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Nate, refers ? hoc sum terrâque marique secuta ?

492. O nate, refers Figite me, si qua est pietas; in me omnia tela

hoc caput solum mihi de Conjicite, ô Rutuli; me primam absumite ferro : Aut tu, magne pater Divûm, miserere, tuoque 495 495. Miserere mei, deInvisum hoc detrude caput sub Tartara telo;

lo trudeque hoc meum caQuando aliter nequeo crudelem abrumpere vitam.

put invisum tibi Hoc fletu concussi animi, mæstusque per omnes

j 498. Animi TrojanoIt gemitus : torpent infractæ ad prælia vires.

rum concussi sunt Illam incendentem luctus Idæus et Actor,

500

500. Jdæus et Actor, Ilionei monitu et multùm lachrymantis Tüli,

monitu Ilionei et lüli Corripiunt, interque manus sub tecta reponunt.

At tuba terribilem sonitum procul ære canoro
Increpuit: sequitur clamor, cælumque remugit.
Accelerant actâ pariter testudine Volsci,

505
Et fossas implere parant, ac vellere vallum.
Quærunt pars aditum, et scalis ascendere muros ;
Quâ rara est acies, interlucetque corona
Non tam spissa viris. Telorum effundere contrà

509. Contrà Teucri
Omne genus Teucri, ac duris detrudere contis, 510 cæperunt
Assueti longo muros defendere bello.
Saxa quoque infesto volvebant pondere, si quà
Possent tectam aciem perrumpere: cùm tamen omnes
Ferre juvat subter densâ testudine casus.

514

514. Cùm tamen juvat

Rutulis ferre omnes caNec jam sufficiunt: nam, quâ globus imminet ingens, Immanem Teucri molem volvuntque ruuntque,

515. Nam quå ingens Quæ stravit Rutulos latè, armorumque resolvit

globus hostium

sus

NOTES.

492. Secuta sum : have I followed this my; and now she appeals to Jove, and en(caput) over sea and land? Have I followed treats him to end her miserable existence; thee over sea and land for this—to come to for otherwise she could not break the cords this?

of life, 493. Pietas. Here pietas, doubtless, means 499. Infractæ: in the sense of fractæ. pity, or compassion. If there be any pity Torpent : fail. in you, O Rutulians, &c.

505. Testudine actà: the testudo being 494. Me primam. We are to suppose her formed. See Æn, ii. 441. speaking from the rampart, where none, as yet, had been slain.

508. Quâ acies est rara. The meaning is: 497. Aliter. Dr. Trapp observes, that they seek to attack the walls and fortificawhat is here said cannot be true, unless tions, where the troops are thin; and the aliter be taken in a limited sense. Being

ranks or lines not so thick with men, but full of grief, and referring every thing to they may be seen through. Acies : properly, that, he thinks she refers this, also ; as if an army drawn up in order of battle--here she had said : since my grief will not end troops in general. Corona: a body of men my wretched life as I would have it, I de- standing round in the form of a circle. Here,

the ranks or lines of the men upon the walls, sire either the enemy or the gods to do it. Mr. Davidson thinks she only talks some

without any distinction.. what inconsistently, as might be expected

510. Detrudere : to push down the enemy in her state of mind; and observes that it with, &c. is not improbable she had attempted to lay 511. Longo bello. This alludes to the violent hands upon herself, and was hindered Trojan war, which lasted ten years. by those about her.

512. Infesto: in the sense of ingenti vel The crime of self-murder is of so horrid magno. By their great weight, they became a nature, that the poet might well suppose fatal to the enemy. no one could be guilty of it. She wished 513. Tectam aciem: the protected troops for death, since her son, the support and so -those who were covered by the testudo, or lace of her declining years, was taken from target defence. her. But where can she find it? Not from 516. Molem : any large mass of matter her friends. She had called upon the ene- may be called moles. Ruæus says, sazum.

580

585

Ad vulnus tulit; ergò alis allapsa sagitta,
Et lævo infixa est lateri manus, abditaque intus
Spiramenta animæ letali vulnere rupit.

Stabat in egregiis Arcentis filius armis,
Pictus acu chlamydem, et ferrugine clarus Iberà,
Insignis facie ; genitor quem miserat Arcens,
Eductum Martis luco, Symæthia circum

Flumina, pinguis ubi et placabilis ara Palici.
586. Mezentius ipse, Stridentem fundam, positis Mezentius armis,
armis positis, egit stri-
dentem fundam

Ipse ter adductâ circum caput egit habenâ : 588. Et diffidit media Et media adversi liquefacto tempora plumbo tempora juvenis adversi Diffidit, ac multâ porrectum extendit arena. 590.

Tum primùm Tum primùm bello celerem intendisse sagittam
Ascanius dicitur

Dicitur, antè feras solitus terrere fugaces,
Ascanius, fortemque manu fudisse Numanum,

Cui Remulo cognomen erat ; Turnique minorem 594. Quique habebat Germanam, nuper thalamo sociatus, habebat. minorem

Is primam ante aciem digna atque indigna relatu 596. Tumidusque quoad Vociferans, tumidusque novo præcordia regno præcordia 598. Ait, non pudet

Ibat, et ingenti sese clamore ferebat: dos, O Phryges, bis capti, Non pudet obsidione iterum valloque teneri, teneri

Bis capti Phryges, et morti prætendere muros ?

590

595

NOTES.

verat. Tegmine: his shield. Being wound- from others that were altars of thanksgiving ed, he put his hand to the wound to stop and divination. Diodorus Siculus relates the blood, and threw away his shield for that slaves, who were illy treated by their that purpose. Hence he is called demens.

masters, fled here for safety. And their 578. Sagitta allapsa alis : the arrow glided masters were not allowed to take them away, swiftly on its wings, &c. The arrow passed until they had given security for their good through his hand as he held it upon his treatment of them. Hence Ruæus thinks it wound, fixed it to his side, and then passed was called ara placabilis. This is the most into his body, piercing his vitals. Spiramen- probable reason. ta anime : the lungs. This was not the ar 587. Habenâ ter : the string being whirlrow that first wounded him.

ed three times around his head to give the 582. Pictus : embroidered as to his cloak greater force to the ball. with needle work-having an embroidered 588. Liquefacto plumbo : with the melted cloak. Ibera ferrugine: in Iberian purple. lead. This is a poetical exaggeration, to Ferrugo is the color of polished iron, which express the velocity of the ball through the approaches nearly to purple. Ibera : an air. The expression is borrowed from Luadj. from Iberia. Some take this for a coun cretius. Or the poet may allude to the casttry lying between the Euxine and Caspian ing of the ball at first. Ruæus says, caleseas, formerly called Iberia, now Georgia. facto plumbo. A colony of these people removed to Spain, 590. Intendisse : to have shot-directed. and settled near the river Iberus, to which 592. Fudisse : in the sense of stravisse. they gave name. Others take it for Spain 593. Cui Remulo: in the sense of cui itself, sometimes called Iberia. It abounded Remulus erat cognomini: to whom Remulus in the best iron and steel. Facie: in the was for a surname. This construction is in sense of formå. Clarus : in the sense of imitation of the Greeks. splendens.

594. Sociatus nuper: being lately connect585. Palici. These were the sons of Jove ed with her in marriage. and the nymph Thalia, the daughter of Vul 595. Relatu: a sup. in u, in the sense of can. They were gods worshipped in Sicily, dictu. near the river Symethia. It is not easy to 596. Novo regno : with his new power, assign the reason of their altar being called which he acquired by being connected with placabilis. Some conjecture they were ap- the royal family. peased only by human victims at first ; but : 597. Ferebat sese : marched along-took afterward by common victime. Perhaps himself along. their altar may be so called, because it was 598. Teneri: in the sense of claudi. he altar of atonement, as distinguished 599. Prætendere : to oppose your walls to

600 600. En homines, qui

puscunt

1

605

606. Eorum ludus est

610

En qui nostra sibi bello connubia poscunt !
Quis Deus Italiam, quæ vos dementia adegit?
Non hìc Atridæ ; nec fandi fictor Ulysses.
Durum à stirpe genus. Natos ad flumina primùm
Deferimus, sævoque gelu duramus et undis.
Venatu invigilant pueri, sylvasque fatigant;
Flectere ludus equos, et spicula tendere cornu.
At patiens operum, parvoque assueta juventus,
Aut rastris terram domat, aut quatit oppida bello.
Omne ævum ferro teritur, versâque juvencûm
Terga fatigamus hastå. Nec tarda senectus
Debilitat vires animi, mutatque vigorem.
Canitiem galeâ premimus; semperque recentes
Convectare juvat prædas, et vivere rapto.
Vobis picta croco et fulgenti murice vestis ;
Desidiæ cordi ; juvat indulgere choreis ;
Et tunicæ manicas, et habent redimicula mitræ.
O verè Phrygiæ, neque enim Phryges ! ite per alta
Dindyma, ubi assuetis biforem dat tibia cantum.
Tympana vos buxusque vocant Berecynthia matris
Idææ. Sinite arma viris, et cedite ferro.

Talia jactantem dictis, ac dira canentem
Non tulit Ascanius : nervoque obversus equino

613. Juvat nos

614. Est vobis vestis 615 picta

615. Desidiæ sunt vobis cordi:

618. Vobis assuetis huic sono.

621. Ascanius non tu620

lit Numanum jactantem, ac

NOTES. death—to screen yourselves behind your the covering of those parts as a mark of wall, and save yourselves from death. Heyne effeminacy. This is said by way of reproach. reads, Marte. The common reading is morti. 617. Overè Phrygia, &c. He here speaks

600. Nostra connubia: our brides. This by way of contempt, calling them not even is said in allusion to the case of Lavinia. Phrygian men, but Phrygian women. The

602. Fictor fandi : the dissembler of Phrygians were noted for their effeminacy speech. Fandi: in the sense of verborum. and luxury. See Æn. iv. 216.

603. Durum genus : but we are a hardy 618. Dindyma: neu. plu. sing. Dindymus, race from our origin.

a mountain in Phrygia, sacred to Cybele. 605. Venatu : for venatui. See Ecl. v. Hence she is sometimes called Dindymine. 29. Invigilant: are fond of–have a special Its name is of Greek origin, and signifies regard to. Fatigant sylvas : weary the woods double-topthaving two tops. Biforem. --the beasts or game in the woods, by meton. Some understand by this a pipe with only

606. Cornu : from the bow. Spicula: in two stops: others, two pipes with different the sense of sagittas.

stops, which, being played upon together, 608. Domat : in the sense of exercet. Qua- made very indifferent harmony. Biforem tit: in the sense of impugnat.

cantum : discordant music. Rueus says, 609. Ferro: with the sword; that is, in imparem.

619. Tympana: neu. plu.: timbrels. Bere610. Fatigamus terga: we strike the backs cynthia : an adj. from Berecynthus, a mounof our oxen, &c. So constant were they tain and castle in Phrygia, sacred to Cybele; in the use of their arms, that they did not who sometimes was called Berecynthia. even lay them aside when engaged in agri- Buxus: properly, the box-wood; by meton. culture. They used their spears, &c. to spur, a pipe made of the box-wood. This wood or urge on their oxen while in the plough. is supposed to have abounded on mount

611. Mutat: in the sense of pellit. Berecynthus.

612. Premimus, &c. By this we are to 620. Idææ : an adj. from Ida, a mountain understand that their old men had sufficient just back of Troy, sacred to Cybele, the vigor and strength of nerve, to bear arms. mother of the gods. Hence she is called 613. Rapto: the plunder.

sometimes Idææ. Sinite : in the sense of 615. Desidiæ cordi: sloth is to you for relinquite. pleasure and delight.

621. Canentem dira: uttering such indig616. Tunicæ habent : your vests have nities——such reproaches. Ruæus says, losleeves, and the ribbons of the mitre. Other quentem. nations, particularly the Romans, had their 622. Equino nervo: the string of his bow arms and necks naked, and looked upon was made of horse-hair.

war.

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Consurgunt geminæ quercus, intonsa que cælo
Attollunt capita, et sublimi vertice nutant.
Irrumpunt, aditus Rutuli ut videre patentes.
Continuò Quercens, et pulcher Equicolus armis,

Et præceps animi Tmarus, et Mavortius Hæmon, 685 686. Totis agminibus Agminibus totis aut versi terga dedêre, hostium

Aut ipso portæ posuere in limine vitam.
Tum magis increscunt animis discordibus iræ :
Et jam collecti Troës glomerantur eodem,
Et conferre manum, et procurrere longiùs audent. 690

Ductori Turno diversâ in parte furenti,
Turbantique viros, perfertur nuntius, hostem
Fervere cæde novâ, et portas præbere patentes.
Deserit inceptum, atque immani concitus irâ

Dardaniam ruit ad portam, fratresque superbos. 695 696. Et primum, ja- Et primùm Antiphaten, is enim se primus agebat, culo conjecto, sternit Thebanâ de matre nothum Sarpedonis alti, Antiphaten, nothum alti Sarpedonis' de Thebana Conjecto sternit jaculo. Volat Itala cornus matre, enim

Aëra per tenuem, stomachoque infixa sub altum
Pectus abit : reddit specus atri vulneris undam 700
Spumantem, et fixo ferrum in pulmone tepescit.
Tum Meropem atque Erymantha manu ; tum sternit

Aphydnum :
703. Tum sternit Bi- Tum Bitian ardentem oculis, animisque frementem,
tian

Non jaculo; neque enim jaculo vitam ille dedisset;
Sed magnum stridens contorta falarica venit, 705

NOTES.

681. Geminæ aëriæ quercus : as two aëri one here alluded to was in Asia Minor : the al oaks rise around, &c. This is a fine si- sovereignty of which was long disputed bemile. It is taken from Homer, Iliad xi. tween the Lydians and Mysians. Nothum :

685. Præceps. Ruæus says, temerarius. an illegitimate son.

688. Tum iræ : then rage increases more 698. Cornus : the corneil-tree-also, a and more in the hostile minds of the Tro- javelin or dart made of the wood of that jans. Discordibus : in the sense of hostili- tree, by meton. bus. Ruæus says, infensis.

700. Specus atri vulneris : the cavity of 690. Conferre manum: to engage in close the dark wound emits, &c. Specus is procombat: a phrase.

perly a den or cave, which is usually dark 692. T'urbanti : routing driving before and gloomy. This idea the poet transfers him.

to the wound made by the javelin of Tur693. Fervere: rage with uncommon slaugh- nus. Some copies have sanguinis in the ter. Fervere signifies to be hot to be busi roum of vulneris. In this case, atri sanguidy engaged-also, to rage. Nova : 'uncom nis must be governed by undam, and not by mon--unusual. Ruæus says, recenti. But specus; which would signify the wound it. he takes fervere, in the sense of animari : to self. The common reading is vulneris. Valbe animated-encouraged. Præbere: in the py takes specus for the wound itself-the sense of offerre vel dare.

gaping wound. Undum ; a stream--tide of 694. Deserit: in the sense of relinquit. blood. Reddit : in the sense of emittit.

695. Superbos fratres : Pandarus and Bi 701, Fixo: in the sense of transfixo. tias, mentioned above, the sons of Alcanor. 703, Ardentem: flashing fire with his eyes.

696. Agebat se: presented himself-took 704. Non jaculo enim, &c. The meaning himself along.

of this line is : that Turnus did not kill him 697. Sarpedonis. Sarpedon was the re with an ordinary javelin, for he would not puted son of Jupiter, Hence the epithet have yielded his life to a javelin—it would alti, high, or nobly born. He was king of have had no effect on him. The others he killLycia, and assisted Priam

against the Greeks. ed with his hand—with an ordinary weapon. Thebana: an adj. from Thebes. There were 705. Falarica. This was an oblong kind several cities of that name; one in Egypt, of javelin, bound about with wild fire. It ne in Beotia, and one in Thessaly. The was usually shot out of an engine against

Fulminis acta modo ; quam nec duo taurea terga,
Nec duplici squamâ lorica fidelis et auro
Sustinuit: collapsa ruunt immania membra.
Dat tellus gemitum, et clypeum super intonat ingens. 709. Intonat

super Qualis in Euboïco Baiarum litore quondam

710 eum. Saxea pila cadit, magnis quam molibus antè

711. Quam construcConstructam jaciunt ponto : sic illa ruinam

tam antè homines ja

ciunt Prona trahit, penitusque vadis illisa recumbit.

712. Sic illa cadens Miscent se maria, et nigræ attolluntur arenæ.

prona Tum sonitu Prochyta alta tremit, durumque cubile 715 Inarime Jovis imperiis impôsta Typhæo.

716. Inarimeque imHìc Mars armipotens animum viresque Latinis pôsta Typheo quasi duAddidit, et stimulos acres sub pectore vertit :

rum cubile imperiis Jo

vis, tremit. Immisitque fugam Teucris, atrumque timorem. Undique conveniunt, quoniam data copia pugnæ ;

720

720. Latini conveni

unt undique, quoniam Bellatorque animo Deus incidit.

copia pugnæ data est Pandarus, ut fuso germanum corpore cernit,

ipsis Et quo

sit fortuna loco, qui casus agat res, Portam, vi multâ converso cardine, torquet,

NOTES.

wooden towers for the purpose of setting to us, would be a novel way of making a them on fire. To show the prodigious dam or pier in the water. strength of Turnus, the poet intimates that 714. Miscent se: in the sense of turbantur. it was cast by him. To express the rapi 715. Prochyta: an island lying to the south dity of its flight, he says, it flew like a thun- of the promontory Misenus, and formerly der-bolt: modo fulminis.

separated from the main land, by an earth706. Acta : driven-sent. Modo : in the quake, according to Pliny. Its name is of sense of more.

Greek origin. Hodie, Procida. Alta : high, 707. Duplici squamâ. The plates of a in reference to its surface. Or, alta may coat of mail were called

squame, from their be taken in the sense of altè vel profundě. resemblance to scales. Squama et auro : for Ruæus says, intima. Heyne observes, that aurea squama, by hend. Fidelis : trusty- alta may be considered as an epithet proper faithful. It had hitherto protecíed him in for all islands, inasmuch as they are elevadanger.

ted or raised above the sea, or surface of 708. Ruunt : in the sense of cadunt. Col- the water : alta, epitheton commune omnium lapsa : failing-losing their strength, insularum, quatenùs mari eminent.

709. Intonat, &c. These words may be 716. Inarime. This is a high and elevated rendered : he, falling upon his mighty shield, island, laying to the west of Prochyta. This thunders; or, his mighty shieid falling upon passage is taken from Homer, Iliad ii. 283. him, &c. Clypeum: the same with clypeus. Typhæo. Typhæus was one of the giants This passage is imitated from Hoiner, Iliad that attempted to scale heaven, and was V. 42.

signally punished by Jove for the audacious 710. Euboico litore Baiarum. Baia was attempt. a place in Campania, famous for its foun 718. Vertit acres : he turns his sharp tains of warm water, situated in the upper spurs under their breast. This is a metapart of the Sinus Neapolitanus, near the phor taken from the application of the spur promontory Misenus. A colony from Chal, to the sides of the horse, to increase his cis, on the island Eubea, hodie, Negropont, speed and courage. founded the city Cumæ, not far from this 719. Atrum : in the sense of horridum : place. Hence the shore is called Eubaan. grim-ghastly. Qualis, &c. The meaning is : that Betias 720. Copia : in the sense of opportunitas. fell like a mass of rocks, which had been 721. Incidit : in the sense of subiit vel built up to a great height, and cast into the illabitur. sea, for the purpose of forming a dam or 722. Corpore fuso : with his body stretchbarrier to the water.

ed on the ground. Ut: in the sense of 711. Molibus: for a dam or pier. quando. 713. Prona : in the sense of cadens. Illi 723. Casus : misfortune-danger, Agat :

dashing upon the water. Penitùs : in attends their affairs-rulesgoverns. Ru. the sense of profundè. Recumbit : it sinks æus says, impellat. deep to the bottom--it rests, &c. This, 724. Torquet: he shuts the gate,

sa:

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