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Fit sonus: ingenti concussa est pondere tellus.
Collapsos artus atque arma cruenta cerebro
Sternit humi moriens : atque illi partibus æquis

754. Atque caput peHuc caput atque illuc humero ex utroque pependit. 755 pendit illi scissum in Diffugiunt versi trepidå formidine Troës.

æquis partibus huc
Et, si continuò victorem ea cura subîsset,
Rumpere claustra manu, sociosque immittere portis,
Ultimus ille dies bello gentique fuisset.

759. Gentique TrojaSed furor ardentem cædisque insana cupido

760 norum. Egit in adversos. Principio Phalarim, et, succiso poplite, Gygen

763. Hinc ingerit has Excipit : hinc raptas fugientibus ingerit hastas

tas raptas ab occisis in In tergum: Juno vires animumque ministrat.

tergum

765. Comitem illis in Addit Halyn comitem, et confixâ Phegea parma: 765

morte, et Phegea, ejaus Ignaros deinde in muris, Martemque cientes,

parmâ confixa Alcandrumque Haliumque Noëmonaque Prytanimque. 766. Deinde occidit Lyncea tendentem contrà, sociosque vocantem,

Alcandrumque, &c. igVibranti gladio connixus ab aggere dexter

naros ejus ingressús in

muris Occupat: huic uno dejectum cominùs ictu

770

769. Connixus dexter Cum galeâ longè jacuit caput. Inde ferarum

ab aggere, Turnus occuVastatorem Amycum, quo non felicior alter

pat Lyncea Ungere tela manu, ferrumque armare veneno:

771. Inde occidit AmyEt Clytium Æoliden, et amicum Cretea Musis ;

774. Et occidit ClyCretea Musarum comitem : cui carmina semper Et citharæ cordi, numerosque intendere nervis ;

775. Cui carmina, et Semper equos, atque arma virûm, pugnasque canebat. citharæ fuerant semper Tandem ductores, auditâ cæde suorum,

cordi Conveniunt Teucri, Mnestheus acerque Serestus;

780. Receptum in mu

ris. Et Mnestheus inPalantesque vident socios, hostemque receptum. 780

quit : quo deinde diriEt Mnestheus, Quò deinde fugam ? quò tenditis ? inquit, gitis fugam ?

cum

775 tium

NOTES.

754. Illi : in the sense of illius. His head 771. Caput huic. The same as, hujus hung, &c. Sternit: he brings to the ground. caput: the dat. in the sense of the gen. Ruæus says, trahit.

772. Felicior: more skilful-expert. 757. Subîsset victorem : had the thought 773. Ungere: to anoint. Manu : artcome into the mind of the victor to burst, skill, by meton. The practice of poisoning &c.

Claustra : the bars of the gate the arrows, and other missive weapons, obtained gate itself.

among some nations of antiquity. It is 761. Egit in adversos : drove him furious said to be done at the present day by some upon his foes.

He could not resist the tribes of Indians, and some of the barbatemptation of pursuing his revenge on his rous nations of Africa. Ferrum: the point enemies, when they were full in his view.

or barb. 763. Excipit : in the sense of interficit. 774. Æoliden. He was skilful at playing He receives or surprises them with death. on wind instruments. He is therefore called Ingerit : in the sense of intorquet, vel jacit. metaphorically the son of Æolus. There

766. Ignaros : ignorant of his being within is a propriety, therefore, in joining him with their walls. Not thinking of danger, and Creteus, who was a distinguished musician, not imagining that Turnus and death were and consequently a friend and companion so near them. Cientes : rousing the martial of the muses. Cretea, Lyncea, Phegea, are courage of his friends-encouraging the Greek accusatives. fight.

776. Intendere numeros : to apply notes 768. Tendentem contrà : meeting him to the strings of the lyre to apply verse to coming opposite to him.

music. Ruæus says, edere sonos chordis. 769. Dexter: on the right hand: or, dex- Cordi : for a delight. Cithart, may here terous, skilful.

mean musical instrumer's in general. 770. Occupat : receives-takes. Interci- 781. Quò deinde fugam.? where next will prt, says Ruæus.

ye direct your flight? Servius says this

Quos alios muros, quæ jam ultrà mœnia habetis? 783. Unus homo, et Unus homo, vestris, ô cives, undique septus ille septus vestris agge- Aggeribus, tantas strages impunè per urbem ribus undique Ediderit? juvenum primos tot miserit Orco? Non infelicis patriæ, veterumque Deorum, 787. Non miseretque Et magni Æneæ, segnes, miseretque pudetque? pudetque vos, O segnes, Talibus accensi firmantur, et agmine denso Consistunt. Turnus paulatim excedere pugnâ, Et fluvium petere, ac partem quæ cingitur amni. Acriùs hôc Teucri clamore incumbere magno, Et glomerare manum. Ceu sævum turba leonem Cùm telis premit infensis: at territus ille

infelicis

789. Turnus paulatim incipit

791. Teucri incipiunt

acrius hộc

Asper, acerbà tuens, retrò redit: et neque terga
795. Nec ille est potis Ira dare aut virtus patitur; nec tendere contrà
tendere contrà per tela Ille quidem hoc cupiens, potis est per tela virosque.
virosque, quidem cu-
piens hoc

Haud aliter retrò dubius vestigia Turnus
Improperata refert; et mens exæstuat irâ.
Quin etiam, bis tum medios invaserat hostes;
Bis confusa fugâ per muros agmina vertit,
Sed manus è castris properè coit omnis in unum
Nec contrà vires audet Saturnia Juno

contra Teucros.

impetum, nec dextrâ

803. Sufficere vires et Sufficere: aëriam cœlo nam Jupiter Irim Demisit, germanæ haud mollia jussa ferentem; Ni Turnus cedat Teucrorum manibus altis. 806. Ergò juvenis Ergò nec clypeo juvenis subsistere tantum, valet subsistere tantum Nec dextrâ valet: injectis sic undique telis nec clypeo, Obruitur. Strepit assiduo cava tempora circum Tinnitu galea, et saxis solida æra fatiscunt: 810. Jubæ sunt dis- Discussæque jubæ capiti; nec sufficit umbo Ictibus ingeminant hastis et Troës, et ipse Fulmineus Mnestheus. Tum toto corpore sudor

785

790

795

800

805

810

cussi

NOTES.

is a bitter sarcasm. It implies that they had already fled into their camp, and shut themselves up through fear, within their intrenchments. Tenditis in the sense of ibitis.

784. Aggeribus: in the sense of muris. 785. Ediderit: in the sense of effecerit. 787. Segnes: cowards. Ruæus says, O, inertes. It is better to consider segnes, as the voc. than the acc. agreeing with vos understood, and governed by the verbs miseret and pudet. It is more animated, and more in the spirit of address.

788. Firmantur: in the sense of animan tur. By these words of Mnestheus the Trojans were encouraged, and rallied; and again returned to the attack.

790. Partem: the part of the walls which was bounded by the river.

791. Hộc acrius, &c. This retreat of Turnus gave courage to the Trojans, who began to press upon him more closely, and to form a band about him with a view to surround him, and take him prisoner.

792. Turba: a company of hunters.

3

794. Acerbà: an adj. neu. plu. taken as an adverb. This is common among the poets. Tuens, a part. of tueor: looking fiercely.

795. Tendere contrà: to go forward. 798. Improperata: slow-deliberate. Of in, negativum, and properatus.

800. Confusa: confused--disordered. Ruæus and some others read conversa.

801. In unum: against him alone. Coit: unites. Of con, and eo.

805. Ni Turnus. A threat is intimated or implied in the words, haud mollia mandata; which would be put in execution, unless Turnus retired from the Trojan walls. 809. Tinnitu: ringing. Strepit: in the sense of sonat.

810. Juba: the plumes or feathers in his helmet. These were struck from his head. Umbo. The boss or extreme part of the shield, by synec. the whole shield. This is not able to withstand the blows of the missive weapons.

812. Fulmineus: in the sense of ardens. The Trojans, with Mnestheus at their head,

Liquitur, et piceum, nec respirare potestas, Flumen agit: fessos quatit æger anhelitus artus. Tum demùm præceps saltu sese omnibus armis In fluvium dedit. Ille suo cum gurgite flavo Accepit venientem, ac mollibus extulit undis; Et lætum sociis ablutâ cæde remisit.

attack Turnus with such fury that he is unable to maintain his ground. His solid armor of brass is bruised and shattered by the heavy stones hurled at him; his plumes fall from his head; his trusty shield begins to give way; and the enemy to repeat their strokes with redoubled fury, with darts and spears. In this situation, worn out with fatigue, and panting for breath, he flings himself into the Tiber, and returns in safety to his camp.

NOTES.

814. Agit piceum flumen: pours a black pitchy stream. Turnus sweat so copiously that it fell from him in a stream. Mingled

How is this book distinguished from all the rest?

What does Turnus in the mean time?
Does he attempt to burn the Trojan ships?
What becomes of them?

QUESTIONS.

At whose particular request was this granted to them?

What does Dr. Trapp observe of this passage?

Does he consider it a blemish to the book?
By whom is Turnus roused to arms?
To what does the poet compare the
marching of his troops?

Where does the Ganges empty?
What is its length?

What course does it run?

In what light is it considered by those who live near it?

Where does the Nile rise?

Where does it empty?

And by how many mouths?
What effect has it upon the fertility of
Egypt?

What occasions its inundations?
Is this a fine comparison?

Having failed to burn the fleet, what course does Turnus determine to pursue?

Was there any prodigy in the heavens at this time?

What was that prodigy?

What effect had it upon the Trojans?. What effect had it upon the Rutulians? Did Turnus make an address to his men upon the occasion?

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What effect had it upon them?

What is the character of that speech?

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with dust, which would adhere to his body, it became tough and clammy like pitch, and nearly of a similar color. Eger anhelitus. This is such a difficulty of breathing as they have, who are sickly, and asthmatic.

816. Ille suo gurgite. This is extremely beautiful. The poet represents the river god, expanding his gulfy bosom to receive Turnus, and bearing him off in safety upon his waves.

818. Cæde ablutâ: the blood being washed off. Not the blood from any wounds he had received; but from those wounds which he had inflicted.

At the conclusion, what does he recommend to his men?

When does he resolve to attack the camp of the Trojans?

What orders docs he give to be observed during the night?

What is the condition of the Trojans?
What do they in the mean time?

Is there any proposition made to recall Eneas?

By whom was it made?

Who were Nisus and Euryalus?

Had any mention been made of their friendship before?

In what book?

And upon what occasion?

What is the character of this episode? How many lines does it occupy? In what state does the poet represent the Rutulian camp during the night?

Which of the two friends is the elder? Do they pass peaceably through the enemy's camp?

What then did they do?

How long did they continue the slaughter?

Did they both make their escape from the camp?

What prevented Euryalus from accompanying Nisus?

By whom was he taken prisoner? Who commanded this troop of horse? Where was Nisus during these transactions?

When he perceived his friend to be missing, what course did he pursue?

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LIBER DECIMUS.

JUPITER calls a council of the gods, and forbids them to assist either side. On this oceasion, Venus makes a very pathetic speech in favor of the Trojans, and entreats Jupiter to interfere in their favor, and not to suffer them to be entirely destroyed. Juno replies in a strain haughty and imperious, and attributes their misfortunes to their own folly and misconduct, and particularly to the conduct of Paris in the case of Helen; and insinuates that Eneas was playing the same game at the court of Latinus. Jupiter concludes their deliberations by a speech, in which he declares he will assist neither party, that success or disaster should attend their own actions.

As soon as Eneas had concluded a treaty with the Tuscans, he hastens his return, accompanied by his allies. On his way he is met by a choir of nymphs: one of whom informs him of the transformation of his ships, of the attack of Turnus upon his camp, of the great slaughter he had made, and the distress to which his friends were reduced. When he arrives in sight of his camp, the Trojans shout for joy; and Turnus resolves to prevent their landing. Leaving a sufficient number to besiege the camp, he marches with the rest of his forces to the shore. Eneas divided his troops into three divisions, and, in that order, effected a landing. Here a general engagement commences, and Eneas performs prodigies of valor. The Arcadians were routed by the Latins. When Pallas perceives them give way, he hastens along the ranks, animates his men, and brings them again to the charge. Here he performs feats of valor. Lausus, who commanded one wing of the Latins, opposed him with equal skill and valor. Arcadian, Tuscan, and Trojan, fell before him.

In the mean time, Turnus, informed of the havoc made by Pallas, determines to attack him in person. He proceeds against the youthful warrior, who, undaunted, meets him with strength and arms unequal.

After the death of Palias, a great slaughter of the Trojans ensues. Eneas, in an other part of the line, informed of the death of Pallas and the slaughter of his troops, immediately sets out in search of Turimus. In his way he kills a great number, and puts to flight whole ranks. Venus assists the Trojans, and Juno intercedes with her husband to favor the Latins; but to no purpose. However, he permits her to bear away Turnus from the fight, and save him from the vengeance of Eneas. The goddess instantly repairing to the field of battle, assumed the shape and attire of Æneas; and, by a device of hers, conducted Turnus from the fight. As soon as he was out of danger, the phantom vanished. Discovering the deception, the hero becomes frantic with rage and disappointment.

Mezentius succeeds Turnus in command, and makes head against the Trojans. The fight is renewed with great fury, and he performs feats of valor. Victory, for a time, seems equally poised. Eneas beholds him thundering along the ranks, prostrating all who stand before him; and resolves to meet him. Mezentius throws a spear, which, glancing from the shield of Æneas, kills Antores, who had been the companion of Hercules. The spear of Æneas wounds him in turn, but not mortally. In this situation, Lausus succors his father, and, flinging himself between the combatants, affords him an opportunity to retire, and, in the pious duty, loses his own life. He retires to the river, and washes his wound. All his anxiety is for his son, his affectionate, his dutiful Lausus. Messenger after messenger he sends to recall him from the fight. But when he learns his death, he resolves to return to fall by the hand of Eneas, or to bear off his spoils. For this purpose, he mounts his faithful courser, arms himself, and rushes into the field, seeking the victor. The book concludes with the death of Mezentius.

PANDITUR intereà domus omnipotentis Olympi : Conciliumque vocat Divûm pater atque hominum rex Sideream in sedem; terras unde arduus omnes,

Castraque Dardanidûm aspectat, populosque Latinos.
Considunt tectis bipatentibus. Incipit ipse :
Cœlicolæ magni, quianam sententia vobis
Versa retrò? tantùmque animis certatis iniquis?
Abnueram bello Italiam concurrere Teucris :
Quæ contra vetitum discordia? quis metus, aut hos,
Aut hos arma sequi, ferrumque lacessere suasit?
Adveniet justum pugnæ, ne accersite, tempus,

NOTES.

1. Olympi. Olympus is a very high mountain in the confines of Thessaly and Macedonia, whose summit is above the clouds. Hence the poets made it the residence of Jove. Here they assigned him a sumptuous palace. The epithet omnipotens is added by way of eminence; that being the proper epithet of Jove, who had there his residence. The poet here imitates Homer, Iliad, lib. viii.

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mentioned by the poet before. On the contrary, Jove had declared that Æneas should carry on a great war in Italy, bellum ingens geret Italia. En. i. 263. It is probable that the poet would have corrected this passage, if he had lived to revise this part of his works.

10. Lacessere: in the sense of commovere, says Ruæus. Suasit in the sense of impulit. Arma: by meton. for bellum.

:

4. Aspectat: in the sense of despicit. Arduus: in the sense of sublimis.

5. Bipatentibus: opening both ways, to the right and left.

6. Calicola: in the sense of Superi. Quianam: in the sense of cur. The meaning is: why have ye changed your purpose of assisting neither party? Why do ye contend with so much animosity? and disregard my prohibition that the Italians should not oppose the Trojans?'

8. Abnueram: I had forbidden the Italian nations, &c. This prohibition had not been

11. Adveniet justum: the proper time for war will arrive, &c. Jove declares in council that the Italians had engaged in the war against the Trojans, contrary to his wish and inclination; that it was his desire Italy should open its bosom, and receive them in friendship and amity. But do not, ye gods, infer hence that I wish they should always escape the calamities of war. The time will come in its proper season, nor do ye hasten it, when warlike Carthage shall bring a great destruction upon the Roman towers. Then you may indulge your ani

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