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Obnixus latis humeris · multosque suorum
Mænibus exclusos duro in certamine linquit;
Ast alios secum includit, recipitque ruentes :

Demens ! qui Rutulum in medio non agmine regem
729. Incluscrit eum Viderit irrumpentem, ultròque incluserit urbi :
urbi, veluti
Immanem veluti pecora inter inertia tigrim.

730
Continuò nova lux oculis effulsit, et arma
Horrendùm sonuêre : tremunt in vertice crista
Sanguineæ, clypeoque micantia fulgura mittunt.

Agnoscunt facier invisam atque immania membra
Turbati subitò Æneadæ. Tum Pandarus ingens 735
Emicat, et, mortis fraternæ fervidus irâ,
Effatur : Non hæc dotalis regia Amatæ ;

Nec muris cohibet patriis media Ardea Turnum. 739. Est nulla potes- Castra inimica vides : nulla hinc exire potestas. Olli subridens sedato pectore Turnus :

740 Incipe, si

qua animo virtus, et consere dextram :
Hic etiam inventum Priamo narrabis Achillem.
Dixerat. Ille rudem nodis et cortice crudo
Intorquet, summis adnixus viribus, hastam.
Excepêre auræ vulnus : Saturnia Juno

745
Detorsit veniens; portæque infigitur hasta,
At non hoc telum, mea quod vi dextera versat,

Effugies : neque enim is teli nec vulneris auctor.
749 Sic Turnus ait : Sic ait: et sublatum altè consurgit in ensem,
et consurgit

Et mediam ferro gemina inter tempora frontem 750
Dividit, impubesque immani vulnere malas.

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nus.

726. Duro : in the sense of mortifero. nus, and, with her, the kingdom of Latium.

731. Continuò nova lux, &c. Davidson The verb est is to be supplied. refers this to the eyes of the Trojans, and 738. Ardea. The capital city of the Runot to those of Turnus. The comeliness of tuli. Media : the middle or centre of your his person and the brightness of his arms dominions. Cohibet : in the sense of tenet. rendered him easy to be distinguished by Patriis : paternal walls. the enemy. New light struck their eyes. 741. Consere dextram : engage hand to Both Dr. Trapp and Ruæus refer it to Tur- hand with me.

Ruæus says, novum lumen emicuit 742. Etiam : also—as well as among the ex oculis Turni,

Greeks. 732. Tremunt : wave.

743. Hastam rudem: a spear rough with 733. Micantia : gleaming-reflecting from knots, &c. his shield. Mittunt : in the sense of mit 745. Vulnus : in the sense of ictum, by tunt se: throws-darts itself at a distance. meton. Davidson and Ruæus read mittit, referring 746. Detorsit : turned it aside. Veniens to Turnus. Heyne reads mittunt, agreeing in the sense of interveniens. with fulgura in the nom. If we read mittit, 748. Enim neque auctor teli : for neither fulgura will be the acc. plu. governed by the owner of the weapon, nor the author of that verb.

the stroke, is the same. He far excels you What follows of the feats of Turnus is in the strength of his body, and the nerve astonishingly grand. But it may be objects of his arm. Vulneris : in the sense of ictûs. ed, that the story is beyond probability. Is: in the sense of idem. We are to recollect, however, that it is al 749. Consurgit: he rises upon his sword, lowable in poetry to go beyond real life: raised high. He lifts up his sword, and rises and, beside, he is assisted in his amazing ex on tiptoe, to give greater force to the blow. ploits by a divine power.

Altè may be connected with consurgit, or sub737. Hæc non dotalis regia : this is not latum. The sense is the same in either case. the palace of Amata, promised as a dowry 750. Mediam .frontem : his head in the to thee. It was the purpose of Amata to middle between, &c. bestow her daughter Lavinia upon Tur 751. Impubes : beardless-without beard.

Fit sonus : ingenti concussa est pondere tellus.
Collapsos artus atque arma cruenta cerebro
Sternit humi moriens: atque illi partibus æquis

754. Atque caput peHuc caput atque illuc humero ex utroque pependit. 755 pendit illi scissum in Diffugiunt versi trepidå formidine Troës.

æquis partibus huc Et, si continuò victorem ea cura subîsset, Rumpere claustra manu, sociosque immittere portis, Ultimus ille dies bello gentique fuisset.

759. Gentique TrojaSed furor ardentem cædisque insana cupido

760 norum. Egit in adversos. Principio Phalarim, et, succiso poplite, Gygen

763. Hinc ingerit has Excipit : hinc raptas fugientibus ingerit hastas

tas raptas ab occisis in

tergum In tergum: Juno vires animumque ministrat.

765. Comitem illis in Addit Halyn comitem, et confixâ Phegea parmâ : 765

morte, et Phegea, ejus Ignaros deinde in muris, Martemque cientes,

parmâ confixa Alcandrumque Haliumque Noëmonaque Prytanimque. 766. Deinde occidit Lyncea tendentem contrà, sociosque vocantem,

Alcandrumque, &c. igVibranti gladio connixus ab aggere dexter

naros ejus ingressûs in

muris Occupat: huic uno dejectum cominùs ictu

770

769. Connixus dexter Cum galeâ longè jacuit caput. Inde ferarum

ab aggere, Turnus occuVastatorem Amycum, quo non felicior alter

pat Lyncea Ungere tela manu, ferrumque armare veneno:

771. Inde occidit AmyEt Clytium Æoliden, et amicum Cretea Musis ;

774. Et occidit ClyCretea Musarum comitem: cui carmina semper 775

tium Et citharæ cordi, numerosque intendere nervis ;

775. Cui carmina, et Semper equos, atque arma virûm, pugnasque canebat. citharæ fuerant semper Tandem ductores, auditâ cæde suorum,

cordi

780. Receptum in muConveniunt Teucri, Mnestheus acerque Serestus;

ris. Et Mnestheus inPalantesque vident socios, hostemque receptum. 780

quit : quo deinde diriEt Mnestheus, Quò deinde fugam ? quò tenditis ? inquit, gitis fugam?

cum

NOTES.

754. Illi : in the sense of illius. His head 771. Caput huic. The same as, hujus hung, &c. Sternit: he brings to the ground. caput: the dat. in the sense of the gen. Ruæus says, trahit.

772. Felicior: more skilful-expert. 757. Subîsset victorem : had the thought 773. Ungere: to anoint. Manu : artcome into the mind of the victor to burst, skill, by meton. The practice of poisoning &c. Claustra : the bars of the gate the arrows, and other missive weapons, obtained gate itself.

among some nations of antiquity. It is 761. Egit in adversos : drove him furious said to be done at the esent day by some upon his foes.

He could not resist the tribes of Indians, and some of the barbatemptation of pursuing his revenge on his rous nations of Africa. Ferrum: the point enemies, when they were full in his view.

or barb. 763. Excipit: in the sense of interficit. 774. Æoliden. He was skilful at playing He receives or surprises them with death. on wind instruments. He is therefore called Ingerit : in the sense of intorquet, vel jacit. metaphorically the son of Æolus. There

766. Ignaros: ignorant of his being within is a propriety, therefore, in joining him with their walls. Not thinking of danger, and Creteus, who was a distinguished musician, not imagining that Turnus and death were and consequently a friend and companion so near them. Cientes: rousing the martial of the muses. Cretea, Lyncea, Phegea, are courage of his friends-encouraging the Greek accusatives. fight.

776. Intendere numeros : to apply notes 768. Tendentem contrà : meeting him to the strings of the lyre-to apply verse to coming opposite to him.

music. Ruæus says, edere sonos cordis. 769. Dexter: on the right hand: or, dex- Cordi : for a delight. Cithare, may here terous, skilful.

mean musical instrumer's in general. 770. Occupat : receives—takes. Interci 781. Quò deinde fugam.? where next will pit, says Ruæus.

ye direct your flight? Servius says this

785

790

795

cu

Quos alios muros, quæ jam ultrà mænia habetis ? 783. Unus homo, et Unus homo, vestris, ô cives, undique septus ille septus vestris agge- Aggeribus, tantas strages impunè per urbem ribus undique

Ediderit ? juvenum primos tot miserit Orco ?

Non infelicis patriæ, veterumque Deorum, 787. Non miseretque Et magni Æneæ, segnes, miseretque pudetque ? pudetque vos, o segnes, Talibus accensi firmantur, et agmine denso infelicis 789. Turnus paulatim

Consistunt. Turnus paulatim excedere pugnâ, incipit

Et fluvium petere, ac partem quæ cingitur amni. 791. Teucri incipiunt Acriùs hộc Teucri clamore incumbere magno, acrius học

Et glomerare manum. Ceu sævum turba leonem
Cùm telis premit infensis: at territus ille

Asper, acerbà tuens, retrò redit: et neque terga
795. Nec ille est potis Ira dare aut virtus patitur; nec tendere contrà
tendere contrà per tela Ille quidem hoc cupiens, potis est per tela virosque.
virosque, quidem
piens hoc

Haud aliter retrò dubius vestigia Turnus
Improperata refert ; et mens exæstuat irâ.
Quin etiam, bis tum medios invaserat hostes;
Bis confusa fugâ per muros agmina vertit,
Sed manus è castris properè coit omnis in unum

Nec contrà vires audet Saturnia Juno
803. Sufficere vires ei Sufficere : aëriam cælo nam Jupiter Irim
contra Teucros.

Demisit, germanæ haud mollia jussa ferentem;

Ni Turnus cedat l'eucrorum manibus altis. 806. Ergò juvenis Ergò nec clypeo juvenis subsistere tantum, valet subsistere tantum Nec dextrâ valet: injectis sic undique telis impetum, nec clypeo, nec dextrâ

Obruitur. Strepit assiduo cava tempora circum

Tinnitu galea, et saxis solida æra fatiscunt: 810. Jubæ sunt dis- Discussæque jubæ capiti ; nec sufficit umbo

Ictibus : ingeminant hastis et Troës, et ipse
Fulmineus Mnestheus. Tum toto corpore sudor

800

805

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810

cusse

NOTES.

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is a bitter sarcasm. It implies that they had 794. Acerbà : an adj. neu, plu. taken as already fled into their camp, and shut them an adverb. This is common among the selves up through fear, within their in- poets. Tuens, a part, of tueor: looking trenchments. Tenditis : in the sense of fiercely. ibitis.

795. Tendere contrà: to go forward. 784. Aggeribus : in the sense of muris. 798. Improperata : slow-deliberate. Of 785. Ediderit : in the sense of effecerit. in, negativum, and properatus.

787. Segnes : cowards. Ruæus says, 0, 800. Confusa: confused--disordered. Ruinertes. It is better to consider segnes, as æus and some others read conversa. the voc. than the acc. agreeing with vos un 801. In unum : against him alone. Coit: derstood, and governed by the verbs miseret unites. Of con, and eo. and pudet. It is more animated, and more 805. Ni Turnus. A thrcat is intimated in the spirit of address.

or implied in the words, haud mollia man. 788. Firmantur: in the sense of animan- data ; which would be put in execution, tur. By these words of Mnestheus the Tro- unless Turnus retired from the Trojan walls. jans were encouraged, and rallied; and 809. Tinnitu: ringing. Strepit : in the again returned to the attack.

sense of sonat. 790. Partem: the part of the walls which 810. Jubæ : the plumes or feathers in was bounded by the river.

his helmet. These were struck from his 791. Hôc acriùs, &c. This retreat of head. Umbo. The boss or extreme part Turnus gave courage to the Trojans, who of the shield, by synec. the whole shield. began to press upon him more closely, and This is not able to withstand the blows of to form a band about him with a view to the missive weapons. surround him, and take him prisoner.

812. Fulmineus: in the sense of ardens 792. Turba: a company of hunters.. The Trojans, with Mnestheus at their head,

Liquitur, et piceum, nec respirare potestas,
Flumen agit : fessos quatit æger anhelitus artus.
Tum demùm præceps saltu sese omnibus armis
In fluvium dedit. Ille suo cum gurgite flavo
Accepit venientem, ac 'mollibus extulit undis ;.
Et lætum sociis ablutâ cæde remisit.

813. Nec est potestas

illi respirare 815

816. Ille fluvius accepit eum venientem cum suo flavo gurgite, ac extulit eum mollibus undis; et remisit eum lætum so ciis, cæde ablutâ.

NOTES.

attack Turnus with such fury that he is with dust, which would adhere to his body, unable to maintain his ground. His solid it became tough and clammy like pitch, and armor of brass is bruised and shattered by nearly of a similar color. Æger anhelitus. the heavy stones hurled at him; his plumes This is such a difficulty of breathing as they fall from his head; his trusty shield begins have, who are sickly, and asthmatic. to give way; and the enemy to repeat their 816. Ille suo gurgite. This is extremely strokes with redoubled fury, with darts and beautiful. The poet represents the river spears. In this situation, worn out with god, expanding his gulfy bosom to receive fatigue, and panting for breath, he flings Turnus, and bearing him off in safety upon himself into the Tiber, and returns in safety his waves. to his camp.

818. Cæde avlutâ: the blood being washed 814. Agit piceum flumen : pours a black . off. Not the blood from any wounds he had pitchy stream. Turnus sweat so copiously received; but from those wounds which he that it fell from him in a stream. Mingled had inflicted.

QUESTIONS.

How is this book distinguished from all At the conclusion, what does he recomthe rest?

mend to his men ? What does Turnus in the mean time? When does he resolve to attack the camp Does he attempt to burn the Trojan ships? of the Trojans? What becomes of them?

What orders does he give to be observed At whose particular request was this during the night? granted to them?

What is the condition of the Trojans? What does Dr. Trapp observe of this pas What do they in the mean time? sage?

Is there any proposition made to recall Does he consider it a blemish to the book? Æneas? By whom is Turnus roused to arms? By whom was it made?

To what does the poet compare the Who were Nisus and Euryalus? marching of his troops ?

Had any mention been made of their Where does the Ganges empty?

friendship before? What is its length?

In what book?
What course does it run?

And
upon

what occasion In what light is it considered by those What is the character of this episode? who live near it?

How many lines does it occupy? Where does the Nile rise ?

In what state does the poet represent Where does it empty?

Rutulian camp during the night? And by how many mouths?

Which of the two friends is the elder? What effect has it upon the fertility of Do they pass peaceably through the eneEgypt?

my's camp? What occasions its inundations ?

What then did they do? Is this a fine comparison ?

How long did they continue the slaughHaving failed to burn the fleet, what ter course does Turnus determine to pursue? Did they both make their escape from

Was there any prodigy in the heavens at the camp? this time?

What prevented Euryalus from accompaWhat was that prodigy?

nying Nisus? What effect had it upon the Trojans ? By whom was he taken prisoner ? What effect had it upon the Rutulians ? Who commanded this troop of horse ?

Did Turnus make an address to his men Where was Nisus during these transacupon the occasion ?

tions ? Wbat effect had it upon them?

When he perceived his friend to be missWhat is the character of that speech? ing, what course did he pursue?

Having found him in the hands of the What was the character of this assault? enemy, what did he do?

Were the enemy repulsed in this attack? Whom did he kill ?

What feats of valor did Turnus perform? What effect had this upon the mind of What effect had the burning of the tower Volscens ?

upon the Trojans ? By whom was Euryalus slain?

By whom was it set on fire? When he found he was about to be killed, After this, was the assault renewed ? did Nisus discover himself?

Was any part of the Trojans, at this Did he make any appeal to the enemy time, without the ramparts ? upon this occasion ?

Were they able to defend themselves ? What was his object in doing this?

What did the sentinels at the gates do in Unable to save his life, what resolution this crisis ? did he take?

Why did they open the gates? Whom did he kill ?

Who were stationed as guard at the gates? Was he slain himself also ?

What was their stature and strengtb? What is the character of this episode? Did Turnus enter along with the fugiIs it objectionable in any respect?

tives? What are the principal grounds of objec Was he perceived at the time? tion?

Was the gate closed immediately on his At the return of day, what does Turnus do? entrance?

In what way did the Trojans learn of the What feats of valor does he here perform? death of Nisus and Euryalus?

Whom does he first kill? What effect had the news upon the mo Are the Trojans able to stand before him? ther of Euryalus?

What remark does the poet make after How was she employed at that time? the admission of Turnus, and the closing of

What effect had the sight of his head upon the gate ? her?

How does the poet account for this want In what light may her lamentation be of thought in the hero? considered ?

By whom are the Trojans finally rallied, What is the character of this sequel ? and brought again to the attack?

Who among the ancients is said to have What becomes of Turnus. greatly admired it?

How does he escape from them? By what troops was the assault com Did he receive any injury from the host menced ?

of weapons sent at him? What do you mean by the testudo, or tar By whom was Turnus assisted in his get defence?

mighty achievements ? On what occasion was that used ?

Did he return in safety to his troops?

LIBER DECIMUS.

JUPITER calls a council of the gods, and forbids them to assist either side. On this ocea

sion, Venus makes a very pathetic speech in favor of the Trojans, and entreats Jupiter to interfere in their favor, and not to suffer them to be entirely destroyed. Juno replies in a strain haughty and imperious, and attributes their misfortunes to their own folly and misconduct, and particularly to the conduct of Paris in the case of Helen; and insinuates that Æneas was playing the same game at the court of Latinus. Jupiter concludes their deliberations by a speech, in which he declares he will assist neither

party, that success or disaster should attend their own actions. As soon as Æneas had concluded a treaty with the Tuscans, he hastens his return, accom

panied by his allies. On his way he is met by a choir of nymphs: one of whom informs him of the transformation of his ships, of the attack of Turnus upon his camp, of the great slaughter he had made, and the distress to which his friends were reduced. When he arrives in sight of his camp, the Trojans shout for joy; and Turnus resolves to prevent their landing. Leaving a sufficient number to besiege the camp, he marches with the rest of his forces to the shore. Æneas divided his troops into three divisions, and, in that order, effected a landing. Here a general engagement commences, and Æneas performs prodigies of valor. The Arcadians were routed by the Latins. When Pallas perceives them give way, he hastens along the ranks, animates his men, and brings them again to the charge. Here he performs feats of valor. Lausus, who commanded one wing of the Latins, opposed him with equal skill and valor. Arcadian, Tuscan, and Trojan, fell before him.

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