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Insula inexhaustis Chalybum generosa metallis.
Tertius, ille hominum Divûmque interpres Asylas, 175 175. Tertius erat ille
Cui pecudum fibræ, cæli cui sidera parent,

Asylas interpres
Et linguæ volucrum, et præsagi fulminis ignes :
Mille rapit densos acie, atque horrentibus hastis.

178. Ille rapit mille Hos parere jubent Alpheæ ab origine Pisa,

viros densos acie
Urbs Etrusca solo. Sequitur pulcherrimus Astur, 180
Astur equo fidens et versicoloribus armis.
Ter centum adjiciunt, mens omnibus una sequendi,
Qui Cærete domo, qui sunt Minionis in arvis ;

183. Qui sunt ex doEt Pyrgi veteres, intempestæque Graviscæ.

mo Cærete, qui sunt in

arvis Minionis Non ego te, Ligurum ductor fortissime bello, 185 Transierim, Cinyra ; et paucis comitate, Cupavo, 186. Et te, 0 Cupavo, Cujus olorinæ surgunt de vertice pennæ.

comitate paucis militi

bus Crimen amor vestrum, formæque insigne paternæ.


lonium. Hodie, Elba. It abounded in iron burn. He was thrown headlong into the mines (metallis) according to Strabo. Vir- Po. His sisters sought him every where. gil here calls them inexhaustible. This At length, finding his tomb on the banks of island sent three hundred men. Generosa : that river, they pined away with grief at abounding in. Ruæus interprets it by in- the fate of their brother, and were transclyta. Expertos : expert-skilful.

formed either into alder or poplar trees. 177. Ignes : the dashes of the ominous See Ovid. Met. 2. Cinyra, king of the Lilightning.

gures, was a near relation of Phaëton, and, 178. Densos: in the sense of confertos. grieving immoderately at his misfortune, Milites is understood.

was changed into a Cycnus, or swan. Dr. 179. Pisæ, urbs Etrusca solo : Pisæ, a city, Trapp takes Cinyra and Cupavo to have Tuscan in its situation, Alphean in its ori- been brothers, the sons of him who was gin, orders these troops to obey Asylas. transformed into a swan.

In this case, the This city stood on the western bank of the application of yestrum is easy and proper. river Arnus, in Tuscany. It was supposed But to apply it to Cupavo alone, as most to have been founded by a colony from the commentators do, is not so proper. He supPeloponnesus. Hence called Alpheæ, from poses their crime to have been the honoring Alpheus, a river of that country, on whose of their father too much, by bearing his banks stood the famous city Olympia Pisa. metamorphosed figure (the swan) engraven Solo: in the sense of situ.

upon their shields, and his feathers on their 183. Cærete domo: from the city Cære. helmets. Their love amounted to a crime, It was subject to Mezentius. Hodie, Cerve- because it was for one whom the gods had teri. Minionis. Minio was the name of a punished for an offence committed against river. Hodie, Mugnone.

them, in his immoderate grief for Phaëton. 184. Pyrgi. These people inhabited a Ruæus thinks vestrum crimen, to be the crime maritime town, not far from Cære, or Cære- of the family in general, who, by their imtanæ. It has long since been destroyed. moderate grief for Phaëton, offended the Gravisco: the name of a town on the sea- gods, and were many of them changed into coast, unwholesome on account of the fens other forms. It may be objected to the inor marshes in the neighborhood. It took its terpretation of Dr. Trapp, that filius is aftername from gravitas aëri.s. All these differ- ward used in the singular number. But he ent cities, with one mind, enter the war. observes, though they were brothers, the

185. Ligurum : the gen. of Ligures, the oldest might be mentioned by way of disinhabitants of Liguria, an extensive country tinction and eminence. Davidson reads, of Italy; a part of which is now the terri- Cycnus. See Ecl. vi. 62. and Æn. v. 105. tory of Genoa.

Heyne conjectures there is here an interpo186. Cinyra-Cupavo. This passage is lation. He differs from commentators in obscure and difficult. It has divided the general in the interpretation of verse 186. opinions of commentators. Phaëton, the He connects Cinyra with Cupavo in the son of Phæbus and Clymene, desired of his same member of the sentence. Non transifather the government of his chariot for one erim te, Cupavo, comitate à Cinyra, et paucis day; which with difficulty was granted him.' aliis, is his ordo of construction. The youth being unable to guide the fiery 188. Amor crimen : Ruæus says, amor est steeds, they turned from their diurnal track, crimen vestræ familia, et insigne petitum ex and came so near the earth that it began to transformatione patris



Namque ferunt, luctu Cycnum Phaëtontis amati, 190. Dum canit ster Populeas inter frondes umbramque sororum populeas frondes

Dum canit, et mæstum musâ solatur amorem ;
Canentem molli plumâ duxisse senectam,
Linquentem terras, et sidera voce sequentem.

Filius, æquales comitatus classe catervas, 195. Ille Centaurus Ingentem remis Centaurum promovet: ille instat

Instat aquæ, saxumque undis immane minatur
Arduus, et longâ sulcat maria alta carinâ.

Ille etiam patriis agmen ciet Ocnus ab oris,
Fatidicæ Mantûs et Tusci filius amnis,

Qui muros, matrisque dedit tibi, Mantua, nomen;
201. Sed non est unum Mantua, dives avis, sed non genus omnibus unum.
genus omnibus. Illi gens Gens illi triplex , populi sub gente quaterni ;
sunt quaterni populi sub Ipsa caput populis ; Tusco de sanguine vires.
gente: Mantua ipsa est Hinc quoque quingentos in se Mezentius armat,
caput populis: ejus vires Quos, patre Benaco, velatus arundine glaucâ,

Mincius infestâ ducebat in æquora pinu. 205.

Quos Mincius oriens ex patre Benaco,

It gravis Auletes, centenâque arbore fluctum velatus.

Verberat assurgens : spumant vada marmore verso.
Hunc vehit immanis Triton, et cærula concha



sunt de



190. Umbram sororum : the shade of his divided into twelve lucommonies, or regal. sisters--the shade of the trees, into which ities. Gens: in the sense of natio. Genus: his sisters were transformed.

lineage_descent. 191. Musâ : with music, or song.

203. Vires de Tusco, &c. By this we are 192. Canentem : growing white, or being to understand that the Tuscan part of the cloathed, with the downy plumes of the Mantuan population was the greatest. swan, passed out his old age, &c. 195. Centaurum. The name of the ship He furnishes a just cause for their rising in

204. Armat in se: Mezentius arms, &c. was the Centaur, so called from having a Centaur painted, or carved upon the stem,

arms against him. holding a huge stone in his hand, with which 205. Patre Benaco. The Benacus is a he seemed to threaten the waves. The Cen. lake in the territory of Verona. Hodie, Latauri were fabled to be monsters, half man go di Garda. The river Mincius rises out and half horse. See Geor. ii. 456. Pro- of it. Hence the epithet patre is added to movet : in the sense of impellit.

Benacus. 198. Ocnus. He was not the founder of 206. Mincius : here the god of the river Mantua; but rather the fortifier and enlarg- Mincius. He is represented as moving down

The same as Bianor. See Ecl. ix. 60. his stream in hostile ships to join in the war He gave it the name of Mantua, from Manto, against Mezentius. Hence the epithet patre, „ne name of his mother. Manto: gen. Man- which is common to all the deities. It is tûs, the name of a nymph. Hence the epi- here.given to the lake Benacus, out of which thet fatidice : prophetic. Ciet: in the sense

the river Mincius rises. Velatus : in the of movet vel ducit.

sense of coronatus, says Ruæus. Pinu in201. Sed non genus, &c. It appears that festa. Ruæus says, navibus inimicis Mesenthe inhabitants of the Mantuan territory tio. Pinus, by meton. for navis vel naves. were not of one common origin. We are 207. Centena arbore : with an hundred told they were partly from Tuscia or Etru

The oar is here called arbor, to deria, partly from Venetia, and partly from note its size and magnitude. Marmore verGallia. This explains gens illi triplex : im- so: the surface being upturned. Vada, here, plying that the population consisted of people is plainly put for the water of the Tiber; from those three nations. The whole terri- for, on this river, the fleet of Æneas was tory was divided into four cities, districts equipped. It: in the sense of ducit. Auor communities : populi sub gente quaterni. letes was the commander of these troops. Each of which had its Lucomon, or petty 209. Triton. He was the trumpeter of king. Of these four, Mantua was the prin- Neptune, and used a shell instead of a trumcipal or chief city, ipsa caput populis. This pet. His upper part was represented as a territory was a part of Etruria, which was man, his lower part as a fish. Here the name


Exterrens freta : cui laterum tenùs hispida nanti 210 210. Cai Tritoni nanti Frons hominem præfert, in pristin desinit alvus ;

hispida frons præfert

hominem ten is
Spumea semifero sub pectore murmurat unda.
Tot lecti proceres ter denis navibus ibant
Subsidio Trojæ, et campos salis ære secabant.

Jamque dies cælo concesserat, alamque curru 215
Noctivago Phæbe medium pulsabat Olympum.
Æneas (neque enim membris dat cura quietem)
Ipse sedens clavumque regit, velisque ministrat.
Atque illi medio in spatio, chorus ecce suarum

219. Ecce chorus suaOccurrit comitum, Nymphæ, quas alma Cybele 220 rum comitum occurrit Numen habere maris, Nymphasque è navibus esse

illi, nempe Nymphe, Jusserat: innabant pariter, fluctusque secabant,

Quot priùs æratæ steterant ad litora proræ.
Agnoscunt longè regem, lustrantque choreis.
Quarum, quæ fandi doctissima, Cymodocea,

225 225. Quarum Cymo. Ponè sequens, dextrâ puppim tenet: ipsaque dorso

docea, que est doctissi.

ma fandi Eminet, ac lævâ tacitis subremigat undis. Tum sic ignarum alloquitur : Vigilasne, Deûm gens, 228. Tum alloquitur Ænea ? vigila, et velis immitte rudentes.

eum ignarum harum reNos sumus Idææ sacro de vertice pinus,

230 Nunc pelagi Nymphæ, classis tua. Perfidus ut nos

231. Olim tua classis
Præcipites ferro Rutulus flammâque premebat:
Rupimus invitæ tua vincula, teque per æquor
Quærimus. Hanc genitrix faciem miserata refecit,
Et dedit esse Deas, ævumque agitare sub undis. 235 235. Dedit nos

Deas maris
At puer Ascanius muro fossisque tenetur
Tela inter media, atque horrentes Marte Latinos.
Jam loca jussa tenet forti permixtus Etrusco

Medias illis opponere turmas,
Ne castris jungant, certa est sententia Turno. 240

rum sic


Arcas eques.



of a ship; or the figure prefixed to the stern, 234. Refecit: in the sense of mutavit like the Centaur above mentioned.

changed us into this form. Genitrix : Cy. 210. Tenus laterum: down to the waist. bele, the mother of the gods.

214. Ære: with their brazen prows. Æs 237. Horrentes : Ruæus says, feroces. Marsignifies any thing made of brass.

te: in the sense of bello. 215. Concesserat : had given way-yield- 238. Permixtus : in the sense of junctus. ed to the night. Nocti is understood. Etrusco: the singular for the plu. : the va

216. Pulsabat : arrived at touched. Ru- liant Tuscans. æus says, attingebat. Olympum : for cælum. 239. Arcas eques : the Arcadian horse. Phæbe: the moon.

These were the cavalry furnished by Evan221. Habere numen maris : to have divi- der. It is most probable that Æneas gave nity of the sea—to become nymphs of the direction to the Arcadians and Tuscans, his

allies, to repair to some particular place by 224. Lustrant: in the sense of circum- land, while he went with the fleet by water; eunt.

although no such place is mentioned by the 227. Eminet dorso: she rises above the poet. Turnus being informed of what was surface of the water with her back. Subre- going on in Tuscany, and that Æneas was migat: she swims-rows herself along, &c. coming on with reinforcements, like a skill

228. Gens : in the sense of soboles. ful general, resolves to intercept them, to

229. Immitte rudentes velis: give the sheets attack them on the way, and prevent them to the sails spread the sails to the full from forming a junction with the Trojans length of the halsers or sheets.

in the camp, whom he was then blockading. 230. Vertice: in the sense of monte. 240. Jungant : join themselves to the

232. Præcipites : in the sense of pericli- camp—to the troops in the camp. The tantes.

pron, sese is understood.

Surge, age, et Aurorâ socios veniente vocari
Primus in arma jube; et clypeum cape, quem dedit ipse
Invictum Ignipotens, atque oras ambiit auro.
Crastina lux, mea si non irrita dicta putâris,
Ingentes Rutulæ spectabit cædis acervos.

245 Dixerat : et dextrâ discedens impulit altam, 247. Illa navis Haud ignara modi, puppim. Fugit illa per undas,

Ocyor et jaculo et ventos æquante sagittà.
Inde aliæ celerant cursus. Stupet inscius ipse
Tros Anchisiades; animos tamen omine tollit. 250

Tum breviter, supera aspectans convexa, precatur .
252. Idæa Cybele, alma Alma parens Idæa Deûm, cui Dindyma cordi,
parens Deorum,

cui Turrigeræque urbes, bijugique ad fræna leones; Dindyma sunt cordi 253. Bijugique leones

Tu mihi nunc pugnæ princeps ; tu ritè propinques dociles ad fræna ;

Augurium, Phrygibusque adsis pede, Diva, secundo. 255 256. Æneas etfatus est Tantum effatus : et intereà revoluta ruebat har tantûm.

Matura jam luce dies, noctemque fugârat.

Principio sociis edicit, signa sequantur,
Atque animos aptent armis, pugnæque parent se.
Jamque in conspectu Teucros habet et sua castra, 260
Stans celsâ in puppi. Clypeum tum deinde sinistra
Extulit ardentem. Clamorem ad sidera tollunt
Dardanidæ è muris. Spes addita suscitat iras.
Tela manu jaciunt. Quales sub nubibus atris
Strymoniæ dant signa grues, atque æthera tranant 265

Cum sonitu, fugiuntque Notos clamore secundo.
267. At ea cæperunt At Rutulo regi ducibusque ea mira videri
videri mira

Ausoniis ; donec versas ad litora puppes

Respiciunt, totumque allabi classibus æquor. 270. Apex galeæ ardet Ardet apex capiti, cristisque à vertice flamma 270 capiti Ænece

Funditur, et vastos umbo vomit aureus ignes.
Non secùs ac liquidâ si quando nocte cometæ


242. Dedit : in the sense of reddidit. suum habere. La Cerda says, facias augu

243. Oras : the borders or edges of the rium propitium. Valpy: “by your own shield.

presence give effect to the augury.” 249. Alice celerant : the other nymphs ac- 255. Phrygibus adsis : aid the Trojans celerate the motion of the other ships, as with thy propitious presence, pede secundo. Cymodocëa had done that of Æneas.

259. Aptent : fit-prepare. Ruæus says, 250. Tollit animos. Dr. Trapp under- excitent. stands this of Æneas taking courage him- 265. Grues dant, &c. This comparison is self. Davidson, of his encouraging his men.

taken from Homer. The cranes are called “ He raises the spirits of his troops." Strymonian, from Strymon, a river of Ma

251. Supera convexa : the high canopy of cedonia, in the confines of Thrace, where heaven.

cranes abounded. Signa: signs or signals 252. Dindyma : neu. plu. Dindymus, in of the approaching storm by their voices. the sing. : a mountain in Phrygia, so called 269. Totum æquor : the whole surface of from its having two tops. Cordi : for a de- the water to be covered, &c. Ruæus says, light.

appelli. 254. Propinques augurium: render the 270. Apex ardet capiti. This description omen propitious in due form. Ruæus says, of the armor of Æneas, is taken from Hosecundes omen benè-præsens sis hoc augurio. mer's description of that of Achilles. Here the verb propinquo, though properly 271. Vomit: in the sense of ernittit. Um intransitive, becomes transitive, and has the bo: the middle point of the shield, by synec. acc. after it. Of propinques augurium ritè, taken for the whole shield. Heyne says, fac ostentum hoc ritè eventum 272. Cometer. Comets are planets irre

Sanguinei lugubrè rubent; aut Sirius ardor;

sitim morbosque ferens mortalibus ægris, Nascitur, et lævo contristat lumine cælum.

Haud tamen audaci Turno fiducia cessit
Litora præripere, et venientes pellere terra.
Ultrò animos tollit dictis, atque increpat ultrò :

278. Ultrò tollit ani. Quod votis optâstis, adest, perfringere dextrâ:

mos suorum his dictis

280 In manibus Mars ipse, viri. Nunc conjugis esto

279. Adest vobis per

fringere hostem dextrâ. Quisque suæ tectique memor; nunc magna referto

quod Facta, patrum laudes. Ultrò occurramus ad undam, Dum trepidi, egressisque labant vestigia prima.

283. Dum sunt trepidi Adentes fortuna jutat.

primaque vestigia labant Hæc ait: et secum versat, quos ducere contrà, 285

iis egressis aquà.

285. Quos possit du. Vel quibus obsessos possit concredere muros.

cere contra Ænean, vei Intereà Æncas socios de puppibus altis

Pontibus exponit. Multi servare recursus
Languentis pelagi, et brevibus se credere saltu ;
Per remos alii. Speculatus litora Tarchon,


290. Alii exponunt se Quà vada non spirant, nec fracta remurmurat unda,

per remos.
Sed mare inoffensum crescenti allabitur æstu,
Advertit subitò proras, sociosque precatur :
Nunc, ô lecta manus, validis incumbite remis:
Tollite, ferte rates : inimicam findite rostris



Servius says

Ruæus says.

gular in their motions, moving in very ec- The address is short, but it bespeaks the sol centric orbits. Sometimes they approach dier and the commander. very near the sun; when they have a pro- 279. Perfringere dextrâ. jection, or tail, which has a fiery or luminous this is a military phrase, and imports facere appearance. This is always directly oppo- fortiter. Adest : it is arrived-the time is site the sun as seen from the comet, and is, come. Tempus is understood. most probably, its dense atmosphere, illumi- 280. Mars ipse: the battle is in your nated by the sun, and propelled by the force power, O men. of the rays of light issuing from the sun. 281. Nunc referto: now let each one imiThey were formerly considered ominous, tate_call to his memory. portending disaster to men. The word is memoret. derived from the Greek. Liquida: a clear

282. Laudes : the glory of his ancestors. night.

Davidson reads, laudesque. Others omit the 273. Rubent lugubrè: blaze frightfully- que. balefully: that is, portending disaster to the 284. Audentes: the bold courageous. world. Sanguinei : fiery-red. Sirius ar- 285. Versat: in the sense of volvit. dor: the star Sirius. It is sometimes called 288. Multi servare: many began to obthe dog-star, from the circumstance of its serve the retreat of the ebbing sea, &c. being in the sign Canis, or the dog. Sirius The landing or debarkation of the troops is here used as an adjective. It is a star of was effected in three divisions. the first magnitude.

under Æneas landed on bridges thrown from 275. Lævo : inauspicious.

the ships upon the shore. Another sought 277. Præripere: in the sense of anteca- flats and shallows, which might be overflown pere. It was the plan of Turnus to take when the tide was full, and bare at the ebb. possession of the shore, and, if possible, to They leap out upon these, and, by the help prevent the landing of the troops. By do- of oars, get to the shore. The division uning this, he would have an advantage over der Tarchon sought an open and smooth thein.

shore, where the waves flowed on without 278. Increpat. This Ruæus interprets by meeting with an impediment or obstacle; adhortatur. Ultrò animos. This line is not and where landing would be less dangerous. found in several ancient MSS. Heyne The verb cæperunt is understood. * marks it' as an interpolation. Ultrò, here, 289. Languentis : ebbing-fallirg. implies that Turnus, immediately on seeing 291. Spirant. This is the reading of the enemy advance to the shore, addressed Heyne. The common reading is sperat. his men, and animated them to the contest. Quâ vada : where the bottom or shallows

The one

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