Valpy. the whole spear, by synec. It is the spear 56. Pulsum: in the sense of cæsum.
Optabis nato funus pater. Hei mihi! quantum 58. Tu, O Ausonia, Præsidium, Ausonia, et quantum tu perdis, Iüle! perdis, in Pallante
Hæc ubi deflevit, tolli miserabile corpus
60 Mille viros, qui supremum comitentur honorem, 62. Quæ sunt exigua Intersintque patris lachrymis: solatia luctûs colatia
Exigua ingentis, misero sed debita patri. 64. Alii haud segnes Haud segnes alii crates et molle feretrum texunt crates Arbuteis texunt virgis, et vimine querno,
65 Extructosque toros obtentu frondis inumbrant.
Hìc juvenem agresti sublimem in stramine ponunt : 68. Talem, qualem Qualem virgineo demessum pollice forem florem seu mollis violæ, Seu mollis violæ, seu languentis hyacinthi ; seu languentis hyacin- Cui neque fulgor adhuc, necdum sua forma recessit ; 70 thi, demessum
Non jam mater alit tellus, viresque ministrat.
Tum geminas vestes, auroque ostroque rigentes,
75 Fecerat, et tenui telas discreverat auro. 76. Quasi supremum 77. Alterâque veste
Harum unam juveni, supremum mestus honorem quasi amictu obnubit Induit, arsurasque comas obnubit amictu.
Multaque prætereà Laurentis præmia pugnæ 81. Manus
eorum, Aggerat, et longo prædam jubet ordine duci. quos mitteret tanquam Addit equos et tela, quibus spoliaverat hostem.
80 inferias umbris Pallantis
Vinxerat et post terga manus, quos mitteret umbris 82. Flammam rogi Inferias, cæso sparsuros sanguine flammam ;
Though it would be a source of grief to see 67. Stramine agresti. By this we are to his son a corpse ; it would nevertheless be understand the bed mentioned in the presome mitigation of that sorrow, to find that ceding line. It is called agresti, rural, or rushe fell not by dishonorable wounds—that he tic, because it was made of the green boughs fell facing his enemy, and not in flight. It of trees, leaves, &c. Stramen, from sterno, was considered disgraceful to be slain, or to properly signifies any thing placed, or receive a wound in the back. Pudendis : in strewed under as a bed; such as straw, the sense of indecoris.
leaves, &c. 57. Nec pater optabis: These words are 68. Qualem florem : This is a beautiful susceptible of a double meaning: the father simile. He looks fair, and still blooming will not imprecate a cruel death to himself, like a flower, just plucked by the the virin consequence of the disgrace of his son: gin's hand. or, he will not imprecate a cruel death upon 69. Languentis. This very beautifully his son, whose life had been disgracefully represents the hyacinth, just after it is preserved. This last is the sense given to the plucked, beginning to fade, and droop its passage by Davidson. Ruæus says, nec op- head. tabis tibi mortem acerbam, filio turpiter salvo, 70. Forma: beauty-comeliness. taken it in the former sense. This is also 74. Quas Sidonia Dido ipsa : which Sithe opinion of Heyne.
donian Dido herself, pleased with the labor, 58. Præsidium: protection.
had made, &c. 59. Ubi deflevit : when he said these 75. Discreverat. Ruæus says, distinzerat. things weeping—having spoken these things Tenui auro : with a slender thread of gold. with tears.
77. Obnubit : he binds up, or veils. 62. Intersint: may be present at, or bear 78. Pugna: of the battle, fought upon a part with.
the plains of Laurentum. 64. Segnes: in the sense of tardi.
81. Vinxerat manus : he bound the hands 65. Arbuteis : of the arbute tree.
of those, &c. This barbarous custom the 66. Toros : here is the bed raised, or made poet takes from Homer. It might suit the high upon the fevetrum, or bier. Obtentu temper of Achilles, but does not agree with frondis. Ruæus says, umbraculo foliorum. that of Æneas. They shaded the bed by spreading (obtentu) 82. Cæso: in the sense of fuso. Inferias : deafy branches over it.
sacrifices for the dead. Ümbris : to the