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27. Quorum hoc est " Mantua, væ miseræ nimiùm vicina Cremonæ !) fragmentum: ? Vare, Cantantes sublime ferent ad sidera cycni,"241 cantantes cycni ferent tuum nomen
Lv. Sic tua Cyrneas fugiąnt examina taxos, 30
Ć Sic cytiso pastæ distentent ubera vaccæ :
Incipe, si quid habes : et me fecero poëtam
Pierides : sunt et mihi carmina : me quoque dicunt for of 34. Ego sum non cro- Vatem pastores, sed non ego
credulus illis. dulus illis.
35 35. Nam adhuc videor Digna, sed argutos inter strepere anser olores:
Nam neque adhuc Varo videor, nec dicere Cinna mihi dicere carmina dig
Mo. Id quidem ago, et tacitus, Lycida, mecum ipse vona noque
38. Nunc recordor frag- Si valeam meminisse : neque est ignobile carmen. [luto, mentum ejus : ades huc, “ Huc ades, ô Galatea : quis est nam ludus in undis ? O Galatea:
“ Hic ver purpureum ; varios hìc flumina circùm
Imminet, et lentæ texunt umbracula yites.
Ly. Quid, quæ te purâ
ură solum sub nocte canentem dieram te solum canen. Audieram ? numeros memini, si verba tenerem, amare 45 min tem sub pura nocte
Me.“ Daphni, quid antiquos signorum suspicis ortus?
NOTES. 28. Cremona. Cremona was a city on ipse voluto : I am thinking silently with mythe western, bank of the river Po, not far self, if I can recollect it. Voluto : I am refrom Mantua. Its inhabitants were in- volving it in my mind. volved in the same misfortune with those of 39. Quisnam ludus : what sport is there Mantua, in having their property and lands in the waves? The parts of the word are taken from them by Augustus. Hence the separated by Tmesis. Nothing can be more epithet misere.
beautiful than the whole of this fragment. 29. Cycni : properly swans. By meton. It is in imitation of the eleventh Idyl of poets. The meaning of this fragment is, Theocritus. that if Mantua should be preserved from the 40. Purpureum : blooming-gay. Est is calamity which had befallen Cremona, to be supplied. through the irrfluence of Varus, the Man 41. Fundit: in the sense of producit.“ tuan poets would celebrate his praises and 42. Texunt: in the sense of efficiunt. raise his name to the stars. By Cantantes Umbracula : a dim. noun from umbra, a litcycni, says Heyne, we are to understand the tle, or pleasant shade. Mantuan poets.
43. Insani: raging-stormy. 30. Cyrneas; an adj. from Cyrnus, an 44. Quid: in the sense of cui island in the Mediterranean sea. Hodie 45. Mimini numeros: I recollect the tune; Corsica. This island abounded in the yewe if I knew the words, I would sing them. tree: hence the epithet Cyrnean. The ho. These last, or some other of the like import, ney made of this tree was of a bitter quali- are evidently implied. Or else we must take ty, and universally considered bad. For si in the sense of Utimam; I wish–0 that. this reason Lycidas wished the swarms of 46. Suspicis: in the sense of miraris. his friend to shun those trees. Examina : 47. Astrun. This word properly signifies swarms of bees.
a constellation of stars. The poet uses it 32. Poetam: a poet. Vatem : a poet, or here for a single star, thereby giving the prophet. These words are frequently used greater dignity to the star of Cæsar. Viras synonymous, but they are not strictly so. gil makes fülus the son of Æneas, the founder
35. Cinnâ. Cornelius Cinna, the grand- of the Julian family. Iülus was the grandson of Pompey the Great. He became a son of Venus, who according to some was favorite of Augustus.
the daughter of Dione, a nymph of the sea, 36. Digna : things worthy of: or it may by Jupiter. Hence the epithet Dionæan. agree with carmina, understood; verses About the time of Julius Cæsar's death, it is worthy of the attention of Varus and Cin- said a remarkable comet appeared, which na; or worthy to celebrate their actions. the Romans considered to be the soul of strepere anser : to gabble as a goose among Cæsar received up to heaven. The poet tuneful
make inharmonious calls it the star of Cæsar, agreeable in the sounds, &c.
vulgar notion. This comet, according to 27. Ago: in the sense of facio. Tacitus Dr. Halley, appeared the third time in
by which the game
quoque Mærim roman
go Cantantes ut eamus, ego hoc te fasce levabo.
“ Astrum, quo segetes gauderent frugibus, et quo
puerum sæpe condere
Ly. Causando nostros in longum ducis amores :
56. Longum tempus
tont Hinc adeò media est nobis via : namque sepulchrum Incipit apparere Bianoris : hic, ubi densas
62. Tamen veniemus Agricolæ stringunt frondes; hic, Meri, canamus :
opportunè kev Hic hưdos depone, tamen veniemus in urbem :
63. Antè quàm pervelimme Aut si, nox pluviam ne colligat ante,
yeremur: meitai nerimus ad eam, licet Cantantes licet usque (minùs via lædet) eamusais
nobis ut eamus usque
66. Desine loqui plura Me. Desine plura, puer : et quod nunc instat, agamus. verba Carmina tum meliùs, cùm venerit ipse, canemus.
67. Cùm Menalcas ipse lit us to how S7
when he will have come time to log Soros with him
1680. In its nearest approach to the sun, level surface of the water, is still for you. its tail was about 60 degrees long. Pró- Stratum : smooth-level. To consider stracessit; moves along-hath begun its course. tum as expressing the tranquillity of the
48. Quo segetes, &c. Under which (by the water is mere tautology: that is sufficiently influence of which) the fields shall rejoice expressed by silet. Æquor any plain or with corn. Or, the crops shall abound in level surface, whether land or water; here, grain; taking segetes for the stalks or spring- probably, the river Mincius. Omnes auræ, ing corn. Guuderent, by enallage for gaude- &c. Every breeze of whispering wind hath bunt. Sata abundabunt frumento, says Ru- ceased. Ventosi murmuris : in the sense of
murmurantis venti. 49. Ura duceret colorem: shall take co 59. Adeò: only-surely. lor-grow ripe. Duceret : for ducet, by 60. Sepulchrum Bianoris : the tomb of enallage.
Bianor. "He was said to be the son of the 50. Insere piros: plant or graft your pear. river Tiber and the nymph Manto. He trees. The star of Cæsar shall extend its founded, or rather enlarged Mantua, and influence to them. They will grow and called it after the name of his mother. See flourish; and if you should not live to reap Æn. 10. 198. His tomb was rlaced by the the fruit of your labor yourself, be assured side of the way. your offspring will. Piros may be put for 61. Stringunt: prune, or lop off the thick fruit trees in general: the species for the boughs. genus.
62. Urbem. The city Mantua. Depone 51. Ætas : in the sense of tempus. Ani- hædos : lay down your kids. He was promum: in the sense of memoriam.
bably carrying them upon his shoulders. 52. Condere longos Soles : to pass or spend Let us stay here awhile and amuse ourlong days in singing. Sol is often taken for selves in singing: we shall, nevertheless, the day, as Luna is for the night. See Æn. arrive in town in good time. 2. 255.
64. Usque : all the way-all the time. 54. Lupi priores : the wolves first have Lædet : in the sense of fatigabit. seen Mæris. He hath lost his voice-he can 65. Levabo te, &c. I will ease you of this not sing. Alluding to a superstitious notion burden-load: to wit, the kids, which he that if a wolf saw a inan the first, he would was carrying to town for his new landlord. Jose his voice.
See verse 6, supra. 55. Rrferet : in the sense of recitabit. 66. Puer : swain. It is applied to shep
56.Causando : by framing excuses. From herds in general. the verb causor. Ducis : you put off-defer. 67. Cùm ipse, &c. It is probable that Vir. Amores : pleasure-entertainment.
gil composed this Eclogue when he was at 57. Omne stratum æquor, &c. The whole Rome.
QUESTIONS. To whom did the estate of Virgil fall in What is the distinction between poela, the distribution of the Mantuan lands? and Vates?
Did he receive any hard treatment from What remarkable appearance was obArius? How did he save his life? What served in the he.vens about the time of Juwas the name of his steward? Who is Ly- lius Cæsar's death : cidas supposed to be? When does the pas Waat does the poct call it? toral open ? Where is the scene laid? What When did it appear the third time? is the time of the day? What is the subject Who was Bianor? What did he do? of this pastoral? What is the character of it?
The subject of this fine pastoral is the love of Gallus for Lycoris, who refused his ad
dresses, and gave her affections to an officer. This Gallus was a particular friend of Virgil, and was an excellent poet. He raised himself from a humble station to great favor with Augustus, who appointed him governor of Egypt after the death of Anthony
and Cleopatra. The scene of the pastoral is laid in Arcadia, whither the poet supposes his friend to have
retired in the height of his passion. Here all the rural deities assemble around him, inquire the cause of his grief, and endeavor to moderate it. This Eclogue is not surpassed by any of the preceding, except the fourth, in beauty and grandeur. Ilere, too, Virgil imitates Theocritus, particularly in his first Idyl. By Lycoris is meant Cytheris, a most beautiful woman, and celebrated actress.
EXTREMUM hunc, Arethusa, mihi concede laborem. 2. Pauca carmina sunt Pauca meo Gallo, sed quæ legat ipsa Lycoris, dicenda
Carmina sunt dicenda: neget quis carmina Gullo?
5 Incipe, sollicitos Galli dicamus amores,
1. Arethusa. A nymph of great beauty, he begat the nymphs called Nereïdes ; here the daughter of Neruus and Doris. Also, a put by meton. for the sea, whose water is fountain on the island Orlygia, in the bay salt and of an unpleasant tasle ; which the of Syracuse, upon which stood a part of the poet prays may not be mingled with the sweet city. Syracuse was famous for its being and pleasant waters of the fountain Arethusa, the birthplace of Thcocritus and Archime- in its passage under the Sicilian sea. Sec des; and for its valiant defence against the Æn. iii. 694 and 6. Alpheus, a river of the Roman feet and arıny under Marcellus. It Peloponnesus, is said to have been in love was taken after a siege of three years. with the nymph Arethusa, who, flying from Concede, &c. Grant me this last work- him, was turned by Diana into a fountain. favor me in the execution of this my last Sue inade her escape under the sea, to the pastoral essay. The reason that the poet island Ortygia, where she rose up. But Alinvoked this nymph is, that she was the pheus pursuing her by the same way, arose goddess of a fountain of that name, in the up in the same fountain, mingling his waters place where Theocritus was born, and where with hers. Undam : in the sense of aquam. pastoral poetry was much cultivated.
6. Galli. There were several persons by 4. Tibi : with thee—with thy water. the name of Gallus. The one here meant
5. Amara Doris. Doris, a nymph of the is Publius Cornelius Gallus. He raised sea, the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, himeelf by his extraordinary merit to great and married to her brother Nereus, of whom favor with Augustus, who appointed him
Dum tenera attondent simæ virgulta capellæ.
11. Nam neque ulla juga Parnassi, nam neque ulla juga Pindi, ne. que fons, Aonia Aga.
nippe, fecere ullam mo. 15 ram vobis. Etiam laury
21. Unde est iste amor tibi, O Galle
governor of Egypt after the death of An 15. Monalus. A mountain in Arcadia, tony and Cleopatra. His prince, however, celebrated for its pines. Lycvi. Lycæus, for some cause or other, conceiving a violent a mountain of the same country, noted for enmity against him, sent himn into banish- its rocks and snows; hence the epithet gement; which sentence was ratified by the lidi. The whole of this passage is very senate. This cruel and undeserved treat- fine. It contains a reproof to the nymphs for ment had such an effect upon his mind, not assisting in alleviating the grief of Gallus. that he killed himself. After his death, 16. Stant et oves, &c. His flocks too stand Augustus lamented his own severity and around him-nor are they ashamed of him that of the senate toward so worthy a man. -nor do they disregard his grief. Gallus Gallus was a great friend of Virgil, and is represented under the character of a swain, highly esteemed by Pollio and Cicero. He feeding his sheep on the mountains of Arwas a poet as well as statesman and soldier. cadia. Nostri: our friend-Gallus. It is said he wrote four book of elegies to 18. Adonis. He was the son of Cinyras, Cytheris, whom Virgil calls Lycoris. He king of the island of Cyprus, by his daughalso translated some part of the works of ter Myrrha. He was so beautiful, that Euphorion, a poet of Chalcis.
Venus ranked him among her favorites, and 7. Simæ: flat-nosed.
honored him with her bed. When hunting, 8. Respondent: will answer—will echo he received a wound from a boar, of which back our song.
he died, and was greatly lamented by her. 9. Habuere vos : in the sense of detinuerunt 19. Venit et upilio : the shepherd too came, Nemora : properly signifies a grove or
and the slow moying herdsmen came. Upilio, wood thinly set with trees, where flocks may for opilio, by metaphasmus. Opilio, probafeed and graze; derived from the Greek. bly from oves, by changing the v into po Saltus : properly a thick wood, where bushes The word et is often used to express emphaand fallen trees do not perunit animals to sis, and has the force of etiam or quoque, as pass without leaping; from salio. Habuere in the present case. When it has its corvos : detained you from coming to console respondent et in the following member of Gallus in his grief. Puellæ : in the sense the sentence, it is usually translated by the of nymphæ.
word both, and the following et by and. The 11. Juga : in the sense of cocumina. conj. que, when it has its correspondent Parnassi. Parnassus was a mountain, or que, is rendered in the same way. rather range of mountains in Phocis, sacred 20. Uvidus de: wet from gathering the to the Muses. Pindi. Pindus was a range winter mast. of mountains in the confines of Epirus and 21. Apollo. He camo, the first of the Macedonia, also sacred to the Muses. Aga- gods; because he was the god of poetry. nippe was the name of a fountain issuing 22. Tua cura : for tua amica. from mount Helicon in Beotia, and flowing 24. Sylvanus. He was the god of the into the river Permessus. It is called Aonian, woods, and said to be the son of Mars. He from Aon, the son of Neptune, who reigned always bore on his head a branch of cypress. in Beotia.
Like Pan, he was represented as half man,
Florentes ferulas et grandia lilia quassans.
25 26. Quem nos ipsi vi- Pan Deus Arcadiæ venit, quem vidimus ipsi dimus
Sanguineis ebuli baccis minioque rubentem..
Ecquis erit modus ? inquit: amor non talia curat. 29. Crudelis amor nec Nec lacrymis crudelis amor, nec gramina rivis, saturatur lacrymnis
Neckcytiso saturantur apes, nec fronde capellæ. 30 31. At ille tristis in
Tristis at ille: Tamen cantabitis, Arcades, inquit, quit: tamen, O Arcades,
Montibus hæc vestris : soli cantare periti
Vestra meos olim si fistula dicat amores!
Aut custos gregis, aut maturæ vinitor uvæ!
Et nigræ violæ sunt, et vaccinia nigra.)
40 42. Hìc, O Lycori, Serta mihi Phyllis legeret, cantaret Amyntas. sunt gelidi 44. Insanus amor de
Hic gelidi fontes, hic mollia prata, Lycori : tinet me in armis duri Hìc nemus: hìc ipso tecum consumerer ævo. Martis inter
Nunc insanus amor duri me Martis in armis
Trefoil NOTES. and half goat. He fell in love with Cypa 31. Arcades. This address of Gallus to rissus, the favorite of Apollo, who was the Arcadians is tender and pathetic, espechanged into a treo of that name. Agres- cially that part of it where he wishes he ti honore capitis : with the rustic honor of had been only a humble shepherd like his head-with a garland of leaves upon them. his head. Honore: in the sense of corona. 32. Hæc: these my misfortunes.
25. Florentes ferulas: blooming fennel. 33. O quàm molliler: 0 how softly then There are two kinds of ferula, or fennel, my bones, &c.; alluding to a superstitious the small, or common, and the large, or notion of the ancients that the bodies of giant fennel. This last grows to the height the dead might be oppressed by the weight of six or seven feet. The stalks are thick, of the earth cast upon them. Accordingly and filled with a fungous pith, which is used they crumbled it fine, and cast it lightly into in Sicily for the same purpose as tinder is the grave, using the words, sit tibi terra levis : with us, to kindle fire. From this cireum. may the earth be light upon theo. stance, the poets feigned that Prometheus 34. Olim: hereafter. This word refers stole the heavenly fire and brought it to earth to future as well as to past time. Mihi: in in a stalk of ferula. Some derive the name the sense of mea, agrecing with ossa. from ferendo, because its stalk was used as a 36. Vinitor: a vine-dresser. It seems to walking-stick; others derive it from feriendo, he used here in the sense of vindemiator, a because it was used by school-masters to gatherer of grapes--a vintager. strike their pupils with on the hand. Hence 38. Furor. This word properly signifies the modern instrument, or ferula, wh.ch is any inordinate passion, such as love, anger, used for the same purpose, though very dif- rage, fury, and the like; by meton. the obferent from the ancient one, and capable of ject of such passion-the person loved. giving much greater pain.
Fuscus: black. The verb sit is to be sup27. Rubeniem: stained with the red ber- plied. ries of alder, and with vermilion. Ebuli. 39. Vaccinia: whortle-berries, or bil-berEbulum is the plant called dwarf elder. It ries. Mr. Martyn takes the word for the grows about three feet high, and bears red flower of the hyacinth. berries. In England it has obtained the 41. Seria: garlands of flowers. name of dane-wort; because it was fabled 43. Consumerer, &c. I could spend my to have sprung from the blood of the Danes, very life here with you in this pleasant reat the time of their massacre. It is chiefly treat, gazing upon the beauty of your perfound in church-yards. Minio. Minium is son. Ruæus says: traducerem omnem ætaler the native cinnabar. It was the vermilion tecum. But consumerer may be used in the of the ancients; it is our present red-lead. sense of the Greek middle voice. Virgil 28. Modus: in the sense of finis.
was fond of the Greek idiom. 29. Rivis: with streams, or rills of water. 44. Nunc insanus amor, &c. The meanSaturantur: are satisfied.
ing of this passage appears to be: in this