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Euryalum tenebræ ramorum onerosa que præda
Impediunt, fallitque timor regione viarum.

385

385. Fallit eum à recta Nisus abit : jamque imprudens evaserat hostes,

regione
Atque lacus, qui pòst Albæ de nomine dicti
Albani : tum rex stabula alta Latinus habebat.

388. Alta stabula illic.
Ut stetit, et frustra absentem repexit amicum :
Euryale infelix, quâ te regione reliqui ?

390
Quàve sequar ? Rursùs perplexum iter omne revolvens
Fallacis sylvæ, simul et vestigia retrò
Observata legit, dumisque silentibus errat :
Audit equos, audit strepitus, et signa sequentům.
Nec longum in medio tempus, cùm clamor ad aures 395 395. Nec longum tem-
Pervenit, ac videt Euryalum ; quem jam manus omnis, pus intervenit in medio
Fraude loci et noctis, subito turbante tumultu,
Oppressum rapit, et conantem plurima frustrà.
Quid faciat ? quâ vi juvenem, quibus audeat armis
Eripere ? an sese medios moriturus in hostes 400
Inferat, et pulchram properet per vulnera mortem ?
Ocyùs adducto torquens hastile lacerto,
Suspiciens altam Lunam, sic voce precatur :
Tu, Dea, tu præsens nostro succurre labori,

404. Tu, O Latonia Astrorum decus, et nemorum Latonia custos : 405 Dea, tu præsens succurre Si

nostro labori, tu decus qua tuis

unquam pro me pater Hyrtacus aris Dona tulit; si qua ipse meis venatibus auxi, Suspendi-ve tholo, aut sacra ad fastigia fixi:

408. Suspendi-ve aliHunc sine me turbare globum, et rege tela per auras.

qua dona tholo
Dixerat : et toto connixus corpore ferrum

410
Conjicit. Hasta volans noctis civerberat umbras,
Et venit adversi in tergum Sulinonis; ibique

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NOTES.

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384. Onerosa : in the sense of gravis. 398. Oppressum : in the sense of inter

386. Imprudens : regardless of his friend ceptum, vel traditum. -not aware of his being behind.

400. Eripere : rescue-free. 387. Lacus. This is the reading of Heyne is Luna in heaven, and Hecate in hell. She

403. Allam Lunam. Diana on the earth, and Davidson. But Ruæus reads locos, and thinks it to be the true reading.. For, says her mother.

is called Latonia from Latona, the name of he, the lake Albanus was at least four leagues

404. Succurre : in the sense of fave.
distant. Beside, it was about the middle of
the night, when Nisus and his friend left the

407. Si qua: dona is to be supplied.

Auxi: have increased-added any offering. Trojan cainp. He could not have had time to do so much, to go that distance, and re

to those made by my father. turn in search of his friend: and all this in highest part of the arched roof of the tem

408. Tholo : tholus was the middle, and the space of half a summer's night. For this reason, he prefers locos, and explains it ple, from which the spoils of war used to be

suspended. of the Alban territory, which might extend

409. Hunc globum: this company of men. as fır as the place where he then was.

412. Adversi. Adversus signifies right 391. Revolvens: in the sense of remetiens. against, or opposite, without regarding

393. Legil vestigia : he follows, or traces whether the face or back be turned to the obnis steps, &c.

ject. This passage, Servius reckons among 397. Fraude loci et noctis : thro'ıgh the his thirteen inexplicables. The meaning is treachery of the place, and of the night. plainly this : the spear entered his back and Tho puet represents the place and night as reached to his breast, which it might very two traitors, to whom Euryalus had com- well do, though it were broken (frangitur) mitted his safety, and they betrayed himn. from the wood. Adversi. This is the comSubito tumultu turbante: in a sudden tumul- mon reading. Heyne reads aversi. Ruæus tuous bustle--there being a sudden, &c.

says, oppositi.

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Frangitur, ac fisso transit præcordia ligno.
Volvitur ille, vomens calidum de pectore flumen,
Frigidus, et longis singultibus ilia pulsat.

415 416. Ecce idem acrior Diversi circumspiciunt.

Hoc acrior idem hoc successu

Ecce aliud summâ telum librabat ab aure;
Dum trepidant. lit lasta Tago per tempus utrumque
Stridens, trajectoque hæsit tepefacta cerebro.
Sævit atrox Volscens, nec teli conspicit usquam 420
Auctorem ; nec quò se ardens immittere possit.
Tu tamen intereà calido mihi sanguine pænas
Persolves amborum, inquit. Simul ense recluso
Ibat in Euryalum. Tunc verò exterritus, amens
Conclamat Nisus ; nec se celare tenebris

425 Ampliùs, aut tantum potuit perferre dolorem : 427. Me, me occidite : Me, me ; adsum, qui feci; in me convertite ferrum, adsum qui feci id: 0 O Rutuli! mea fraus omnis. Nihil iste, nec ausus ; Rutuli

, convertite fer- Nec potuit ; cælum hoc, et conscia sidera testor : rum in me: omnis fraus Tantùm infelicem nimiùm dilexit amicum.

430 Iste fecit nihil, nec ausis est; nec po- Talia dicta dabat : sed viribus ensis adactus tuit facere.

Transabiit costas, et candida pectora rumpit.
Volvitur Euryalus leto, pulchrosque per artus
It cruor, inque humeros cervix collapsa recumbit.
Purpureus veluti cùin flos, succisus aratro,

435 Languescit moriens ; lassove papavera collo

Demisêre caput, pluvià cùm fortè gravantur.
: At Nisus ruit in medios, solumque per omnes

Volscentem petit: in solo Volscente moratur ;
Quem circùm glomerati hostes hinc cominùs atque hinc
Proturbant. Instat non segniùs, ac rotat ensem
Fulmineum, donec Rutuli clamantis in ore
Condidit adverso, et moriens animam abstulit hosti.
Tum super exanimem sese projecit amicum
Confossus, placidâque ibi demùm morte quievit. 445

est mea.

441

NOTES.

413. Fisso ligno. Fissus here must be lians, although they were Latins. The taken in the sense of fractus; unless we former were the principals in the war. suppose the wood might be broken, and

431. Dabat: in the sense of dixit. Ensis: split and shattered withal; and this split the sword of Volscens. and shattered part to pass through his pre

432. Rumpit : pierces—lays open. cordia. This appears to be the opinion of Dr. Trapp.

435. It: in the sense of fluil. 414. Volvitur: in the sense of cadit. Flu- 437. Languescit: withers. This is a most men : for sanguinein.

beautiful comparison. 416. Diversi : they look about them in 439. Moralur. Rüæus says, defigit oculos different direc.uns. Idem: namely, Nisus. in, &c. “ Persists in his attack upon Vol

418. Tago: to Tagus. The dat. is fre- scens," says Valpy. quently used in the sense of the gen., espe

440. Circum quem, &c. The enemy ga. cially among the poets. The spear pierced thered around Nisus to keep him off, and both his temples.

prevent him from doing any mischief to 419. Tepefacta : warmed by its rapid mo- them, wishing to take him a prisoner, rather tion through the air.

than kiil him. 421. Auctorem: the owner of the weapon 441. Segniùs. Hegne reads seciùs. The -the one who threw it.

common reading is segniùs. 424. Ibat : in the sense of irruebat.

442. Fulmineum. This is very expressive. 427. Me, me, &c. This abrupt exclama- It denotes the rapid motion of the sword, tion admirably marks the perturbation and and the force with which it was driven, as disorder of his unind. He calls them Rutu® well as its glittering. Rotat: brandishes.

450

452. Nec fuit minor luctus in castris Rutu. lorum

455

Fortunati ambo! si quid mea carmina possunt,
Nulla dies unquam memori vos exiinet ævo ;
Dum domus Æneæ Capitolî immobile saxum
Accolet, imperiumque pater Romanus habebit.

Victores prædâ Rutuli spoliisque potiti,
Volscentem exanimem flentes in castra ferebant.
Nec minor in castris luctus, Rhamnete reperto
Exsangui, et primis unå tot cæde peremptis,
Serranoque, Numâque. Ingens concursus ad ipsa
Corpora, seminecesque viros, tepidâque recentem
Cade locum, et plenos spumanti sanguine rivos.
Agnoscunt spolia inter se, galeamque nitentem
Messapi, et multo phaleras sudore receptas.

Et jam prima novo spargebat luinine terras
Tithoni croceum linquens Aurora cubile :
Jam Sole infuso, jam rebus luce retectis,

Turnus in arına viros, armis circumdatus ipse, w Suscitat; æratasque acies in prælia cogit en

Quisque suas, variisque acuunt rúmoribus iras.
Quin ipsa arrectis, visu miserabile! in hastis
Præfigunt capita, et multo clamore sequuntur,
Euryali et Nisi.

459. Et jam prima 460 Aurora, linquens cro

ccum cabile

464. Quisque dux co465

git suas

465. Quin præfigunt ipsa capita Euryali et Nisi in arrectis hastis

NOTES.

447. Nulla dies : no length of time shall the enemy in safety, without attempting ever erase you from mindful posterity. This any thing. But poetry delights in the wonis the meaning of memori ævo.

derful and marvellous. 448. Immobile sarum. This implies that 453. Primis : chief men-nobles. the foundation of the Roman empire was to 455. Tepida cæde. Davidson reads tepibe as fixed and lasting as the Capitoline dum, agreeing with locum. Heyne reads mount, on which the city was built. After tepida. So also Ruæus, and others. The the time of Tarquinius Priscus, the Roinans Roman manuscript has tepidum. The sense were of opinion that their empire would be- is the same with either. Ruæus interprets come universal, and have no end. Some the words: ad locum lepcfactum recenti strage. explain domus Ænea, of the family of Au- 456. Rivos plenos, &c. Dr. Trapp thinks, gustus; which Virgil deduces froin Æneas. that no more is meant than streams of blood But it may with propriety be taken for the upon the ground: rivos spumantis sanguinis. Romans in general. Heyne says, Julia gens: It is difficult to imagine that two men, in so the Julian family.

short a space, could spill so much blood as to 449. Pater Romanus. Ruæus thinks Ro- justify the hyperbole, that the rivers were mulus is meant, he being the founder of filled and foamed with blood. Beside, there Rome. Davidson thinks Pater here means was only one river, and that one not very prince, as kings are often called the fathers near. Heyne is of the same opinion with of their people. Pater Romanus, then will Dr. Trapp. mean a Roinan prince, or sovereign. Heyne 458. Sudere: in the sense of labore. Phaunderstands, by Pater Romanus, Jupiter leras. These were taken from Rhamnes. Capitolinus; to whoin a famous temple was

See 359, supra. built upon the Capitoline mount. This story 461. Sole jam infuso: the sun now being of Nisus and Euryalus makes a very co':si- ushered into the world—the sun having alderable part of this book, and a very inte- ready arisen. Rebus : objects—things. Reresting part too. It is nevertheless liable to tectis: brouglit to view-uncovered. The ovjection on the ground of probability. It world and all things therein had been wrapt is difficult to conceive that a whole army up in the mantle of night. They are now should be asleep, and their sentinels among disclosed and brought to view, by the rays the rest, when it was their business to see of light. that the Trojans were kept close. It is said 463. Acies: troops in general. Æratas

was awake indeed ; but he gave no armed with brass-clad in brazen arnior. alarm. Besides, we might suppose that they 464. Rumoribus: Heyne takes this in the would have considered themselves sufficient. sense of hortationibus vel vocibus. Iras : in. ly fortuiraie, to be able to pass the camp of the sense of furorem,

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Æneadæ duri murorum in parte sinistra

Opposuêre aciem ; nam dextera cingitur amni; 471. Præfixa hastis, Ingentesque tenent fossas, et turribus altis

47 nimis nota miseris sociis Stant mæsti ; simul ora virûm præfixa videbant,

Nota nimis miseris, atroque fluentia tabo.

Intereà pavidam volitans pennata per urbem
Nuntia Fama ruit, matrisque allabitur aures
Euryali : at subitus miseræ calor ossa reliquit 475
Excussi manibus radii, revolutaque pensa....?

Evolat infelix ; et, fænineo ululatu,
478. Scissa quoad co- Scissa comam, muros amens atque agmina cursu
mam, amens

Prima petit: non illa virûm, non illa perîcli, 480. Illa non erat me- Telorumque memor: cælum dehinc questibus implet : mor virûm, illa non erat Hunc ego te, Euryale, aspicio ? tu-ne illa senectæ 481 memor perîcli 481. Tu-ne es ille fu

Sera meæ requies ? potuisti linquere solam, turus sera

Crudelis ? nec te, sub tanta pericula missum, 483. Nec copia data Affari extremùm miseræ data copia matri ? est miseræ matri affari Heu ! terrâ ignotâ, canibus data præda Latinis 485

Alitibusque, jaces! nec te tua funera mater in 486. Nec ego mater produxi te ad tua funera Produxi, pressive oculos, aut vulnera lavi,

488. Tegens luum ca- Veste tegens; tibi quam noctes festina diesque
daver veste, quam ego Urgebam, et telâ curas solabar aniles.
festina

Quò sequar ? aut quæ nunc artus avulsaque membra,
Et funus lacerum tellus habet ? hoc mihi de te, 431

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NOTES.

go with all 469. Aciem : the army of Turnus. Cin- mùm. This alludes to the custom of the gitur : protected-defended.

Romans, when they retired from the tomb, 474. Nuntia : as a messenger-herald. of repeating the word vale three tiines.

475. Subitus : in the sense of subitò. At: 487. Produxi te tua, &c. Servius takes this is the reading of Heyne.

tua funera, for the nom. agreeing with mater, 476. Radii eccussi : the shuttle fell from and tells us that the near relations of the her hands, as she was weaving. Or, by the dead assisted at burial, and were called radii, we may understand a machine with Funeræ. But it is better' to adhere to the spokes something like a wheel, which the usual acceptation of the word. And this women held in their hands, and on which we may do, if we supply the prep. ad before they wound or reeled the yarn from the spin- it. Produxi may signify the laying out of dles, on which it was put, as it was spun. the corpse for burial, or walking before it

What is properly called the episode of to the place of interment. This is consiNisus and Euryalus, ended with the 449th dered an intricate passage: and various

The lainentation of the mother of have been the conjectures upon the proper Euryalus most agreeably brings us back to construction. Heyne proposes funere, for the subject again, when we imagined we had sunera : and Ruæus inforins us that proluci done with it. Whether it be considered a has been proposed for produxi. He seems part of, or a sequel to, that episode, is not to take funera, with Servius and Scaliger, in material. It certainly equals, if not exceeds, the nom. He says, nec ego mater protuli te any part of it; and we are much indebted ante vdes, ut curatrix tui funeris. The conto the poet for the picture, which he has struction proposed above appears the easiest. given us of maternal grief and sorrow. Davidson renders the words, “ Nor I, thy Scaliger was enraptured with it. Pensa: mother, laid thee out for thy funeral obseher work-labor.

quies.” Valpy observes, that though no va481. Aspicio hunc te: do I see that you? riation from this reading has been disco- Is that one I see you, O, Euryalus? These vered in any of the ancient MSS., there is broken half sentences she uttered, while she probably some error. beheld his head suspended upon the spears

489. Solabar: I was consoling my aged of the Rutulians, as she stood upon the cares with the loom-with weaving and ramparts.

preparing garments for you. 482. Sera requies: in the sense of serum 490. Sequar: in the sense of ibo. solatium.

491. Funus : in the sense of cadaver. Quæ 484. Copia : leave-opportunity. Extre- tellus nunc, &c.

:

Nate, refers ? hoc sum terrâque marique secuta ?

492. O nate, refers Figite me, si qua est pietas ; in me omnia tela

hoc caput solum mihi de

te Conjicite, ô Rutuli; me primam absumite ferro : Aut tu, magne pater Divûm, miserere, tuoque 495 495. Miserere mei, deInvisum hoc detrude caput sub Tartara telo;

trudeque hoc meum caQuando aliter nequeo crudelem abrumpere vitam.

pat invisum tibi Hoc fletu concussi animi, mæstusque per omnes

498. Animi TrojanoIt gemitus : torpent infractæ ad prælia vires.

rum concussi sunt · Illam incendentem luctus Idæus et Actor,

500

500. Jdæus et Actor, Ilionei monitu et multùm lachrymantis Tüli,

mgnitu llionei et lüli Corripiunt, interque manus sub tecta reponunt.

At tuba terribilem sonitum procul ære canoro
Increpuit: sequitur clamor, cælumque remugit.
Accelerant actâ pariter testudine Volsci,

505
Et fossas implere parant, ac vellere vallum.
Quærunt pars aditum, et scalis ascendere muros ;
Quâ rara est acies, interlucetque corona
Non tam spissa viris. Telorum effundere contrà

509. Contrà Teucri
Omne genus Teucri, ac duris detrudere contis, 510 cæperunt
Assueti longo muros defendere bello.
Saxa quoque infesto volvebant pondere, si quà
Possent tectam aciem perrumpere: cùm tamen omnes
Ferre juvat subter densâ testudine casus.

514

514. Cùm tamen juvat

Rutulis ferre omnes caNec jam sufficiunt: nam, quâ globus imminet ingens, Immanem Teucri molem volvuntque ruuntque,

515. Nam quà ingens Quæ stravit Rutulos latè, armorumque resolvit

globus hostium

sus

NOTES.

492. Secuta sum : have I followed this my; and now she appeals to Jove, and en(caput) over sea and land? Have I followed treats him to end her miserable existence; thee over sea and land for this—to come to for otherwise she could not break the cords this?

of life. 493. Pietas. Here pietas, doubtless, means 499. Infractæ: in the sense of fracto. pity, or compassion. If there be any pity Torpent: fail. in you, O Rutulians, &c.

505. Testudine actà: the testudo being 494. Me primam. We are to suppose her formed. See Æn, ii. 441. speaking from the rampart, where none, as

508. Quâ acies est rara. yet, had been slain.

The meaning is: 497. Aliter. Dr. Trapp observes, that they seek to attack the walls and fortifica what is here said cannot be true, unless tions, where the troops are thin; and the aliter be taken in a limited sense. Being they may be seen through, Acies : properly,

ranks or lines not so thick with men, but full of grief, and referring every thing to that, he thinks she refers this, also ; as if an army drawn up in order of battle-here she had said: since my grief will not end troops in general. Corona: a body of men my wretched life as I would have it, I de- standing round in the form of a circle. Here,

the ranks or lines of the men upon the walls, sire either the enemy or the gods to do it.

without Mr. Davidson thinks she only talks some

distinction.

any what inconsistently, as might be expected

510. Detrudere : to push down the enemy in her state of mind; and observes that it with, &c. is not improbable she had attempted to lay 511. Longo bello. This alludes to the violent hands upon herself, and was hindered Trojan war, which lasted ten years. by those about her.

512. Infesto: in the sense of ingenti vel The crime of self-murder is of so horrid magno. By their great weight, they became a nature, that the poet might well suppose fatal to the enemy. no one could be guilty of it. She wished 513. Tectam aciem: the protected troops for death, since her son, the support and so- -those who were covered by the testudo, or lace of her declining years, was taken from target defence. her. But where can she find it? Not from

516. Molem : any large mass of matter her friends. She had called upon the ene- may be called moles. Ruæus says, satum.

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