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Liquitur, et piceum, nec respirare potestas,
Flumen agit : fessos quatit æger anhelitus artus.
Tum demùm præceps saltu sese omnibus armis
In fluvium dedit. Ille suo cum gurgite flavo
Accepit venientem, ac 'mollibus extulit undis ;.
Et lætum sociis ablutâ cæde remisit.

813. Nec est potestas

illi respirare 815

816. Ille fluvius accepit eum venientem cum suo flavo gurgite, ac extulit eum mollibus undis; et remisit eum lætum so ciis, cæde ablutâ.

NOTES.

attack Turnus with such fury that he is with dust, which would adhere to his body, unable to maintain his ground. His solid it became tough and clammy like pitch, and armor of brass is bruised and shattered by nearly of a similar color. Æger anhelitus. the heavy stones hurled at him; his plumes This is such a difficulty of breathing as they fall from his head; his trusty shield begins have, who are sickly, and asthmatic. to give way; and the enemy to repeat their 816. Ille suo gurgite. This is extremely strokes with redoubled fury, with darts and beautiful. The poet represents the river spears. In this situation, worn out with god, expanding his gulfy bosom to receive fatigue, and panting for breath, he flings Turnus, and bearing him off in safety upon himself into the Tiber, and returns in safety his waves. to his camp.

818. Cæde avlutâ: the blood being washed 814. Agit piceum flumen : pours a black . off. Not the blood from any wounds he had pitchy stream. Turnus sweat so copiously received; but from those wounds which he that it fell from him in a stream. Mingled had inflicted.

QUESTIONS.

How is this book distinguished from all At the conclusion, what does he recomthe rest?

mend to his men ? What does Turnus in the mean time? When does he resolve to attack the camp Does he attempt to burn the Trojan ships? of the Trojans? What becomes of them?

What orders does he give to be observed At whose particular request was this during the night? granted to them?

What is the condition of the Trojans? What does Dr. Trapp observe of this pas- What do they in the mean time? sage?

Is there any proposition made to recall Does he consider it a blemish to the book? Æneas? By whom is Turnus roused to arms? By whom was it made?

To what does the poet compare the Who were Nisus and Euryalus? marching of his troops ?

Had any mention been made of their Where does the Ganges empty?

friendship before? What is its length?

In what book?
What course does it run?

And
upon

what occasion In what light is it considered by those What is the character of this episode? who live near it?

How many lines does it occupy? Where does the Nile rise ?

In what state does the poet represent Where does it empty?

Rutulian camp during the night? And by how many mouths?

Which of the two friends is the elder? What effect has it upon the fertility of Do they pass peaceably through the eneEgypt?

my's camp? What occasions its inundations ?

What then did they do? Is this a fine comparison ?

How long did they continue the slaughHaving failed to burn the fleet, what ter course does Turnus determine to pursue? Did they both make their escape from

Was there any prodigy in the heavens at the camp? this time?

What prevented Euryalus from accompaWhat was that prodigy?

nying Nisus? What effect had it upon the Trojans ? By whom was he taken prisoner ? What effect had it upon the Rutulians ? Who commanded this troop of horse ?

Did Turnus make an address to his men Where was Nisus during these transacupon the occasion ?

tions ? Wbat effect had it upon them?

When he perceived his friend to be missWhat is the character of that speech? ing, what course did he pursue?

Having found him in the hands of the What was the character of this assault? enemy, what did he do?

Were the enemy repulsed in this attack? Whom did he kill ?

What feats of valor did Turnus perform? What effect had this upon the mind of What effect had the burning of the tower Volscens ?

upon the Trojans ? By whom was Euryalus slain?

By whom was it set on fire? When he found he was about to be killed, After this, was the assault renewed ? did Nisus discover himself?

Was any part of the Trojans, at this Did he make any appeal to the enemy time, without the ramparts ? upon this occasion ?

Were they able to defend themselves ? What was his object in doing this?

What did the sentinels at the gates do in Unable to save his life, what resolution this crisis ? did he take?

Why did they open the gates? Whom did he kill ?

Who were stationed as guard at the gates? Was he slain himself also ?

What was their stature and strengtb? What is the character of this episode? Did Turnus enter along with the fugiIs it objectionable in any respect?

tives? What are the principal grounds of objec- Was he perceived at the time? tion?

Was the gate closed immediately on his At the return of day, what does Turnus do? entrance?

In what way did the Trojans learn of the What feats of valor does he here perform? death of Nisus and Euryalus?

Whom does he first kill? What effect had the news upon the mo- Are the Trojans able to stand before him? ther of Euryalus?

What remark does the poet make after How was she employed at that time? the admission of Turnus, and the closing of

What effect had the sight of his head upon the gate ? her?

How does the poet account for this want In what light may her lamentation be of thought in the hero? considered ?

By whom are the Trojans finally rallied, What is the character of this sequel ? and brought again to the attack?

Who among the ancients is said to have What becomes of Turnus. greatly admired it?

How does he escape from them? By what troops was the assault com- Did he receive any injury from the host menced ?

of weapons sent at him? What do you mean by the testudo, or tar- By whom was Turnus assisted in his get defence?

mighty achievements ? On what occasion was that used ?

Did he return in safety to his troops?

LIBER DECIMUS.

JUPITER calls a council of the gods, and forbids them to assist either side. On this ocea

sion, Venus makes a very pathetic speech in favor of the Trojans, and entreats Jupiter to interfere in their favor, and not to suffer them to be entirely destroyed. Juno replies in a strain haughty and imperious, and attributes their misfortunes to their own folly and misconduct, and particularly to the conduct of Paris in the case of Helen; and insinuates that Æneas was playing the same game at the court of Latinus. Jupiter concludes their deliberations by a speech, in which he declares he will assist neither

party, that success or disaster should attend their own actions. As soon as Æneas had concluded a treaty with the Tuscans, he hastens his return, accom

panied by his allies. On his way he is met by a choir of nymphs: one of whom informs him of the transformation of his ships, of the attack of Turnus upon his camp, of the great slaughter he had made, and the distress to which his friends were reduced. When he arrives in sight of his camp, the Trojans shout for joy; and Turnus resolves to prevent their landing. Leaving a sufficient number to besiege the camp, he marches with the rest of his forces to the shore. Æneas divided his troops into three divisions, and, in that order, effected a landing. Here a general engagement commences, and Æneas performs prodigies of valor. The Arcadians were routed by the Latins. When Pallas perceives them give way, he hastens along the ranks, animates his men, and brings them again to the charge. Here he performs feats of valor. Lausus, who commanded one wing of the Latins, opposed him with equal skill and valor. Arcadian, Tuscan, and Trojan, fell before him.

In the mean time, Turnus, informed of the havoc made by Pallas, determines to attack

him in person. He proceeds against the youthful warrior, who, undaunted, meets him

with strength and arms unequal. After the death of Palias, a great slaughter of the Trojans ensues. Æneas, in an other

part of the line, informed of the death of Pallas and the slaughter of his troops, immediately sets out in search of Turistis. In his way he kills a great number, and puts to flight whole ranks. Venus assists the Trojans, and Juno intercedes with her husband to favor the Latins; but to no purpose. However, he permits her to bear away Turnus from the fight, and save him from the vengeance of Æneas. The goddess instantly repairing to the field of battle, assumed the shape and attire of Æneas; and, by a device of hers, conducted Turnus from the fight. As soon as he was out of danger, the phantom vanished. Discovering the deception, the hero becomes frantic with rage and

disappointment. Mezentius succeeds Turnus in command, and makes head against the Trojans. The

fight is renewed with great fury, and he performs feats of valor. Victory, for a time, seems equally poised. Æneas beholds him thundering along the ranks, prostrating all who stand before him; and resolves to meet him. Mezentius throws a spear, which, glancing from the shield of Æneas, kills Antores, who had been the companion of Hercules. The spear of Æneas wounds him in turn, but not mortally. In this situation, Lausus succors his father, and, flinging himself between the combatants, affords him an opportunity to retire, and, in the pious duty, loses his own life. He retires to the river, and washes his wound. All his anxiety is for his son, his affectionate, his dutiful Lausus. Messenger after messenger he sends to recall him from the fight. But when he learns his death, he resolves to return to fall by the hand of Æneas, or to bear off his spoils. For this purpose, he mounts his faithful courser, arms himself, and rushes into the field, seeking the victor. The book concludes with the death of Mezentius.

PANDITUR intereà domus omnipotentis Olympi : Conciliumque vocat Divûm pater atque hominum rex Sideream in sedem ; terras unde arduus omnes, Castraque Dardanidûm aspectat, populosque Latinos. Considunt tectis bipatentibus. Incipit ipse :

5

5. Super considunt Cælicolæ magni, quianam sententia vobis

tectis bipatentibus. JuVersa retrò ? tantùmque animis certatis iniquis ?

piter ipse incipit sic Abnueram bello Italiam concurrere Teucris :

9. Quæ est hæc dis

cordia contra meum vetiQuæ contra vetitum discordia ? quis metus, aut hos,

tum? Quis metus suasit Aut hos arma sequi, ferrumque lacessere suasit?

10

aut hos Italos, aut hos Adveniet justum pugnæ, ne accersite, tempus,

Teucros sequi

NOTES.

1. Olympi. Olympus is a very high moun- mentioned by the poet before. On the contain in the confines of Thessaly and Mace- trary, Jove had declared that Æneas should donia, whose summit is above the clouds. carry on a great war in Italy, bellum inHence the poets made it the residence of gens geret Italia. Æn. i. 263. It is probaJove. Here they assigned him a sumptu- ble that the poet would have corrected this ous palace. The epithet omnipotens is added passage, if he had lived to revise this part of by way of eminence; that being the pro- his works. per epithet of Jove, who had there his re- 10. Lacessere : in the sense of commovere, sidence. The poet here imitates Homer, says Ruæus. Suasit : in the sense of imIliad, lib. viii.

pulit. Arma : by meton, for bellum. 4. Aspectat : in the sense of despicit. Ar- 11. Adveniet justum : the proper time for duus : in the sense of sublimis.

war will arrive, &c. Jove declares in coun. 5. Bipatentibus : opening both ways, to cil that the Italians had engaged in the the right and left.

war against the Trojans, contrary to his 6. Cælicolæ : in the sense of Superi. Qui- wish and inclination ; that it was his desire anam: in the sense of cur. The meaning Italy should open its bosom, and receive is : why have ye changed your purpose of them in friendship and amity. But do not, assisting neither party? Why do ye con- ye gods, infer hence that I wish they should tend with so much animosity? and disre- always escape the calamities of war. The gard my prohibition that the Italians should time will come in its proper season, nor do not oppose the Trojans?'

ye hasten it, when warlike Carthage shall 8. Abnueram : I had forbidden the Italian bring a great destruction upon the Roman nations, &c. This prohibition had not been towers. Then you may indulge your ani

Cùm fera Carthago Romanis arcibus olim
Exitium magnum, atque Alpes immittet apertas.
Tum certare odiis, tum res rapuisse licebit.

Nunc sinite, et placitum læti componite fædus. 15 16. Jupiter dixit hæc Jupiter hæc paucis : at non Venus aurea contrà paucis verbis.

Pauca refert :

O pater, ô hominum Divûmque æterna potestas ! 19. Quid aliud numen (Namque aliud quid sit, quod jam implorare queamus?) sit, quod

Cernis ut insultent Rutuli ? Turnusque feratur 20
Per medios insignis equis, tumidusque secundo
Marte ruat? non clausa tegunt jam mænia Teucros :
Quin intra portas, atque ipsis prælia miscent

Aggeribus murorum, et inundant sanguine fossæ. 25. Æneas ignarus Æneas ignarus abest. Nunquamne levari

25 harum rerum abest.

Obsidione sines ? muris iterum imminet hostis
Nascentis Trojæ, nec non exercitus alter :
Atque iterum in Teucros Ætolis surgit ab Arpis

NOTES.

mosities, then you may foment discord; but 12. Fera : warlike-fierce, now cultivate harmony, and practice good 13. Apertas Alpes. Scaliger thinks per is will toward each other. Carthage was the to be supplied ; meaning that the Carthagimost powerful rival of Rome. It was a nians marched through or over the Alps. very flourishing and commercial state. The This to be sure is the true meaning : but interests of the two nations soon began to the construction will not bear it. We must interfere, and a war broke out between not throw away the atque. Both Dr. Trapp them. A naval battle was fought off Sicily, and Ruæus understand the people of the in which the Carthaginians were victorious ;. Alps, whom Hannibal took with him. I can but the Romans had the advantage by land. hardly think this to be the meaning. The A peace was concluded very much to the expression is highly figurative and poetical. disadvantage of the former. The Cartha- It represents Hannibal and his army pourginians gave up all the islands between ing through the passages of the Alps, as if Africa and Italy, and agreed to pay 2,200 the mountains themselves were moved or talents annually, for twenty years, to the sent against Rome. Romans. This took place in the year of 14. Tum licebit, &c. The gods are here Rome 513. Twenty-four years after this, a represented as divided and split into factions second war broke out between the two rival and parties. To calm their dissentions, Jove powers. Hannibal was commander-in-chief tells them a time will come when they may of the Carthaginians. He led his army indulge their passions, and plunder and into Spain, which he subjugated as far as commit acts of violence. Dr. Trapp thinks the Iberus. He thence passed over the Alps the words licebit, &c. refer to the Trojans into Italy, where he defeated the Romans in and Latins, on account of whom the gods several engagements, with great slaughter, were split into factions. It is common for and filled Rome itself with fear and conster- writers, especially the poets, to ascribe the nation; and if he had marched directly to evil actions of men to the gods, under whose Rome, it would, in all probability, have fallen influence they were supposed to act. Res : before his victorious arms. In this juncture the Roman state. Ruæus says, Trojanas res. of affairs, Fabius Maximus was made dic- 15. Sinite : be quiet-permit it to be so. tator ; who, by his prudent measures, and, Componite : in the sense of facite, vel conciabove all, by his declining a general engage- liate. Placitum : in the sense of destinatum. munt, and protracting the war, in some Quod placet mihi, says Ruæus. measure, recovered the Roman affairs. In 22. Tegunt : protect-defend. the mean time, Scipio was sent into Africa 23. Miscent : in the sense of committunt. to attack Carthage. Hannibal was recalled 24. Ipsis aggeribus : on the very ramparts to defend his country. The Romans, how- of the walls. ever, were victorious, and Carthage became 27. Nec non : in the sense of

quoque,

vel tributary. The intrepid Hannibal saved his etiam. Imminet : presses upon-besieges. life by Aeeing his country. This war lasted Ruæus says, instat. seventeen years. In the third Punic war, 28. Ætolis Arpis. Arpi was a city of as it was called, Carthage was utterly ra- Apulia. It is called Ætolian from Ætolia, sed, under the younger Scipio, in the year of the country of Diomede, who led a colony Rome 608.

into that part of Italy, and founded Arpi.

40 movet

Tydides. Equidem, credo, mea vulnera restant :
Et tua progenies mortalia demoror arma.

30 30. Et ego tua froge

nies Si sinè pace tuâ, atque invito numine, Troës

31. Si Troës petrêre Italiam petiêre, luant peccata ; neque illos

Italiam sine Juveris auxilio. Sin tot responsa secuti,

33. Sin fecerunt id seQuæ Superi Manesque dabant; cur nunc tua quisquam cuti tot responsa oracuFlectere jussa potest ? aut cur nova condere fata ? 35 lorum, que Quid repetam exustas Erycino in litore classes ?

35. Aut cur quisquam

potest condere
Quid tempestatum regem, ventosque furentes
Æoliâ excitos ? aut actam nubibus Irim ?
Nunc etiam Manes (hæc intentata manebat

39. Nunc etiam Juno Sors rerum) movet : et superis immissa repentè

40. Alecto immissa Alecto, medias Italûm bacchata per urbes.

in superis regionibus luNil super imperio moveor : speravimus ista,

cis Dum fortuna fuit : vincant, quos vincere mavis.

43. Dum fortuna fuit Si nulla est regio, Teucris quam det tua conjux propitia: illi vincant Dura: per eversæ, genitor, fumantia Troja

45 45. O genitor, obtesExcidia obtestor; liceat dimittere ab armis

tor te per fumantia ex

cidia Incolumem Ascanium ; liceat superesse nepotem. Æneas sanè ignotis jactetur in undis ; Et, quamcunque viam dederit fortuna, sequatur: Hunc tegere, et diræ valeam subducere pugnæ. 50 Est Amathus, est celsa mihi Paphos, atque Cythera, 52. Ascanius inglo Idaliæque domus: positis inglorius armis

rius exigat ævum nic, Exigat hìc ævum. Magnâ ditione jubeto

armis positis.

NOTES.

He was the son of Tydeus. Turnus sent to shore. See Æn. v. 660. Where the Trojan him with a view to engage him in the war, matrons, at the instigation of Iris, set fire to but without success, as will appear in the their ships. Repetam : in the sense of comfollowing book. Venus, to aggravate her memorem. case, would insinuate that a Grecian army 37. Regem: Æolus king of the winds. was approaching the Trojan camp under the See Æn. i. conduct of great Diomede. This is the hos 39. Manes movet. Here Manes plainly tis, and the alter exercitus, just mentioned. means the infernal powers, whom Juno rous

29. Mea vulnera restant: my wounds re ed up against the Trojans, when she called main. Ruæus thinks this is a reference to up Alecto from her dire abode. This was the the wound she received from Diomede, when first time Juno had recourse to the powers she rescued Æneas from the encounter with below, to assist her in the destruction of the that hero. Iliad, v. 335. And she fears the Trojans. This will help us to understand same thing may happen again. This eluci- the words: hæc sors reruin manebat intentata. dates the words demoror mortalia arma. But Sors: in the sense of pars. Venus may speak in the name of the Tro

41. Bacchata: est is understood. jans, considering their wounds and suffer

42. Moveor nil: I am not solicitous about ings as her own. Demoror: in the sense of expecto.

empire-I am not moved, &c. 31. Pace : permission or leave. Pace:

46. Liceat: may it be permitted me to in the sense of venia. Numine: in the sense remove (or take) Ascanius, &c. of voluntate.

50. Valeam: I would wish to be able 34. Manesque. This perhaps refers to the I could desire to be permitted. Tegere: to predictions and intimations, which Æneas protect-rescue. had received from the ghosts of Hector, 51. Amathus: gen. amathuntis ; a city of Anchises and Creusa. Manes, sometimes the island of Cyprus. Hodie, Limisso. Paare taken for the infernal gods. It is here phos or Paphus; another city of the same opposed to Superi, the gods above.

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island. Hodie, Paffo. Cythera: neu. plu. 35. Flectere: to avert or turn aside. Fata: an island between the Peloponnesus and purposes—decrees. Condere: to make-or- Crete. Idalium or Idalia : a city of Cyprus. dain-appoint. Ruæus says, statuere. All these places were sacred to Venus. 36. In Erycino litore : on the Sicilian 52. Domus: in the sense of sedes.

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