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106. Bonum omen
Sponte suâ, dum ferre moror, cinis ipse : bonum sit !
109. O mea carmina
to cinis ipse, were spoken by Amaryllis, as 107. Nescio quid, &c. As if she had said: appears from dum ferre moror: while I de- some body is coming ; I know not certainly lay to carry them. If we attribute the who it is. Hylax. The name of a dog; from words to the enchantress, we must suppose a Greek word signifying to bark. her to do what she commands to be done. 108. Credimus? an qui, &c. Do I believe But beholding the ashes kindle the altar it? or, do those who love form dreams to into a trembling flame of its own accord, in themselves ? Yes, it is he. Cease, now a transport, she exclaims: may it be a good cease, my charms, Daphnis comes from the omen! The ancients considered the sudden city. blazing of fire to be a good omen.
How is this pastoral to be divided ?
What is the meaning of the word Pharmaceulria, the title of the Eclogue ?
When was this Eclogue written?
Why do you suppose it to be dedicated to
When is the planet Venus called Lucifer:
Can you mention any line that has been noticed by commentators as extremely tender ?
Who was Medea ?
Why are the Muses sometimes called
When Augustus divided the lands about Mantua among his soldiers, tho estate of Virgil
fell to Arius, a centurion. When he went to re-enter upon his estate, after it had been restored to him, he met with much severe treatment from the new possessor, and on one occasion, was near being killed. He saved his life by swimming over the river Mincius. In consequence of which, he returned to Rome to acquaint the Emperor of the matter. He left his steward, who is here called Meris, behind, and directed him to treat his new landlord with civility and respect. Mæris is going to him with a present of some kids, and meets Lycidas, who is supposed to be some Mantuan shepherd. Upon their meeting the pastoral opens. The scene is the road to the town. The evening is coming on: the air is tranquil and serene. The pastoral contains a complaint of Virgil's hard treatment under the character of Menalcas; a compliment to his friend Varus, and another to Julius Cæsar, and consequently to Augustus; together with several scraps of poetry artfully interwoven with the subject. The whole pastoral is elegant and beautiful.
1. O Meri, quò tui Lyc. Quò te, Mæri, pedes ? an, quò via ducit, in urpedes ducunt te ? an du
Ma. O Lycida, vivi pervenimus; advena nostri [bem ? cunt te in urbem, quò via ducit ?
(Quod nunquam veriti sumus) ut possessor agelli
2. Vim pervenimus : we living have come fy intruding—usurping, as well as foreign, to that condition or have lived to see the in the present case, it includes the idea of day, that, &c. Advena: a noun of common all of them. gender, here used as an adj. It may signi.
Diceret : Hæc mea sunt; veteres migrate coloni.
2. Nos vivi perveniNunc victi, tristes, quoniam fors omnia versat,
mus eò miseriæ, ut ad
· vena possessor Hos illi quod nec benè vertat) mittimus hædos.I •
4. Hæc arva sunt mea; Ly. dertè equidem audieram, quâ se subducere colles
vos, O veteres coloni, Incipiunt, mollique jugum demittere clivo,
7. Certè equidem au
dieram vestrum DomiUsque ad aquam et veteris jam fracta cacumina fagi, Omnia carminibus vestrum servâsse Menalcan. 10 num Menalcan servâsse
sibi omnia arva suis carMe.• Audieras, et fama fuit: sed carmina tantùm
minibus ab eo loco, quà
11. Audieras illud, et Antè sinistra cavâ monuisset ab ilice cornix ;
13. Columbas valere Nec tuus hic Mæris, nec viveret ipse Menalcas.
14. Quòd nisi sinistra
20 Spargeret ? aut viridi fontes induceret umbrâ ?
18. Heu tua solatia Vel
rapta sunt penè nobis quæ sublegi tacitus tibi carmina nuper,
simul tecum Cùm te ad delicias ferres Amaryllida nostras ?
21. Vel quis caneret Tityre, dum redeo, brevis est via, pasce capellas : carmina, quæ tacitus “ Et potum pastas age, Tityre, et inter agendum
23. Quorum versuum “ Occursare capro, cornu ferit ille, caveto.”
hoc est fragmentum : 0
Tityre, pasce Me. Immò hæc, quæ Varo, necdum perfecta, canebat.
26. Immo potius quis " Vare, tuum nomen (superet modò Mantua nobis, caneret hæccarmina, quæ
NOTES. 3. Agelli : a noun diminutive from ager : 14. Incidere novas lites, &c. To break off a little farm.
my new disputes in any way whatever. 5. Fors: in the sense of forluna. Lis, is properly an action or case at law. 6. Quod nec benè verlat : which (present 15. Sinistra : ill-boding. See Ecl. 1. 18.of the kids.) I wish may not turn out well 16. Hic tuus Meris. It appears from this to him. The usual inode of congratulation that the life of Virgil, who is here called upon receiving a favor was: Benè verlat, Menalcas, and that of Meris, had been in I wish you joy-may it turn out well to you. danger from the new landlord. nec benè verlat, therefore, was a kind of im- 17. Heu, tantum scelus, &c. Alas! that so precation: may it prove a mischief to you. great wickedness should fall upon any one.
7. Subducere se : to decline-to fall. Or the words may be rendered thus; Alas!
8. Demillere jugum: to lower their ridge, that so great wickedness should come into or top, by an easy descent. Here we have any one's mind:—that any one should cona description of the farm of Virgil. It was ceive the idea of perpetrating the horrid bounded on one side by a sloping hill; in deed of murder. This is the usual sense other parts of its limits, were the broken given to the words. top of an old beech-tree, a inarsh, and the 18. Heu, tua solatia, &c. Alas, Menalcas, river Mincius.
your delight (the delight of your song,) was 9. Ad aquam : perhaps the river Mincius. almost snatched from us with yourself: and
13. Aquilâ veniente: the eagle coming upon if you had been quite slain, in that case, them-pursuing them. Here we have a who would have sung the nymphs, &c. Heyne beautiful circumlocution, expressing the in- observes that by solatia we are to underutility of his verses, and the charms of po- stand the song, carmina, or verses of Menaletry, amidst martial arms. Chaonias : an adj. froin Chaonia, a part of Epirus, where 21. Sublegi : I purloined from you. Ruwas the city Dodona, and a grove of the æus says, surripui. same name, famous for its oracular oaks. 22. Nostras delicias : for nostram amicam. Columbastwo doves endued with a pro- Deliciæ is used only in the plural; delightphetic spirit are said to have resided among darling: here a mistress. these oaks. Afterward one of them is said 24. Age pastas: drive them full fed to to have flown to the temple of Apollo at drink. Potum : sup. in um, to drink-take Delphi, and the other to the temple of Jupi. water. Inter agendum: in driving them ter Ammon in Africa. They are here put while driving them, beware, &c. for doves in general.
26. Varo: to Varus. See Ecl 6.7.
27. Quorum hoc est " Mantua, væ miseræ nimiùm vicina Cremonæ !) fragmentum: ? Vare, Cantantes sublime ferent ad sidera cycni,"241 cantantes cycni ferent tuum nomen
Lv. Sic tua Cyrneas fugiąnt examina taxos, 30
Ć Sic cytiso pastæ distentent ubera vaccæ :
Incipe, si quid habes : et me fecero poëtam
Pierides : sunt et mihi carmina : me quoque dicunt for of 34. Ego sum non cro- Vatem pastores, sed non ego
credulus illis. dulus illis.
35 35. Nam adhuc videor Digna, sed argutos inter strepere anser olores:
Nam neque adhuc Varo videor, nec dicere Cinna mihi dicere carmina dig
Mo. Id quidem ago, et tacitus, Lycida, mecum ipse vona noque
38. Nunc recordor frag- Si valeam meminisse : neque est ignobile carmen. [luto, mentum ejus : ades huc, “ Huc ades, ô Galatea : quis est nam ludus in undis ? O Galatea:
“ Hic ver purpureum ; varios hìc flumina circùm
Imminet, et lentæ texunt umbracula yites.
Ly. Quid, quæ te purâ
ură solum sub nocte canentem dieram te solum canen. Audieram ? numeros memini, si verba tenerem, amare 45 min tem sub pura nocte
Me.“ Daphni, quid antiquos signorum suspicis ortus?
NOTES. 28. Cremona. Cremona was a city on ipse voluto : I am thinking silently with mythe western, bank of the river Po, not far self, if I can recollect it. Voluto : I am refrom Mantua. Its inhabitants were in- volving it in my mind. volved in the same misfortune with those of 39. Quisnam ludus : what sport is there Mantua, in having their property and lands in the waves? The parts of the word are taken from them by Augustus. Hence the separated by Tmesis. Nothing can be more epithet misere.
beautiful than the whole of this fragment. 29. Cycni : properly swans. By meton. It is in imitation of the eleventh Idyl of poets. The meaning of this fragment is, Theocritus. that if Mantua should be preserved from the 40. Purpureum : blooming-gay. Est is calamity which had befallen Cremona, to be supplied. through the irrfluence of Varus, the Man 41. Fundit: in the sense of producit.“ tuan poets would celebrate his praises and 42. Texunt: in the sense of efficiunt. raise his name to the stars. By Cantantes Umbracula : a dim. noun from umbra, a litcycni, says Heyne, we are to understand the tle, or pleasant shade. Mantuan poets.
43. Insani: raging-stormy. 30. Cyrneas; an adj. from Cyrnus, an 44. Quid: in the sense of cui island in the Mediterranean sea. Hodie 45. Mimini numeros: I recollect the tune; Corsica. This island abounded in the yewe if I knew the words, I would sing them. tree: hence the epithet Cyrnean. The ho. These last, or some other of the like import, ney made of this tree was of a bitter quali- are evidently implied. Or else we must take ty, and universally considered bad. For si in the sense of Utimam; I wish–0 that. this reason Lycidas wished the swarms of 46. Suspicis: in the sense of miraris. his friend to shun those trees. Examina : 47. Astrun. This word properly signifies swarms of bees.
a constellation of stars. The poet uses it 32. Poetam: a poet. Vatem : a poet, or here for a single star, thereby giving the prophet. These words are frequently used greater dignity to the star of Cæsar. Viras synonymous, but they are not strictly so. gil makes fülus the son of Æneas, the founder
35. Cinnâ. Cornelius Cinna, the grand- of the Julian family. Iülus was the grandson of Pompey the Great. He became a son of Venus, who according to some was favorite of Augustus.
the daughter of Dione, a nymph of the sea, 36. Digna : things worthy of: or it may by Jupiter. Hence the epithet Dionæan. agree with carmina, understood; verses About the time of Julius Cæsar's death, it is worthy of the attention of Varus and Cin- said a remarkable comet appeared, which na; or worthy to celebrate their actions. the Romans considered to be the soul of strepere anser : to gabble as a goose among Cæsar received up to heaven. The poet tuneful
make inharmonious calls it the star of Cæsar, agreeable in the sounds, &c.
vulgar notion. This comet, according to 27. Ago: in the sense of facio. Tacitus Dr. Halley, appeared the third time in
by which the game
quoque Mærim roman
go Cantantes ut eamus, ego hoc te fasce levabo.
“ Astrum, quo segetes gauderent frugibus, et quo
puerum sæpe condere
dagon seringen Nunc oblita mihi tot carmina : vox Jam fugit ipsa : lupi Merim vidêre priores.
Ly. Causando nostros in longum ducis amores :
56. Longum tempus
tont Hinc adeò media est nobis via : namque sepulchrum Incipit apparere Bianoris : hic, ubi densas
62. Tamen veniemus Agricolæ stringunt frondes; hic, Meri, canamus :
opportunè kev Hic hưdos depone, tamen veniemus in urbem :
63. Antè quàm pervelimme Aut si, nox pluviam ne colligat ante,
yeremur: meitai nerimus ad eam, licet Cantantes licet usque (minùs via lædet) eamusais
nobis ut eamus usque
66. Desine loqui plura Me. Desine plura, puer : et quod nunc instat, agamus. verba Carmina tum meliùs, cùm venerit ipse, canemus.
67. Cùm Menalcas ipse lit us to how S7
when he will have come time to log Soros with him
1680. In its nearest approach to the sun, level surface of the water, is still for you. its tail was about 60 degrees long. Pró- Stratum : smooth-level. To consider stracessit; moves along-hath begun its course. tum as expressing the tranquillity of the
48. Quo segetes, &c. Under which (by the water is mere tautology: that is sufficiently influence of which) the fields shall rejoice expressed by silet. Æquor any plain or with corn. Or, the crops shall abound in level surface, whether land or water; here, grain; taking segetes for the stalks or spring- probably, the river Mincius. Omnes auræ, ing corn. Guuderent, by enallage for gaude- &c. Every breeze of whispering wind hath bunt. Sata abundabunt frumento, says Ru- ceased. Ventosi murmuris : in the sense of
murmurantis venti. 49. Ura duceret colorem: shall take co 59. Adeò: only-surely. lor-grow ripe. Duceret : for ducet, by 60. Sepulchrum Bianoris : the tomb of enallage.
Bianor. "He was said to be the son of the 50. Insere piros: plant or graft your pear. river Tiber and the nymph Manto. He trees. The star of Cæsar shall extend its founded, or rather enlarged Mantua, and influence to them. They will grow and called it after the name of his mother. See flourish; and if you should not live to reap Æn. 10. 198. His tomb was rlaced by the the fruit of your labor yourself, be assured side of the way. your offspring will. Piros may be put for 61. Stringunt: prune, or lop off the thick fruit trees in general: the species for the boughs. genus.
62. Urbem. The city Mantua. Depone 51. Ætas : in the sense of tempus. Ani- hædos : lay down your kids. He was promum: in the sense of memoriam.
bably carrying them upon his shoulders. 52. Condere longos Soles : to pass or spend Let us stay here awhile and amuse ourlong days in singing. Sol is often taken for selves in singing: we shall, nevertheless, the day, as Luna is for the night. See Æn. arrive in town in good time. 2. 255.
64. Usque : all the way-all the time. 54. Lupi priores : the wolves first have Lædet : in the sense of fatigabit. seen Mæris. He hath lost his voice-he can 65. Levabo te, &c. I will ease you of this not sing. Alluding to a superstitious notion burden-load: to wit, the kids, which he that if a wolf saw a inan the first, he would was carrying to town for his new landlord. Jose his voice.
See verse 6, supra. 55. Rrferet : in the sense of recitabit. 66. Puer : swain. It is applied to shep
56.Causando : by framing excuses. From herds in general. the verb causor. Ducis : you put off-defer. 67. Cùm ipse, &c. It is probable that Vir. Amores : pleasure-entertainment.
gil composed this Eclogue when he was at 57. Omne stratum æquor, &c. The whole Rome.
QUESTIONS. To whom did the estate of Virgil fall in What is the distinction between poela, the distribution of the Mantuan lands? and Vates?
Did he receive any hard treatment from What remarkable appearance was obArius? How did he save his life? What served in the he.vens about the time of Juwas the name of his steward? Who is Ly- lius Cæsar's death : cidas supposed to be? When does the pas- Waat does the poct call it? toral open ? Where is the scene laid? What When did it appear the third time? is the time of the day? What is the subject Who was Bianor? What did he do? of this pastoral? What is the character of it?
The subject of this fine pastoral is the love of Gallus for Lycoris, who refused his ad
dresses, and gave her affections to an officer. This Gallus was a particular friend of Virgil, and was an excellent poet. He raised himself from a humble station to great favor with Augustus, who appointed him governor of Egypt after the death of Anthony
and Cleopatra. The scene of the pastoral is laid in Arcadia, whither the poet supposes his friend to have
retired in the height of his passion. Here all the rural deities assemble around him, inquire the cause of his grief, and endeavor to moderate it. This Eclogue is not surpassed by any of the preceding, except the fourth, in beauty and grandeur. Ilere, too, Virgil imitates Theocritus, particularly in his first Idyl. By Lycoris is meant Cytheris, a most beautiful woman, and celebrated actress.
EXTREMUM hunc, Arethusa, mihi concede laborem. 2. Pauca carmina sunt Pauca meo Gallo, sed quæ legat ipsa Lycoris, dicenda
Carmina sunt dicenda: neget quis carmina Gullo?
5 Incipe, sollicitos Galli dicamus amores,
1. Arethusa. A nymph of great beauty, he begat the nymphs called Nereïdes ; here the daughter of Neruus and Doris. Also, a put by meton. for the sea, whose water is fountain on the island Orlygia, in the bay salt and of an unpleasant tasle ; which the of Syracuse, upon which stood a part of the poet prays may not be mingled with the sweet city. Syracuse was famous for its being and pleasant waters of the fountain Arethusa, the birthplace of Thcocritus and Archime- in its passage under the Sicilian sea. Sec des; and for its valiant defence against the Æn. iii. 694 and 6. Alpheus, a river of the Roman feet and arıny under Marcellus. It Peloponnesus, is said to have been in love was taken after a siege of three years. with the nymph Arethusa, who, flying from Concede, &c. Grant me this last work- him, was turned by Diana into a fountain. favor me in the execution of this my last Sue inade her escape under the sea, to the pastoral essay. The reason that the poet island Ortygia, where she rose up. But Alinvoked this nymph is, that she was the pheus pursuing her by the same way, arose goddess of a fountain of that name, in the up in the same fountain, mingling his waters place where Theocritus was born, and where with hers. Undam : in the sense of aquam. pastoral poetry was much cultivated.
6. Galli. There were several persons by 4. Tibi : with thee—with thy water. the name of Gallus. The one here meant
5. Amara Doris. Doris, a nymph of the is Publius Cornelius Gallus. He raised sea, the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, himeelf by his extraordinary merit to great and married to her brother Nereus, of whom favor with Augustus, who appointed him