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In the mean time, Turnus, informed of the havoc made by Pallas, determines to attack

him in person. He proceeds against the youthful warrior, who, undaunted, meets him

with strength and arms unequal. After the death of Palias, a great slaughter of the Trojans ensues. Æneas, in an other

part of the line, informed of the death of Pallas and the slaughter of his troops, immediately sets out in search of Turistis. In his way he kills a great number, and puts to flight whole ranks. Venus assists the Trojans, and Juno intercedes with her husband to favor the Latins; but to no purpose. However, he permits her to bear away Turnus from the fight, and save him from the vengeance of Æneas. The goddess instantly repairing to the field of battle, assumed the shape and attire of Æneas; and, by a device of hers, conducted Turnus from the fight. As soon as he was out of danger, the phantom vanished. Discovering the deception, the hero becomes frantic with rage and

disappointment. Mezentius succeeds Turnus in command, and makes head against the Trojans. The

fight is renewed with great fury, and he performs feats of valor. Victory, for a time, seems equally poised. Æneas beholds him thundering along the ranks, prostrating all who stand before him; and resolves to meet him. Mezentius throws a spear, which, glancing from the shield of Æneas, kills Antores, who had been the companion of Hercules. The spear of Æneas wounds him in turn, but not mortally. In this situation, Lausus succors his father, and, flinging himself between the combatants, affords him an opportunity to retire, and, in the pious duty, loses his own life. He retires to the river, and washes his wound. All his anxiety is for his son, his affectionate, his dutiful Lausus. Messenger after messenger he sends to recall him from the fight. But when he learns his death, he resolves to return to fall by the hand of Æneas, or to bear off his spoils. For this purpose, he mounts his faithful courser, arms himself, and rushes into the field, seeking the victor. The book concludes with the death of Mezentius.

PANDITUR intereà domus omnipotentis Olympi : Conciliumque vocat Divûm pater atque hominum rex Sideream in sedem ; terras unde arduus omnes, Castraque Dardanidûm aspectat, populosque Latinos. Considunt tectis bipatentibus. Incipit ipse :

5

5. Super considunt Cælicolæ magni, quianam sententia vobis

tectis bipatentibus. JuVersa retrò ? tantùmque animis certatis iniquis ?

piter ipse incipit sic Abnueram bello Italiam concurrere Teucris :

9. Quæ est hæc dis

cordia contra meum vetiQuæ contra vetitum discordia ? quis metus, aut hos,

tum? Quis metus suasit Aut hos arma sequi, ferrumque lacessere suasit?

10

aut hos Italos, aut hos Adveniet justum pugnæ, ne accersite, tempus,

Teucros sequi

NOTES.

1. Olympi. Olympus is a very high moun mentioned by the poet before. On the contain in the confines of Thessaly and Mace- trary, Jove had declared that Æneas should donia, whose summit is above the clouds. carry on a great war in Italy, bellum inHence the poets made it the residence of gens geret Italia. Æn. i. 263. It is probaJove. Here they assigned him a sumptu- ble that the poet would have corrected this ous palace. The epithet omnipotens is added passage, if he had lived to revise this part of by way of eminence; that being the pro- his works. per epithet of Jove, who had there his re 10. Lacessere : in the sense of commovere, sidence. The poet here imitates Homer, says Ruæus. Suasit : in the sense of imIliad, lib. viii.

pulit. Arma : by meton, for bellum. 4. Aspectat : in the sense of despicit. Ar 11. Adveniet justum : the proper time for duus : in the sense of sublimis.

war will arrive, &c. Jove declares in coun. 5. Bipatentibus : opening both ways, to cil that the Italians had engaged in the the right and left.

war against the Trojans, contrary to his 6. Cælicolæ : in the sense of Superi. Qui- wish and inclination ; that it was his desire anam: in the sense of cur. The meaning Italy should open its bosom, and receive is : why have ye changed your purpose of them in friendship and amity. But do not, assisting neither party? Why do ye con ye gods, infer hence that I wish they should tend with so much animosity? and disre- always escape the calamities of war. The gard my prohibition that the Italians should time will come in its proper season, nor do not oppose the Trojans?'

ye hasten it, when warlike Carthage shall 8. Abnueram : I had forbidden the Italian bring a great destruction upon the Roman nations, &c. This prohibition had not been towers. Then you may indulge your ani

Cùm fera Carthago Romanis arcibus olim
Exitium magnum, atque Alpes immittet apertas.
Tum certare odiis, tum res rapuisse licebit.

Nunc sinite, et placitum læti componite fædus. 15 16. Jupiter dixit hæc Jupiter hæc paucis : at non Venus aurea contrà paucis verbis.

Pauca refert :

O pater, ô hominum Divûmque æterna potestas ! 19. Quid aliud numen (Namque aliud quid sit, quod jam implorare queamus?) sit, quod

Cernis ut insultent Rutuli ? Turnusque feratur 20
Per medios insignis equis, tumidusque secundo
Marte ruat? non clausa tegunt jam mænia Teucros :
Quin intra portas, atque ipsis prælia miscent

Aggeribus murorum, et inundant sanguine fossæ. 25. Æneas ignarus Æneas ignarus abest. Nunquamne levari

25 harum rerum abest.

Obsidione sines ? muris iterum imminet hostis
Nascentis Trojæ, nec non exercitus alter :
Atque iterum in Teucros Ætolis surgit ab Arpis

NOTES.

mosities, then you may foment discord; but 12. Fera : warlike-fierce, now cultivate harmony, and practice good 13. Apertas Alpes. Scaliger thinks per is will toward each other. Carthage was the to be supplied ; meaning that the Carthagimost powerful rival of Rome. It was a nians marched through or over the Alps. very flourishing and commercial state. The This to be sure is the true meaning : but interests of the two nations soon began to the construction will not bear it. We must interfere, and a war broke out between not throw away the atque. Both Dr. Trapp them. A naval battle was fought off Sicily, and Ruæus understand the people of the in which the Carthaginians were victorious ;. Alps, whom Hannibal took with him. I can but the Romans had the advantage by land. hardly think this to be the meaning. The A peace was concluded very much to the expression is highly figurative and poetical. disadvantage of the former. The Cartha- It represents Hannibal and his army pourginians gave up all the islands between ing through the passages of the Alps, as if Africa and Italy, and agreed to pay 2,200 the mountains themselves were moved or talents annually, for twenty years, to the sent against Rome. Romans. This took place in the year of 14. Tum licebit, &c. The gods are here Rome 513. Twenty-four years after this, a represented as divided and split into factions second war broke out between the two rival and parties. To calm their dissentions, Jove powers. Hannibal was commander-in-chief tells them a time will come when they may of the Carthaginians. He led his army indulge their passions, and plunder and into Spain, which he subjugated as far as commit acts of violence. Dr. Trapp thinks the Iberus. He thence passed over the Alps the words licebit, &c. refer to the Trojans into Italy, where he defeated the Romans in and Latins, on account of whom the gods several engagements, with great slaughter, were split into factions. It is common for and filled Rome itself with fear and conster- writers, especially the poets, to ascribe the nation; and if he had marched directly to evil actions of men to the gods, under whose Rome, it would, in all probability, have fallen influence they were supposed to act. Res : before his victorious arms. In this juncture the Roman state. Ruæus says, Trojanas res. of affairs, Fabius Maximus was made dic 15. Sinite : be quiet-permit it to be so. tator ; who, by his prudent measures, and, Componite : in the sense of facite, vel conciabove all, by his declining a general engage- liate. Placitum : in the sense of destinatum. munt, and protracting the war, in some Quod placet mihi, says Ruæus. measure, recovered the Roman affairs. In 22. Tegunt : protect-defend. the mean time, Scipio was sent into Africa 23. Miscent : in the sense of committunt. to attack Carthage. Hannibal was recalled 24. Ipsis aggeribus : on the very ramparts to defend his country. The Romans, how- of the walls. ever, were victorious, and Carthage became 27. Nec non : in the sense of

quoque,

vel tributary. The intrepid Hannibal saved his etiam. Imminet : presses upon-besieges. life by Aeeing his country. This war lasted Ruæus says, instat. seventeen years. In the third Punic war, 28. Ætolis Arpis. Arpi was a city of as it was called, Carthage was utterly ra Apulia. It is called Ætolian from Ætolia, sed, under the younger Scipio, in the year of the country of Diomede, who led a colony Rome 608.

into that part of Italy, and founded Arpi.

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Tydides. Equidem, credo, mea vulnera restant:
Et tua progenies mortalia demoror arma.

30 30. Et ego tua proge

nies Si sinè pace tuâ, atque invito numine, Troës Italiam petiêre, luant peccata ; neque illos

31. Si Troës petrêre

Italiam sine Juveris auxilio. Sin tot responsa secuti,

33. Sin fecerunt id seQuæ Superi Manesque dabant; cur nunc tua quisquam cuti tot responsa oracuFlectere jussa potest ? aut cur nova condere fata ? 35 lorum, que Quid repetam exustas Erycino in litore classes ?

35. Aut cur quisquam Quid tempestatum regem, ventosque furentes

potest condere Æoliâ excitos ? aut actam nubibus Irim ? Nunc etiam Manes (hæc intentata manebat

39. Nunc etiam Juno Sors rerum) movet : et superis immissa repentè

40 movet

40. Alecto immissa Alecto, medias Italûm bacchata per urbes.

in superis regionibus luNil super imperio moveor: speravimus ista,

cis Dum fortuna fuit : vincant, quos vincere mavis.

43. Dum fortuna fuit Si nulla est regio, Teucris quam det tua conjux propitia: illi vincant Dura: per eversæ, genitor, fumantia Trojæ

45 45. O genitor, obtesExcidia obtestor; liceat dimittere ab armis

tor te per fumantia ex

cidia Incolumem Ascanium ; liceat superesse nepotem. Æneas sanè ignotis jactetur in undis ; Et, quamcunque viam dederit fortuna, sequatur: Hunc tegere, et diræ valeam subducere pugnæ. 50 Est Amathus, est celsa mihi Paphos, atque Cythera, 52. Ascanius inglo Idaliæque domus: positis inglorius armis

rius exigat ævum nic, Exigat hìc ævum. Magnâ ditione jubeto

armis positis.

NOTES.

He was the son of Tydeus. Turnus sent to shore. See Æn. v. 660. Where the Trojan him with a view to engage him in the war, matrons, at the instigation of Iris, set fire to but without success, as will appear in the their ships. Repetam : in the sense of comfollowing book. Venus, to aggravate her memorem. case, would insinuate that a Grecian army 37._ Regem: Æolus king of the winds. was approaching the Trojan camp under the See Æn. i. conduct of great Diomede. This is the hos 39. Manes movet. Here Manes plainly tis, and the alter exercitus, just mentioned. means the infernal powers, whom Juno rous

29. Mea vulnera restant: my wounds re- ed up against the Trojans, when she called main. Ruæus thinks this is a reference to up Alecto from her dire abode. This was the the wound she received from Diomede, when first time Juno had recourse to the powers she rescued Æneas from the encounter with below, to assist her in the destruction of the that hero. Iliad, v. 335. And she fears the Trojans. This will help us to understand same thing may happen again. This eluci- the words: hæc sors rerum manebat intentata. dates the words demoror mortulia arma. But Sors: in the sense of pars. Venus may speak in the name of the Tro

41. Bacchata: est is understood. jans, considering their wounds and suffer

42. Moveor nil: I am not solicitous about ings as her own. Demoror : in the sense of expecto.

empire-I am not moved, &c. 31. Pace : permission or leave. Pace: 46. Liceat: may it be permitted me to in the sense of venia. Numine: in the sense remove (or take). Ascanius, &c. of voluntate.

50. Valeam: I would wish to be able 34. Manesque. This perhaps refers to the I could desire to be permitted. Tegere : to predictions and intimations, which Æneas protect-rescue. had received from the ghosts of Hector, 51. Amathus: gen. amathuntis ; a city of Anchises and Creusa. Manes, sometimes the island of Cyprus. Hodie, Limisso. Paare taken for the infernal gods. It is here phos or Paphus; another city of the same opposed to Superi, the gods

above.

island. Hodie, Paffo. Cythera: neu. plu. 35. Flectere: to avert or turn aside. Fata: an island between the Peloponnesus and purposes—decrees. Condere: to make--or- Crete. Idalium or Idalia : a city of Cyprus. dain-appoint. Ruæus says, statuere. All these places were sacred to Venus. 36. In Erycino litore : on the Sicilian 52. Domus: in the sense of sedes.

54. Nihil ortum inde Carthago premat Ausoniam : nihil urbibus inde obstabit Obstabit Tyriis. Quid pestem evadere belli

55 55. Quid juvit Ænean Juvit, et Argolicos medium fugisse per ignes? evadere

57. Totque pericula Totque maris, vastæque exhausta pericula terræ, maris, vastæque terræ Dum Latium Teucri, recidiva que Pergama quærunt? fuisse exhausta, dum Non satiùs cineres patriæ insedisse supremos,

Atque solum, quo Troja fuit ? Xanthum et Simoënta 60 61. Miseris Teucris

Redde, oro, miseris ; iterumque revolvere casus
Da, pater, Iliacos Teucris. Tum regia Juno
Acta furore gravi: Quid me alta silentia cogis
Rumpere, et obductum verbis vulgare dolorem ?
Ænean hominum quisquam Divûmque subegit 65
Bella sequi, aut hostem regi se inferre Latino ?
Italiam petiit fatis auctoribus, esto,
Cassandræ impulsus furiis. Num linquere castra

Hortati sumus, aut vitam committere ventis ?
70. Num persuasimus Num puero summam belli, num credere muros ?

70 ei credere summam belli, Tyrrhenamve fidem, aut gentes agitare quietas ? num credere muros puero? Num persuasimus

Quis Deus in fraudem, quæ dura potentia nostra ei agitare

Egit ? ubi hìc Juno, demissave nubibus Iris?

NOTES.

a fall.

54. Inde: hence-from Ascanius. He will 68. Furiis : this Ruæus interprets by vanot be in the way, or oppose the Tyrian city. ticiniis. 55. Pestem: destruction-ruin.

70. Summam : the management-chief 57. Exhausta : undergone-finished-ex- command. hausted to the very dregs. The verb esse, 71. Fidem, aut gentes, agitare, &c. This vel fuisse, is understood.

is a difficult passage, arising partly from the 58. Recidiva. Davidson thinks recidiva, conciseness of the expression, and partly nere, means tottering again, or threatening from the falsehood of the assertion. Com

But it also signifies, set up again mentators are generally agreed that fidem after it is fallen, or rebuilt. Dr. Trapp takes is to be taken for alliance or friendship, in it here in this sense. Commentators are not the sense of fædus. To connect agitare with agreed upon the true import of the word. it in that sense, we must take the verb in The whole speech of Venus is extremely the sense of implorare, which it will hardly artful, and well calculated to produce the bear. But if we take fidem to mean the desired effect. It is distinguished for its loyalty and allegiance, which the Tuscans sweetness, tenderness, and pathos.

bore to Mezentius their king; and there is 59. Non satiùs : would it not have been no reason, why it may not; then agitare, in better for them to have settled upon, &c. its common acceptation, to disturb, shake The verb esset, vel fuisset, is understood. or unsettle, may be connected with it, as

62. Da, pater : grant, O, father, that they well as with quietas gentes. It was not true, struggle again with the Trojan disasters; however, that the nations to which Æneas rather than continue in this state of sus- applied for assistance were at peace. For pense. These words, or words of the like both the Tuscans and Arcadians were at import, appear to be requisite to complete war with the Latins. Heyne takes agitare the sense, and preserve the connexion. fidem, in the sense of solicitare societatem et

63. Acta : in the sense of impulsa vel fædus. Quietas : at peace. agitata.

72. Quæ dura nostra : what rigid power 64. Obductum : in the sense of occultum. of ours. This refers to the epithet dura,

67. Italiam petiit, &c. This speech of which Venus uses in relation to her, verse Juno is very different from that of Venus: 44. Commentators generally take fraudem the one is tender, persuasive, and pathetic; to mean detriment—damage. Ruæus inthe other haughty, imperious, and sarcastic. terprets it by damnum, and it may so mean In the beginning, she acknowledges that here; for Juno, all along, reflects upon the Æneas undertook his voyage at the direc false steps and bad management of Æneas. tion of the gods; but she will have it, that But it may also mean fraud, alluding to the it was particularly at the instance of Cassan attempt to draw the Tuscans from their dra, the daughter of Priam, a prophetess allegiance to their king. Heyne takes frauwhom nobody believed. Auctoribus : ad- dem in the sense of malum. Servius, in the visers--persuaders, or the first movers. sense of periculum. Davidson renders it

75

77. Quid est illud, Tro janos

79. Quid est illud, le 80 gere soceros, et abdu

cere pactas sponsas 6 gremiis sponsorum?

Indignum est, Italos Trojam circundare flammis
Nascentem, et patriâ Turnum consistere terrâ ;
Cui Pilumnus avus, cui diva Venilia mater.
Quid, face Trojanos atrâ vim ferre Latinis ?
Arva aliena jugo premere, atque avertere prædas ?
Quid, soceros legere, et gremiis abducere pactas ?
Pacem orare manu, præfigere puppibus arma ?
Tu potes Æneam manibus subducere Graiûm,
Proque viro nebulam et ventos obtendere inanes ;
Et potes in totidem classem convertere Nymphas:
Nos aliquid Rutulos contrà juvisse, nefandum est.
Æneas ignarus abest : ignarus et absit.
Est Paphos, Idaliumque tibi; sunt alta Cythera :
Quid gravidam bellis urbem, et corda aspera tentas ?
Nos-ne tibi fluxas Phrygiæ res vertere fundo
Conamur ? nos ? an miseros qui Troas Achivis
Objecit ? quæ causa fuit consurgere in arma
Europamque Asiamque, et fædera solvere furto ?

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NOTES.

by the words “guileful measures,” alluding nus. This is an invidious reflection of to what is said in the preceding line. Juno, and entirely groundless. If it refer

74. Indignum est : it is a heinous crime, to to the Latins, there was no crime in suing be sure, that the Italians, &c.

for peace, and being at the same time pre76. Pilumnus : a king of the Rutuli, and pared for war. It was the most likely way reputed son of Jove. He was one of the to obtain it. If it relate to the Arcadians : ancestors of Turnus, and was deified. Veni- they had no design of war upon them, lia : she was the sister of Amata, and mo Their arms were designed only to guard ther of Turnus. She also was made a them against the insults of enemies on their goddess.

passage to the court of Evander. 77. Quid, Trojanos : what is it for the 84. Nefandum est: it is a horrid crime for Trojans to offer violence, &c. Servius ex us, &c. The following line contains a most plains atra fuce, by sævo bello. Dr. Trapp severe sarcasm. As if Juno had said : if thinks this is an allusion to the story of Æneas, the general of an army, choose to Paris, whose mother dreamed she should be absent in so critical a juncture, and is bring forth a torch or fire-brand; he being not careful to inform himself of their state, the cause of the war, which proved the ruin let him, for aught I care, remain ignorant, of Troy. Fux, signifies the first motives or

and never return. incentives to any thing. Fax belli, is there 87. Urbem. The city Laurentum, to the fore the commencement of war. Incendia government of which Æneas would arrive, belli, is a war when it hath come to its height, by marrying Lavinia. Gravidam : potentem, and lays every thing waste before it, like a says Ruæus. Aspera : in the sense of bellidevouring flame. Atrå face : with black or hostile torches. Ruæus says, nigris tædis.

88. Tibi. This is either redundant, or 78. Premere jugo: to subjugate. Arva: used in the sense of tuæ, agreeing with in the sense of terras vel regiones.

Phrygia. Juno here speaks in the present

time, though reference is had to the Trojan 79. Legere. Servius renders it, by furari. war. This change of tense is often very Hence they are called Sacrilegi, qui sacra elegant. It gives life and animation to the legunt ; i. e. furantur. Pactas : betrothed

subject. Fluxas res. Ruæus says, fragile spouses ; sponsas being understood, or per- regnum, the frail power of thy Troy. haps it is implied in pactas. Legere soceros : 89. Qui. This refers to Paris, who was to steal fathers-in-law; that is, to marry the cause of the Trojan war. Nos : was it their daughters without their consent, and I, or was it not rather that Paris, who expoagainst their wills. Heyne says, eligerem sed the unhappy, &c.

91. Furto : here adultery, treacherv Fur80. Orare pacem: to implore peace with tum also signifies any private, or secret act the hand, and to fix arms on the sterns of of wickedness. An allusion is here made their ships. This refers to the olive boughs, to the rape of Helen, which was an act of which they held in their hands as a sign of the basest kind; a most perridious crimo. peace when they visited the court of Lati- After this the Greeks, we mavsupposo, would

cosa.

sumere.

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