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Et furiis agitatus amor, et conscia virtus.
Atque hìc Æneam magnâ ter voce vocavit.

Æneas agnovit eum, lætusque precatur : 875. Faciat, ut tu in- Sic pater ille Deûm faciat, sic altus Apollo,

875 cipias

Incipias conferre manum. 877. Æneas effatus Tantum effatus, et infestâ subit obvius hastå. est tantum

Ille autem : Quid me erepto, sævissime, nato 878. Autem ille Me-Terres ? hæc via sola fuit, quâ perdere posses, sentius ait:

Nec mortem horremus, nec Divûm parcimus ulli : 880
Desine. Jam venio moriturus; et hæc tibi porto
Dona priùs. Dixit : telumque intorsit in hostem .

Inde aliud supèr atque aliud figitque, volatque
884. Umbo Æneæ sus- Ingenti gyro : sed sustinet aureus umbo.
tinet illa.

Ter circùm adstantem lævos equitavit in orbes, 885 885. Circum Ænean Tela manu jaciens : ter secum Troïus heros adstantem 887. Immanem sylvam

Immanem ærato circumfert tegmine sylvam. jaculorum infitam ærato Inde ubi tot traxisse moras, tot spicula tædet

888. Tædet Æneam Vellere ; et urgetur pugnâ congressus iniquâ : traxisse tot moras, et Multa movens animo, jam tandem erumpit, et inter 890 vellere tot spicula è cly- Bellatoris equi cava tempora conjicit hastam. peo

Tollit se arrectum quadrupes, et calcibus auras
Verberat, effusumque equitem super ipse secutus

NOTES.

which Pierius consulted, he found uno corde: about to the left, that he might reach the in one and the same breast. Heyne reads right side of Æneas, which was not protectuno. The common reading is imo. Insania : ed by his shield; and in this way he turned rage-fury.

quite about, forming an orb, or circle. But 872. Et furiis. This verse is wanting in Æneas wheeled at the same time, and kept the ancient Roman manuscript. Heyne the same relative situation to his antagonist, marks it as an interpolation.

as appears from the next verse: ter Troius : 876. Conferre manum: to engage with me, thrice the Trojan hero, &c. hand to hand. This address of Æneas to the 887. Tegmine : in the sense of clypeo. gods is a fine contrast to the impiety of Me- Immanem sylvam : this means the spears, or zentius, who acknowledges no other deity darts, which Mezentius had thrown at than his own arm: verse 773, supra. The Æneas, and which stuck in his brazen shield. prayer is short, but the approach of a furious These he carried around with him as he enemy would not permit him to say more. turned, following his antagonist. Ruæus

877. Subit : in the sense of occurrit. says, magnum numerum jaculorum.

878. Quid me terres, &c. Mezentius see- 888. Traxisse tot moras : to spend so ing Æneas coming up against him with his much time. hostile spear, instead of discovering any 889. Congressus: being engaged in unsigns of fear, appears hardened against the equal fight. Mezentius being on horseback, terrors of death, since his son, for whose and Æneas on foot, they were not on equal sake he lived, was now taken from him, terms. nato erepto.

890. Movens : in the sense of revoivens. 880. Parcimus ulli : Ruæus says, revere- 892. Calcibus. Calces here doubtless is to mur ullum numen : I do not regard any of be taken for the fore feet. The horse rearthe gods. Some take parco in its usual ac- ed, or lifted himself upon his hind feet, and ceptation, and understand by it that Mezen- in that position buffetted the air. Posteriotius would not have spared the gods them- ribus pedibus, says Heyne. selves, had they appeared in the field against 893. Ipse secutus : by the rearing and him: he looked on them as his enemies, and kicking of his horse, Meżentius was thrown would have discharged his wrath against (effusum) to the ground. The horse himthem. Heyne takes parcimus in the sense self soon following, falls upon his rider, of curo-vereor vel metuo.

(equitem,) and lays upon his shoulder, as he 883. Super. This word here is used in was thus prostrate. By these means, he was the sense of insuper, vel prætereà. Figit : unable to rise to meet his foe, or defend himin the sense of jacit, vel torquet.

solf in any manner. For secutus Ruæus 885. Equitavit in lævos orbes : he rode says, cadens.

nunc

Implicat, ejectoque incumbit cernuus armo.

894. Implicat MesenClamore incendunt cælum Troësque Latinique. 895 tium equitem Advolat Æneas, vaginâque eripit ensem : Et super hæc: Ubi nunc Mezentius acer, et illa

897. Et stans super Effera vis animi ? Contrà Tyrrhenus, ut auras

eum dixit hæc: Ubi est Suspiciens hausit cælum, mentemque recepit : Hostis amare, quid increpitas, mortemque minaris ? 900

901. Est nullum nefas Nullum in cæde nefas, nec sic ad prælia veni ;

in mea cæde; nec sic veNec tecum meus hæc pepigit mihi fædera Lausus. ni ad prælia, ut parceres Unum hoc, per, si qua est victis venia hostibus, oro ; mihi Corpus humo patiare tegi. Scio acerba meorum

903. Per veniam, si Circumstare odia : hunc, oro, defende furorem, 905 qua venia est victis hosEt me consortem nati concede sepulchro.

tibus, ut tu patiare meum

corpus Hæc loquitur, juguloque haud inscius accipit ensem, 906. Concede me esse Undantique animam diffundit in arma cruore.

consortem

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NOTES.

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894. Implicat : incumbers-presses him that he could claim it as a right. As they down. Cernuus: Ruæus says, pronus in had not been separated in life, he wished caput, referring to the horse.

not to be in death. It may here be remark898. Vis: violence-impetuosity. Ut: ed, that how wicked soever a person may when-as soon as. Ruæus says, postquam. have been in life, at the hour of his death,

899. Suspiciens auras hausit. These words he earnestly desires the reward of virtue, are capable of a two-fold version: as soon

and that in the future life, he may be a paras looking up, he saw the light; taking taker with the righteous. cælum in the sense of lucem, and supplying 908. Diffundit : pours out his life. Un the word oculis. This Heyne prefers. Or, danti cruore : the blood flowing, or gushing as soon as looking up, he drew in his breath; upon his armor. taking cælum in the sense of spiritum. This

It may be remarked here, that the poet is the sense of Ruæus and Davidson. Aus differs widely from the current of historians. ras: the prep. ad, is understood.

They say, that in a war which broke out be

tween the Latins and Tuscans, over whom 902. Pepigit hæc: agreed upon these terms with you for me. Venia: a favor.

Mezentius was king, that Æneas was slain

by him in a battle, fought on the banks of 904. Meorum: of my former subjects. the river Numicus, whose waters carried his

905. Defende hunc: avert, or forbid the dead body into the sea, where it was never indulgence of their furious resentment. Ru- afterwards found. Hence it was believed, æus says, contine.

that he was taken to heaven and made a 906. Concede: grant-permit. Mezentius demi-god. This took place about three desired to be buried in the same grave with years after the building of the city Lavinihis son. This he begged as a favor, not See Æn. iv. 615.

um.

QUESTIONS.

How does this book open?
Where was this council held ?

What is the conclusion of their deliberations ?

Were there any speeches made upon the occasion ?

What is the subject of the speech of Venus?

What is the character of it?
What is the nature of Juno's reply?
What is the character it?
What is the decision of Jove?
Whom does the poet here imitate?
What book of the Iliad ?
Where is mount Olympus?
Why was it taken by the poets for heaven?
Why is it here called omnipotens?

Where was Æneas during the transactions of the preceding book?

Having effected his object, does he mako any further delay?

What part of his allies did he send by land ?

By whom is he met on his way down the Tiber?

Who was the chief speaker among those nymphs ?

Did she give him any particular information?

What was that information?

How was Turnus engaged in the mean time?

On the arrival of Æneas, what course did Turnus adopt?

Would this give him any advantage over Who assault him with fury? the enemy?

Why do the Tuscans attack him in this How did Æneas effect a landing ?

manner? Into how many divisions were his troops What effect had their assault upon him? arranged ?

Whom of them did he kill? Was any loss sustained in landing?

Dare any of them engage him hand to Who commanded that division of the hand ? fleet?

Does he finally put them all to fight' Did Turnus effectually prevent the land- At this time, how stands the scale of ing of Æneas?

victory? What took place after the landing ?

Æneas observed Mezentius thundering What feats of valor did Æneas perform? through the thickest of the enemy, putting Who was the first killed by him?

whole squadrons to flight; and what did he What took place in the wing commanded resolve to do? by Pallas

Is Mezentius ready to meet him? Why were the Arcadians beaten by the Who commences the assault? Latins ?

Did his spear hit Æneas? What was the nature of the ground, where Whom did it kill ? they were engaged ?

Who was this Antores? Was he a valiant Upon this occcasion, what did Pallas do? champion?

What effect had his address upun his Had the spear of Æneas any effect upon troops

Mezentius?
What feats of valor did he then perform? Was the wound mortal!
Whom did he kill?

Who succors him in this critical moment?
Who commanded the troops opposed to How does Lausus meet the foe?
Pallas?

What effect had the sight of him upon Who was Lausus ?

Æneas?
What feats of valor did he perform? Does he make an address to him?

What were the ages of these young com- Is it a source of regret to him, to kill so manders ?

noble a youth? Why did not the poet make them engage

What becomes of his father in the mean each other?

time? By whom were they slain?

Does he express any concern about his In what pious duty did Lausus meet his son? death?

What does he do? After the death of Pallas, what took place? After being informed of his death, what

Who was the principal agent in effecting ' resolution does he take? this defeat of the Trojans?

Having arrived on the field of battle, does At this crisis, what did Æneas do to re- he challenge the foe? store the fight?

Is Æneas ready to meet him? Why does he go in search of Turnus? Who commenced the fight?

By whom are the Trojans enabled to per- What effect had his darts upon his antaform such feats of valor?

gonist? What did Juno do in the mean time?

Where did Æneas direct his dart? What effect had her speech upon Jove? Did he kill the faithful courser? Does she give any assistance to the Latins? What effect had the pain of the wound

What then is she permitted to do for upon him? Turnus?

Did he throw his rider? And what did he How does she effect that object?

do afterwards ? Where does she conduct him?

Did Æneas kill Mezentius in this situaWhen he discovered the deception, what tion? effect had it upon him?

Was this a fair trial of strength and dexWhat did he do?

terity? What was the character of that address ? Did Mezentius beg any favor of the victor?

Is he in any way thankful for the favor of What was that favor? Juno?

Does the poet here agree with historians, If he must die, where did he desire to in this particular? do it?

Do they inform us that Mezentius was Who prevented him from killing himself slain by Æneas? in this state of distraction?

Who then was the victor in the combat? Whither was he finally carried by the Where was the battle fought? winds?

How long after his settlement in Italy, Who succeeded Turnus in the command? and the building of Lavinium? What feats of valor did he perform? What became of the body of Æneas?

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The death of Mezentius turned the scale of victory in favor of the Trojans, and their

allies. This book opens with preparations for burying the dead, and performing the funeral rites

to Pallas. A thousand men accompany his corpse to the city of Evander, in slow and

solemn procession. In the mean time, ambassadors arrive from Latinus, praying for a truce, for the purpose

of burying their dead. Æneas grants their request. While these things are going on in the field, fear and alarm pervade the city of Latinus.

Here Turnus had arrived. Drances, an aged and influential counsellor, accuses him of being the cause of the war, and the author of their calamities; and urges him to decide the dispute by single combat. Turnus however has many friends, who recount his noble deeds of valor. At this juncture, the ambassadors, who had been sent to the court of Diomede (Lib. 8.) returned. Latinus calls a council of all his senators and nobles to receive the replý, and to consult upon the present state of affairs. Venulus, the chief of the embassy, gives a full account of the mission; of his reception by Diomede; of the opinion of that monarch concerning the war, and the reason of his declining any interference in it. Latinus gives his opinion in favor of peace, and proposes to send ambassadors with rich presents to Æneas, bearing proposals of peace and amity. Drances follows in a speech of much virulence and invective against Turnus, accusing him of flight and cowardice, and proposed, if he were the mighty champion he claimed to be, that he should decide the dispute by single combat with Æneas, and prevent

further effusion of blood. Turnus replies in a manly strain: he repels the charge of cowardice by adverting to his

noble achievements, to the thousands whom he had slain, and to the dismay which he had occasioned to the whole Trojan camp. He endeavors to allay their fears, and to inspire them with the hope of success. He recounts the valor of his troops; he mentions the cause in which they were engaged—the cause of their country: nor does he omit to mention the number, and fidelity of his allies. He concludes by observing, that he would not decline to meet the conqueror, if the common good required it; nor had he been so much abandoned by victory, as to refuse an enterprise of so glorious prospect, even though his enemy should prove hintself a great Achilles. The whole of Turnus

speech bespeaks the soldier and the hero. A messenge now arrives informing of the approach of the Trojans. The council dis

solves. All prepare to defend the city. Turnus gives commands to several of his officers, arms himself, and appears at the head of his troops. Here he has an interview with Camilla. He confers on her the chief command of the horse, assisted by Messapus, with direction to engage the Tuscan cavalry in close fight, while he, with a chosen body of troops, would lie

in ambush in a woody vale, through which, according to his information, Æneas would, with the main body of his army, advance upon the city. The Tuscan horse in the mean tine approach the city, and the embattled squadrons are

arranged in order of battle in front of each other. The Trojans commence the attack and repulse the Latins, who rally, and in turn drive the Trojans. At length a most desperate conflict takes place. Camilla displayed distinguished skill and valor. She rode among the thickest combatants, and whole squadrons fled before her. Tarchon rallies his flying Tuscans, and renews the fight. Camilla is at last slain by Aruns; who also loses his life. The Trojans gain a victory. The expiring queen sends a messenger to inform Turnus of the event of the contest. He instantly leaves his retreat, and marches into the plain. No sooner had he done this, than Æneas, with his army, entered

the defile, passed it, and reached the plain. The battle would have been renewed between the rival princes, but night approached..

Both armies encamp in sight of each other, and wait the coming day.

OCEANUM intereà surgens Aurora reliqui 2. Æneas, victor sol- Æneas, quanquam et sociis dare tempus humandie vebat vota Deûm primo Præcipitan: curæ, turbataque funere mens est, Eöo, quanquam Vota Deûm primo victor solvebat Eöo. Ingentem quercum decisis undique ramis

5 Constituit tumulo, fulgentiaque induit arma, 7. Quod erat trophæum Mezentî ducis exuvias; tibi, magne, trophæum, tibi, O magne

Bellipotens: aptat rorantes sanguine cristas,
Telaque trunca viri, et bis sex thoraca petitum
Perfossumque locis : clypeumque ex ære sinistræ 10
Subligat, atque ensem collo suspendit eburnum.
Tum socios, namque omnis eum stipata tegebat

Turba ducum, sic incipiens hortatur ovantes : 14. O viri, maxima Maxima res effecta, viri : timor omnis abesto. res est

Quod superest : hæc sunt spolia, et de regc superbo 15 16. Mezentius cæsus Primitiæ : manibusque meis Mezentius hic est. est

Nunc iter ad regem nobis murosque Latinos.

Arma parate, animis et spe præsumite bellum : 19. Ne qua mora im- Ne qua mora ignaros, ubi primùm vellere signa pediat vos ignaros, sen- Annuerint Superi, pubemque educere castris, 20 tentiaque tardet vos seg. Impediat, segnesque metu sententia tardet. nes metu, ubi primùm

Intereà socios inhumataque corpora terræ
Mandemus : qui solus honos Acheronte sub imo est.
Ite, ait: egregias animas, quæ sanguine nobis
Hanc patriam peperêre suo, decorate supremis 25
Muneribus : mæstamque Evandri primus ad urbem
Mittatur Pallas, quem non virtutis egentem
Abstulit atra dies, et funere mersit acerbo.

Sic ait illachrymans, recipitque ad limina gressum:

NOTES.

war.

3. Funere : at the death of Pallas. hung around with his arms. Hic est : here 4. Primo Eöo. Eoüs here is taken as a

is Mezentius slain by my hand. substantive: with the first dawning light.

16. Primitiæ: the first fruits; put in apThe first business of the pious Æneas is to position with hæc spolia. These neas here return thanks to the gods for his victory, dedicated to "Mars, the warrior god, in the although he wished to perform the last offi

same manner as the first fruits of the earth ces to his friends and companions in arms, were offered to the gods. and especially to Pallas.

18. Præsumite: anticipate. Bellum: in

the sense of pugnam. 6. Tumulo : on a rising ground. This trophy was consecrated to Mars, the god of

19. Ubi primùm Superi : when first the It consisted of trunk of a tree

gods permit us, &c. They never raised or placed in the ground, with its branches cut pulled up the standards to march, without off, and dressed in shining armor, the spoils

first consulting the gods.

21. Sententia metu : resolution-purpose (exuvias) of Mezentius, whom it was intended to represent. Ít had his waving accompanied by fear. The same as dubia

sententia. plumes, his breast-plate, perforated in several places, his brazen shield bound to his left opinion, that those who were unburied could

23. Qui honos solus. It was the received arm, and his ivory handled sword suspended not pass over the river Styx into the peacefrom his neck.

ful abodes of the happy, till after the revo8. Rorantes : besmeared with blood lution of a hundred years; which time the dripping with blood.

shade or umbra, roamed at large along its 9. Petitum : struck, or hit.

banks, in anxious expectation of the appoint15. Hæc sunt spolia. By the rex superbus ed period. See Æn. vi. 325, et sequens. here, some understand Turnus: from him he Acheronte. Acheron here is used for the rehad won the spoils in general, to which he gions below, in general. first points; then to the trophy representing 25.Peperêre: gotten--obtained--procured. Mezentius, which he had just erected, and 29. Recipitque gressum.

This alludes

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