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Si qua fidem tanto est operi latura vetustas,
Non equidem, nec te, juvenis memorande, silebo

793. Nec silebo te ipIlle pedem referens, et inutilis, inque ligatus

sum, O memorande ju.

795 Cedebat, clypeoque inimicum hastile trahebat.

venis. Ille pater refe

rens pedem, et inutilis Prorupit juvenis, seseque immiscuit armis.

pugnce
Jamque assurgentis dextrâ, plagamque ferentis
Æneæ subiit mucronem, ipsumque morando

798. Subiitque
Sustinuit; socii magno clamore sequuntur ;

cronem Æneæ, jam asDum genitor nati parmâ protectus abiret :

800 surgentis
Telaque conjiciunt, proturbantque eminùs hostem
Missilibus. Furit Æneas, tectusque tenet se.

802. Tectusque clypeo
Ac velut, effuså siquando grandine nimbi
Præcipitant, omnis campis diffugit arator,
Omnis et agricola, et tutâ latet arce viator,

805
Aut amnis ripis, aut alti fornice saxi,
Dum pluit in terris ; ut possint, sole reducto,
Exercere diem: sic obrutus undique telis
Æneas, nubem belli, dum detonet, omnem,
Sustinet : et Lausum increpitat, Lausoque minatur : 810
Quò, moriture, ruis ? majoraque viribus audes ?

811. Ait ; quo ruis, Fallit te incautum pietas tua. Nec minùs ille

O juvcnis, moriture
Exsultat demens. Sævæ jamque altiùs iræ
Dardanio surgunt ductori, extremaque Lauso
Parcæ fila legunt. Validum namque exigit ensem, 815 815. Fila vitae Lauso
Per medium Æneas juvenem, totumque recondit.

816. Minacis juvenis Transiit et parmam mucro, levia arma minacis,

NOTES.

zentius, had spent its force, haud pertulit 799. Sustinuit ipsum : the meaning is, vires ; and settled down in his groin. that he prevented Æneas from giving the

792. Latura est: will give credit to. Ve- blow, which was aimed at his father, by tustas : in the sense of posteritas vel posteri. parrying it off, and keeping him at bay for 793. Memorande : in the sense of cele

a time, until he could recover himself, and

retire from the coinbat. This he did under
brande-worthy to be praised.
Here the poet may

be
supposed to

cover of the shield (parma) of his son.

express his own feelings of pity and compassion for Sequuntur: in the sense of adjuvant. Socii: the fall of so noble a youth. The character the companions of Lausus. which he has drawn of Lausus shows the

801. Proturbant: keep off-repel. Ruæus consummate skill of the poet at this species says, propellunt. of description. And surely no one can read

803. Nimbi effusâ grandine:

a storm of

impetuous hail rushes down. The prep. e38 it without partaking of his feelings, and en

is understood, to govern effusâ grandine. tertaining a regret that so brave, and at the

804. Omnis arator: every ploughman. same time so pious a youth, could not have been spared to be a blessing to his people.

Omnis: all, collectively or individually.

805. Arce. Arx here, as in some other 794. Inque ligatus: by tmesis, for que in- places, signifies any place of shelter, or safe ligatus : incumbered by the spear of Æneas. retreat. Fornice : under the projection or Ille. Mezentius.

covert of a high rock. 796. Prorupit : he sprang forward. Ar

808. Exercere dicm : to pursue the labors mis: the weapons of the enemy: One de- of the day. Operari per diem, says Ruæus. scription of the valiant man, is, that he 809. Nubem : storm of war. Detonet : in mingles with the enemy.

the sense of furit vel sævit. 798. Mucronem : the poet here has in his 811. Audes majora: thou attemptest things view a circumstance recorded in the Roman beyond thy strength-greater than. history. Scipio Africanus, when he was 815. Parcæ legunt: the destinies wind up only seventeen years old, protected his father the last thread, &c. See Ecl. iv. 47. Ruæus in this manner; nor did he retreat until he says, colliguni. had received twenty-seven wounds. Mu 816. Totum : ensem is understood. cronem : in the sense of gladium.

17 Minacis : boasting-bold-daring.

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820

825

830

Et tunicam, molli mater quam neverat auro ;
Implevitque sinum sanguis : tum vita per auras

Concessit mæsta ad Manes, corpusque reliquit. 821. Et ora ejus mo At verò ut vultum vidit morientis et ora, rientis

Ora modis Anchisiades pallentia miris,
Ingemuit miserans graviter, dextramque tetendit;

Et mentem patriæ subiit pietatis imago :
825. O puer miseran- Quid tibi nunc, miserande puer, pro laudibus istis,
de, quid. honoris nunc Quid pius Æneas tantá dabit indole dignum?
dabitur tibi pro istis

Arma, quibus lætatus, habe tua : teque parentum

Manibus, et cineri, si qua est ea cura, remitto.
829. Tamen, O infelix
juvenis, tu solabere

Hôc tamen, infelix, miseram solabere mortem :
Æneæ magni dextrâ cadis. Increpat ultrò
Cunctantes socios, et terrâ sublevat ipsum,
Sanguine turpantem comptos de more capillos.

Intereà genitor Tiberini ad fluminis undai
Vulnera siccabat lymphis, corpusque levabat,
Arboris acclinis trunco. Procul ærea ramis
Dependet galea, et prato gravia arma quiescunt.
Stant lecti circùm juvenes : ipse æger, anhelans
Colla fovet, fusus propexam in pectore barbam.

Multa super Lauso rogitat: multosque remittit, , 840. Qui revpcent eum Qui revocent, mæstique ferant mandata parentis. à prælio

At Lausum socii exanimum super arma ferebant
Flentes, ingentem, atque ingenti vulnere victum

Agnovit longè gemitum præsaga mali mens :
Canitiem immundo deformat pulvere, et ambas

835

840

NOTES. 818. Molli auro: with fine threads of gold. 822. Anchisiades : Æneas. A patrony. Gold is a very ductile metal, and capable of mic noun: the son of Anchises. being drawn into very fine threads, or wire. 825. Laudibus : in the sense of virtutibus.

819. Tum vita mesta, &c. Dr. Trapp ob- Ruæus says, meritis. serves, that every incident in the death of 826. Indole : disposition-excellence of Lausus is well chosen, especially the con character. trast between so pious a son, and so wicked 828. Remitto: in the sense of reddo. Cua father; between the rash valor of the ra: care-solicitude of thine. youth, and the generous care and friendly 831. Ipsum : Lausus. admonition of his heroic enemy. Pallas had 832. Genitor : the father of Lausus. fallen by the hand of Turnus. Lausus and 834. Siccabat: staunched his wounds with Pallas were of equal valor; but there is a water-washed them with water, which bewide difference between the conduct and ing cold, stopped the flowing of the blood. bravery of their conquerors. Turnus eager- Ruæus says, tergebat: rinsed—cleansed. Dr. ly seeks the combat, and challenges the Trapp takes siccabat in the same sense. youthful warrior. He even wishes his father Lymphis : in the sense of aquá. were present, to behold the death of his son. 835. Procul : apart by themselves—at Æneas is far from seeking Lausus, and some distance from him. This word usually singling him out as the object of his ven- implies distance, but that distance may be geance. And even when he exposed him- very small. Acclinis : leaning against, or self for the sake of his father, he begged upon. It agrees with Mezentius. him to retire from the combat, assuring him 837. Æger : faint with loss of blood. that his tenderness for his father would Fovet : eases-supports. Ruæus says, sus bring on him sure destruction. Nor does tentat. He leaned his head forward upon he attack him until he is compelled to do it his breast, spreading his long beard over it. in his own defence. And after he is slain, Fusus : in the sense of fundens : or, it may the victor fetches a deep groan, looks upon be taken as a Grecism. Ruæus says, dehim with an eye of pity, and the image of ponens. his filial piety touches his generous heart. 841. Super arma : upon his shield.

820. Mæsta : sad—mournful. Concessit : 844. Deformat: he throws dust upon his in the sense of abiit.

head. Canitiem: his hoary hairs.

Ad cælum tendit palmas, et corpore inhæret: 845

845. Inhæret corpore Tanta-ne me tenuit vivendi, nate, voluptas,

filii Ut pro me hostili paterer succedere dextræ,

847. Ut paterer te, Quem genui ? tua-ne hæc genitor per vulnera servor, quem genui, succedere

hostili dextræ pro me? Morte tuâ vivens ? Heu! nunc misero mihi demum

Ego-ne genitor
Exilium infelix! nunc altè vulnus adactum !

850

849. Nunc demum Idem ego, nate, tuum maculavi crimine nomen,

exilium est infelix mihi Pulsus ob invidiam solio sceptrisque paternis.

misero
Debueram patriæ pænas, odiisque meorum :

853. Meorum subdi-
Omnes per mortes animam sontem ipse dedissem! 854 forum
Nunc vivo! neque adhuc homines lucemque relinquo !
Sed linquam. Simul hæc dicens, attollit in ægrum
Se femur: et, quanquam vis alto vulnere tardat,

857. Quanquam vis

doloris ex alto vulnere Haud dejectus equum duci jubet. Hoc decus illi,

tardat eum
Hoc solamen erat: bellis hôc victor abibat
Omnibus. Alloquitur mærentem, et talibus infit : 860 860. Mærentem equum,
Rhæbe, diu ; res si qua diu mortalibus ulla est;

et infit talibus verbis :
Viximus. Aut hodie victor spolia illa cruenta,
Et caput Æneæ referes, Lausique dolorum
Ultor eris mecum: aut, aperit si nulla viam vis,

864. Aperit mihi viam Occumbes pariter : neque enim, fortissime, credo

865. Pariter mecum : Jussa aliena pati, et dominos dignabere Teucros.

enim neque credo, O Dixit: et exceptus tergo consueta locavit

fortissime equorum, ut Membra ; manusque ambas jaculis oneravit acutis ; tu dignabere pati Ære caput fulgens, cristâque hirsutus equina.

867. Consueta huic Sic cursum in medios rapidus dedit. Æstuat ingens

equo Imo in corde pudor, mixtoque insania luctu, 871

865 ad ultionem

NOTES.

to, &c.

846. Voluptas : in the sense of cupido. awakened to a sense of his crimes, and con

847. Succedere: to substitute himself for demns himself for them. Servius, however, me to the arm of the enemy-to come up prefers the latter sense; Davidson the former.

Ruæus says, propter meam cupiditatem. 848. Quem genui: whom I begat. This 853. Panas : satisfaction-atonement.speech of Mezentius over the dead body of Dedissem: to the resentment of my people, his son is extremely pathetic. He now sees I should have given up my guilty life. the errors of his former conduct, and the 856. Ægrum: in the sense of saucium. misery to which he had reduced himself 857. Vis : the violence of the pain from now stares himn in the face.

the wound he had received. 850. Infelix : in the sense of durum, vel 858. Hoc: this; to wit, his horse. intolerabile. While his son was living, he 859. Hôc: here, is in the abl. .with this could bear up under the burden of exile from horse. Equo is understood. his country and throne; but now he is no 860. Morentem : sorrowing-grieving. more, it is become insupportable to him, Mæstum, says Ruæus. Davidson renders it reduced to a state of wretchedness and de " sympathizing.” spair. The wound (the sense of his wicked 861. Rhæbe, diu viximus : such apostroness and crimes) is now opened deep and phes, both to the animal and vegetable world, afresh. Adactum: is driven deep into my so far from being unnatural, are among the heart. Est: is understood.

greatest beauties of poetry, and always show 851. Idem ego : I, the same father who high emotion of soul. Had the poet made begat you, and suffered you to lose your life the horse reply to his master, he could not for him, have tarnished your good name by so easily be justified. This is in imitation

of Homer. 852. Invidiam. This may signify his own 863. Referes : you shall bear away. invidious measures, and cruel and tyrannical 867. Exceptus: being received by the anigovernment; or the odium and resentment mal upon his back, he placed. of his subjects against him, which drove him 868. Ornavit : in the sense of armavit. from his throne, and brought upon him a 869. Crista equina : a crest of horse hair train of evils. The former is the most in - made of horse hair. accordance with the context, since he is now 871. Imo. In many of the ancient copies

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Et furiis agitatus amor, et conscia virtus.
Atque hìc Æneam magnâ ter voce vocavit.

Æneas agnovit eum, lætusque precatur : 875. Faciat, ut tu in- Sic pater ille Deûm faciat, sic altus Apollo,

875 cipias

Incipias conferre manum. 877. Æneas effatus Tantum effatus, et infestâ subit obvius hastå. est tantum

Ille autem : Quid me erepto, sævissime, nato 878. Autem ille Me-Terres ? hæc via sola fuit, quâ perdere posses, sentius ait:

Nec mortem horremus, nec Divûm parcimus ulli : 880
Desine. Jam venio moriturus; et hæc tibi porto
Dona priùs. Dixit : telumque intorsit in hostem .

Inde aliud supèr atque aliud figitque, volatque
884. Umbo Æneæ sus- Ingenti gyro : sed sustinet aureus umbo.
tinet illa.

Ter circùm adstantem lævos equitavit in orbes, 885 885. Circum Ænean Tela manu jaciens : ter secum Troïus heros adstantem 887. Immanem sylvam

Immanem ærato circumfert tegmine sylvam. jaculorum infitam ærato Inde ubi tot traxisse moras, tot spicula tædet

888. Tædet Æneam Vellere ; et urgetur pugnâ congressus iniquâ : traxisse tot moras, et Multa movens animo, jam tandem erumpit, et inter 890 vellere tot spicula è cly- Bellatoris equi cava tempora conjicit hastam. peo

Tollit se arrectum quadrupes, et calcibus auras
Verberat, effusumque equitem super ipse secutus

NOTES.

which Pierius consulted, he found uno corde: about to the left, that he might reach the in one and the same breast. Heyne reads right side of Æneas, which was not protectuno. The common reading is imo. Insania : ed by his shield; and in this way he turned rage-fury.

quite about, forming an orb, or circle. But 872. Et furiis. This verse is wanting in Æneas wheeled at the same time, and kept the ancient Roman manuscript. Heyne the same relative situation to his antagonist, marks it as an interpolation.

as appears from the next verse: ter Troius : 876. Conferre manum: to engage with me, thrice the Trojan hero, &c. hand to hand. This address of Æneas to the 887. Tegmine : in the sense of clypeo. gods is a fine contrast to the impiety of Me- Immanem sylvam : this means the spears, or zentius, who acknowledges no other deity darts, which Mezentius had thrown at than his own arm: verse 773, supra. The Æneas, and which stuck in his brazen shield. prayer is short, but the approach of a furious These he carried around with him as he enemy would not permit him to say more. turned, following his antagonist. Ruæus

877. Subit : in the sense of occurrit. says, magnum numerum jaculorum.

878. Quid me terres, &c. Mezentius see 888. Traxisse tot moras : to spend so ing Æneas coming up against him with his much time. hostile spear, instead of discovering any 889. Congressus: being engaged in unsigns of fear, appears hardened against the equal fight. Mezentius being on horseback, terrors of death, since his son, for whose and Æneas on foot, they were not on equal sake he lived, was now taken from him, terms. nato erepto.

890. Movens : in the sense of revoivens. 880. Parcimus ulli : Ruæus says, revere 892. Calcibus. Calces here doubtless is to mur ullum numen : I do not regard any of be taken for the fore feet. The horse rearthe gods. Some take parco in its usual ac- ed, or lifted himself upon his hind feet, and ceptation, and understand by it that Mezen- in that position buffetted the air. Posteriotius would not have spared the gods them- ribus pedibus, says Heyne. selves, had they appeared in the field against 893. Ipse secutus : by the rearing and him: he looked on them as his enemies, and kicking of his horse, Meżentius was thrown would have discharged his wrath against (effusum) to the ground. The horse himthem. Heyne takes parcimus in the sense self soon following, falls upon his rider, of curo-vereor vel metuo.

(equitem,) and lays upon his shoulder, as he 883. Super. This word here is used in was thus prostrate. By these means, he was the sense of insuper, vel prætereà. Figit : unable to rise to meet his foe, or defend himin the sense of jacit, vel torquet.

solf in any manner. For secutus Ruæus 885. Equitavit in lævos orbes : he rode says, cadens.

nunc

Implicat, ejectoque incumbit cernuus armo.

894. Implicat MesenClamore incendunt cælum Troësque Latinique. 895 tium equitem Advolat Æneas, vaginâque eripit ensem : Et super hæc: Ubi nunc Mezentius acer, et illa

897. Et stans super Effera vis animi ? Contrà Tyrrhenus, ut auras

eum dixit hæc: Ubi est Suspiciens hausit cælum, mentemque recepit : Hostis amare, quid increpitas, mortemque minaris ? 900

901. Est nullum nefas Nullum in cæde nefas, nec sic ad prælia veni ;

in mea cæde; nec sic veNec tecum meus hæc pepigit mihi fædera Lausus. ni ad prælia, ut parceres Unum hoc, per, si qua est victis venia hostibus, oro ; mihi Corpus humo patiare tegi. Scio acerba meorum

903. Per veniam, si Circumstare odia : hunc, oro, defende furorem, 905 qua venia est victis hos

tibus, ut tu patiare meum Et me consortem nati concede sepulchro.

corpus Hæc loquitur, juguloque haud inscius accipit ensem, 906. Concede me esse Undantique animam diffundit in arma cruore.

consortem

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NOTES.

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894. Implicat : incumbers-presses him that he could claim it as a right. As they down. Cernuus: Ruæus says, pronus in had not been separated in life, he wished caput, referring to the horse.

not to be in death. It may here be remark898. Vis: violence-impetuosity. Ut: ed, that how wicked soever a person may when-as soon as. Ruæus says, postquam. have been in life, at the hour of his death,

899. Suspiciens auras hausit. These words he earnestly desires the reward of virtue, are capable of a two-fold version: as soon

and that in the future life, he may be a paras looking up, he saw the light; taking taker with the righteous. cælum in the sense of lucem, and supplying 908. Diffundit : pours out his life. Un the word oculis. This Heyne prefers. Or, danti cruore : the blood flowing, or gushing as soon as looking up, he drew in his breath; upon his armor. taking cælum in the sense of spiritum. This It may be remarked here, that the poet is the sense of Ruæus and Davidson. Aus differs widely from the current of historians. ras: the prep. ad, is understood.

They say, that in a war which broke out be

tween the Latins and Tuscans, over whom 902. Pepigit hæc: agreed upon these terms with you for me. Venia: a favor.

Mezentius was king, that Æneas was slain

by him in a battle, fought on the banks of 904. Meorum: of my former subjects. the river Numicus, whose waters carried his

905. Defende hunc: avert, or forbid the dead body into the sea, where it was never indulgence of their furious resentment. Ru- afterwards found. Hence it was believed, æus says, contine.

that he was taken to heaven and made a 906. Concede: grant-permit. Mezentius demi-god. This took place about three desired to be buried in the same grave with years after the building of the city Lavinihis son. This he begged as a favor, not See Æn. iv. 615.

um.

QUESTIONS.

How does this book open?
Where was this council held ?

What is the conclusion of their deliberations ?

Were there any speeches made upon the occasion ?

What is the subject of the speech of Venus?

What is the character of it?
What is the nature of Juno's reply?
What is the character it?
What is the decision of Jove?
Whom does the poet here imitate?
What book of the Iliad ?
Where is mount Olympus?
Why was it taken by the poets for heaven?
Why is it here called omnipotens?

Where was Æneas during the transactions of the preceding book?

Having effected his object, does he mako any further delay?

What part of his allies did he send by land ?

By whom is he met on his way down the Tiber?

Who was the chief speaker among those nymphs ?

Did she give him any particular information?

What was that information?

How was Turnus engaged in the mean time?

On the arrival of Æneas, what course did Turnus adopt?

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