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Fortunati ambo! si quid mea carmina possunt,
Nulla dies unquam memori vos eximet ævo;
Dum domus Æneæ Capitolî immobile saxum
Accolet, imperiumque pater Romanus habebit.

Victores prædå Rutuli spoliisque potiti,
Volscentem exanimem flentes in castra ferebant.
Nec minor in castris luctus, Rhamnete reperto
Exsangui, et primis unâ tot cæde peremptis,
Serranoque, Numâque. Ingens concursus ad ipsa
Corpora, seminecesque viros, tepidâque recentem
Cade locum, et plenos spumanti sanguine rivos.
Agnoscunt spolia inter se, galeamque nitentem
Messapi, et multo phaleras sudore receptas.

Et jam prima novo spargebat luinine terras
Tithoni croceum linquens Aurora cubile :
Jam Sole infuso, jam rebus luce retectis,
Turnus in arına viros, armis circumdatus ipse,
Suscitat; æratasque acies in prælia cogit e
Quisque suas, variisque acuunt rumoribus iras.
Quin ipsa arrectis, visu miserabile! in hastis
Præfigunt capita, et multo clamore sequuntur,
Euryali et Nisi.

459. Et jam prima 460 Aurora, linquens cro

ccum cabile

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464. Quisque dux co465

git suas

465. Quin præfigunt ipsa capita Euryali et Nisi in arrectis hastis


447. Nulla dies : no length of time shall the enemy in safety, without attempting ever erase you from mindful posterity. This any thing. But poetry delights in the wonis the meaning of memori ævo.

derful and marvellous. 448. Immobile sarum. This implies that 453. Primis : chief men--nobles. the foundation of the Roman empire was to 455. Tepida cæde. Davidson reads tepibe as fixed and lasting as the Capitoline dum, agreeing with locum. Heyne reads mount, on which the city was built. After tepida. So also Ruæus, and others. The the time of Tarquinius Priscus, the Romans Roman manuscript has tepidum. The sense were of opinion that their empire would be- is the same with either. Ruæus interprets come universal, and have no end. Some the words: ad locum tepefactum recenti strage. explain domus Æneæ, of the family of Au- 456. Rivos plenos, &c. Dr. Trapp thinks, gustus; which Virgil deduces froin Æneas. that no more is meant than streains of blood But it may with propriety be taken for the upon the ground: rivos spumantis sanguinis. Romans in general. Heyne says, Julia gens: It is difficult to imagine that two men, in so the Julian family.

short a space, could spill so much blood as to 449. Pater Romanus. Ruæus thinks Ro- justify the hyperbole, that the rivers were mulus is meant, he being the founder of filled and foamed with blood. Beside, there Rome. Davidson thinks Pater here means was only one river, and that one not very prince, as kings are often called the fathers near. Heyne is of the same opinion with of their people. Pater Romanus, then will Dr. Trapp. mean a Roinan prince, or sovereign. Heyne 458. Sudere: in the sense of labore. Phaunderstands, by Pater Romanus, Jupiter leras. These were taken from Rhamnes. Capitolinus; to whom a famous temple was

See 359, supra. built upon the Capitoline mount. This story 461. Sole jam infuso: the sun now being of Nisus and Euryalus makes a very co’isi- ushered into the world—the sun having alderable part of this book, and a very inte. ready arisen. Rebus : objects—things. Reresting part too. It is nevertheless liable to teclis: brought to view-uncovered. The ovjection on the ground of probability. It world and all things therein had been wrapt is difficult to conceive that a whole army up in the rantle of night. They are now should be asleep, and their sentinels among disclosed and brought to view, by the rays the rest, when it was their business to see

of light. that the Trojans were kept close. It is said 463. Acies: troops in general. Æratas one was awake indeed ; but he gave no armed with brass-clad in brazen arnjor. alarm. Besides, we might suppose that they 464. Rumoribus: Heyne takes this in the would have considered themselves sufficient- sense of hortationibus vel vocibus. Iras : in. ly fortuiraie, to be able to pass the camp of the sense of furorem,

Æneadæ duri murorum in parte sinistra

Opposuere aciem ; nam dextera cingitur amni ; 471. Præfixa hastis, Ingentesque tenent fossas, et turribus altis

47 simis nota miseris sociis Stant mæsti ; simul ora virûm præfixa videbant,

Nota nimis miseris, atroque fluentia tabo.

Intereà pavidam volitans pennata per urbem
Nuntia Fama ruit, matrisque allabitur aures
Euryali : at subitus miseræ calor ossa reliquit 475
Excussi manibus radii, revolutaque pensa. .?

Erolat infelix ; et, fæinineo ululatu,
478. Scissa quoad co- Scissa comam, muros amens atque agmina cursu
mam, amens

Prima petit: non illa virûm, non illa perîcli, 480. Illa non erat me- Telorumque memor : cælum dehinc questibus implet : mor virûm, illa non erat Hunc ego te, Euryale, aspicio ? tu-ne illa senectæ

481 memor periclı 481. Tu-ne es ille fu

Sera meæ requies ? potuisti linquere solam,

Crudelis ? nec te, sub tanta pericula missum, 483. Nec copia data Affari extremùm miseræ data copia matri? est miseræ matri affari Heu! terrâ ignotâ, canibus data præda Latinis 485 te

Alitibusque, jaces! nec te tua funera mater 486. Nec ego mater produxi te ad tua funera

túa funera Produxi, pressive oculos, aut vulnera lavi, 488. Tegens luum ca

tibi quam noctes festina diesque
daver veste, quam ego Urgebam, et telâ curas solabar aniles.

Quò sequar ? aut quæ nunc artus avulsaque membra,
Et funus lacerum tellus habet ? hoc mihi de te, 431

turus sera

Veste tegens;



469. Aciem: the army of Turnus. Cin- mùm. This alludes to the custom of the gitur : protected—defended.

Romans, when they retired from the tomb, 474. Nuntia : as a messenger-herald. of repeating the word vale three tiines.

475. Subitus: in the sense of subitò. At: 487. Produxi te tua, &c. Servius takes this is the reading of Heyne.

tua funera, for the nom. agreeing with mater, 476. Radii excussi : the shuttle fell from and tells us that the near relations of the her hands, as she was weaving. Or, by the dead assisted at burial, and were called radii, we may understand a machine with Funera. But it is better' to adhere to the spokes something like a wheel, which the usual acceptation of the word. And this women held in their hands, and on which we may do, if we supply the prep. ad before they wound or reeled the yarn from the spin- it. Produxi may signify the laying out of dles, on which it was put, as it was spun. the corpse for burial, or walking before it

What is properly called the episode of to the place of interment. This is consiNisus and Euryalus, ended with the 449th dered an intricate passage : and various

The lainentation of the mother of have been the conjectures upon the proper Euryalus most agreeably brings us back to construction. Heyne proposes funere, for the subject again, when we imagined we had funera : and Ruæus inforins us that proluci done with it. Whether it be considered a has been proposed for produxi. He seems part of, or a sequel to, that episode, is not to take funera, with Servius and Scaliger, in material. It certainly equals, if not exceeds, the nom. He says, nec ego mater protuli te any part of it; and we are much indebted ante vdes, ut curatrix tui funeris. The conto the poet for the picture, which he has struction proposed above appears the easiest. given us of maternal grief and sorrow. Davidson renders the words, “ Nor I, thy Scaliger was enraptured with it. Pensa: mother, laid thee out for thy funeral obseher work-labor.

quies.” Valpy observes, that though no va481. Aspicio hunc te: do I see that you?riation from this reading has been disco-Is that one I see you, O, Euryalus? These vered in any of the ancient MSS., there is broken half sentences she uttered, while she probably some error. beheld his head suspended upon the spears

489. Solabar: I was consoling my aged of the Rutulians, as she stood upon the cares with the loom-with weaving and ramparts.

preparing garments for you. 482. Sera requies: in the sense of serum 490. Sequar: in the sense of ibo. solatium.

491. Funus : in the sense of cadaver. Quæ 484. Copia : leaveopportunity. Extre- tellus nunc, &c.


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Nate, refers ? hoc sum terrâque marique secuta ?

492. O nate, refers Figite me, si qua est pietas; in me omnia tela

hoc caput solum mihi de Conjicite, ô Rutuli; me primam absumite ferro : Aut tu, magne pater Divûm, miserere, tuoque 495 495. Miserere mei, deInvisum hoc detrude caput sub Tartara telo;

lo trudeque hoc meum caQuando aliter nequeo crudelem abrumpere vitam.

put invisum tibi Hoc fletu concussi animi, mæstusque per omnes

j 498. Animi TrojanoIt gemitus : torpent infractæ ad prælia vires.

rum concussi sunt Illam incendentem luctus Idæus et Actor,


500. Jdæus et Actor, Ilionei monitu et multùm lachrymantis lüli,

monitu Ilionei et lüli Corripiunt, interque manus sub tecta reponunt.

At tuba terribilem sonitum procul ære canoro
Increpuit: sequitur clamor, cælumque remugit.
Accelerant actâ pariter testudine Volsci,

Et fossas implere parant, ac vellere vallum.
Quærunt pars aditum, et scalis ascendere muros ;
Quâ rara est acies, interlucetque corona
Non tam spissa viris. Telorum effundere contrà

509. Contrà Teucri
Omne genus Teucri, ac duris detrudere contis, 510 cæperunt
Assueti longo muros defendere bello.
Saxa quoque infesto volvebant pondere, si quà
Possent tectam aciem perrumpere: cùm tamen omnes
Ferre juvat subter densâ testudine casus.


514. Cùm tamen juvat

Rutulis ferre omnes caNec jam sufficiunt: nam, quâ globus imminet ingens, Immanem Teucri molem volvuntque ruuntque,

515. Nam quå ingens Quæ stravit Rutulos latè, armorumque resolvit

globus hostium



492. Secuta sum : have I followed this my; and now she appeals to Jove, and en(caput) over sea and land? Have I followed treats him to end her miserable existence; thee over sea and land for this—to come to for otherwise she could not break the cords this?

of life, 493. Pietas. Here pietas, doubtless, means 499. Infractæ: in the sense of fractæ. pity, or compassion. If there be any pity Torpent : fail. in you, O Rutulians, &c.

505. Testudine actà: the testudo being 494. Me primam. We are to suppose her formed. See Æn, ii. 441. speaking from the rampart, where none, as yet, had been slain.

508. Quâ acies est rara. The meaning is: 497. Aliter. Dr. Trapp observes, that they seek to attack the walls and fortificawhat is here said cannot be true, unless tions, where the troops are thin; and the aliter be taken in a limited sense. Being

ranks or lines not so thick with men, but full of grief, and referring every thing to they may be seen through. Acies : properly, that, he thinks she refers this, also ; as if an army drawn up in order of battle--here she had said : since my grief will not end troops in general. Corona: a body of men my wretched life as I would have it, I de- standing round in the form of a circle. Here,

the ranks or lines of the men upon the walls, sire either the enemy or the gods to do it. Mr. Davidson thinks she only talks some

without any distinction.. what inconsistently, as might be expected

510. Detrudere : to push down the enemy in her state of mind; and observes that it with, &c. is not improbable she had attempted to lay 511. Longo bello. This alludes to the violent hands upon herself, and was hindered Trojan war, which lasted ten years. by those about her.

512. Infesto: in the sense of ingenti vel The crime of self-murder is of so horrid magno. By their great weight, they became a nature, that the poet might well suppose fatal to the enemy. no one could be guilty of it. She wished 513. Tectam aciem: the protected troops for death, since her son, the support and so- -those who were covered by the testudo, or lace of her declining years, was taken from target defence. her. But where can she find it? Not from 516. Molem : any large mass of matter her friends. She had called upon the ene- may be called moles. Ruæus says, sazum.



Ad vulnus tulit; ergò alis allapsa sagitta,
Et lævo infixa est lateri manus, abditaque intus
Spiramenta animæ letali vulnere rupit.

Stabat in egregiis Arcentis filius armis,
Pictus acu chlamydem, et ferrugine clarus Ibera,
Insignis facie ; genitor quem miserat Arcens,
Eductum Martis luco, Symæthia circum

Flumina, pinguis ubi et placabilis ara Palici.
586. Mezentius ipse, Stridentem fundam, positis Mezentius armis,
armis positis, egit stri-
dentem fundam

Ipse ter adductâ circum caput egit habenâ : 588. Et diffidit media Et media adversi liquefacto tempora plumbo tempora juvenis adversi Diffidit, ac multâ porrectum extendit arena. 590.

Tum primùm Tum primùm bello celerem intendisse sagittam
Ascanius dicitur

Dicitur, antè feras solitus terrere fugaces,
Ascanius, fortemque manu fudisse Numanum,

Cui Remulo cognomen erat ; Turnique minorem 594. Quique habebat Germanam, nuper thalamo sociatus, habebat. minorem

Is primam ante aciem digna atque indigna relatu 596. Tumidusque quoad Vociferans, tumidusque novo præcordia regno præcordia 598. Ait, non pudet

Ibat, et ingenti sese clamore ferebat: dos, O Phryges, bis capti, Non pudet obsidione iterum valloque teneri, teneri

Bis capti Phryges, et morti prætendere muros ?




verat. Tegmine: his shield. Being wound- from others that were altars of thanksgiving ed, he put his hand to the wound to stop and divination. Diodorus Siculus relates the blood, and threw away his shield for that slaves, who were illy treated by their that purpose. Hence he is called demens.

masters, fled here for safety. And their 578. Sagitta allapsa alis : the arrow glided masters were not allowed to take them away, swiftly on its wings, &c. The arrow passed until they had given security for their good through his hand as he held it upon his treatment of them. Hence Ruæus thinks it wound, fixed it to his side, and then passed was called ara placabilis. This is the most into his body, piercing his vitals. Spiramen- probable reason. ta anime : the lungs. This was not the ar- 587. Habenâ ter : the string being whirlrow that first wounded him.

ed three times around his head to give the 582. Pictus : embroidered as to his cloak greater force to the ball. with needle work-having an embroidered 588. Liquefacto plumbo : with the melted cloak. Ibera ferrugine: in Iberian purple. lead. This is a poetical exaggeration, to Ferrugo is the color of polished iron, which express the velocity of the ball through the approaches nearly to purple. Ibera : an air. The expression is borrowed from Luadj. from Iberia. Some take this for a coun- cretius. Or the poet may allude to the casttry lying between the Euxine and Caspian ing of the ball at first. Ruæus says, caleseas, formerly called Iberia, now Georgia. facto plumbo. A colony of these people removed to Spain, 590. Intendisse : to have shot-directed. and settled near the river Iberus, to which 592. Fudisse : in the sense of stravisse. they gave name. Others take it for Spain 593. Cui Remulo: in the sense of cui itself, sometimes called Iberia. It abounded Remulus erat cognomini: to whom Remulus in the best iron and steel. Facie: in the was for a surname. This construction is in sense of formå. Clarus : in the sense of imitation of the Greeks. splendens.

594. Sociatus nuper: being lately connect585. Palici. These were the sons of Jove ed with her in marriage. and the nymph Thalia, the daughter of Vul- 595. Relatu: a sup. in u, in the sense of can. They were gods worshipped in Sicily, dictu. near the river Symethia. It is not easy to 596. Novo regno : with his new power, assign the reason of their altar being called which he acquired by being connected with placabilis. Some conjecture they were ap- the royal family. peased only by human victims at first ; but : 597. Ferebat sese : marched along-took afterward by common victime. Perhaps himself along. their altar may be so called, because it was 598. Teneri: in the sense of claudi. he altar of atonement, as distinguished 599. Prætendere : to oppose your walls to 600 600. En homines, qui




606. Eorum ludus est


En qui nostra sibi bello connubia poscunt !
Quis Deus Italiam, quæ vos dementia adegit?
Non hìc Atridæ ; nec fandi fictor Ulysses.
Durum à stirpe genus. Natos ad flumina primùm
Deferimus, sævoque gelu duramus et undis.
Venatu invigilant pueri, sylvasque fatigant;
Flectere ludus equos, et spicula tendere cornu.
At patiens operum, parvoque assueta juventus,
Aut rastris terram domat, aut quatit oppida bello.
Omne ævum ferro teritur, versâque juvencûm
Terga fatigamus hastå. Nec tarda senectus
Debilitat vires animi, mutatque vigorem.
Canitiem galeâ premimus; semperque recentes
Convectare juvat prædas, et vivere rapto.
Vobis picta croco et fulgenti murice vestis ;
Desidiæ cordi ; juvat indulgere choreis ;
Et tunicæ manicas, et habent redimicula mitræ.
O verè Phrygiæ, neque enim Phryges! ite per alta
Dindyma, ubi assuetis biforem dat tibia cantum.
Tympana vos buxusque vocant Berecynthia matris
Idææ. Sinite arma viris, et cedite ferro.

Talia jactantem dictis, ac dira canentem
Non tulit Ascanius : nervoque obversus equino

613. Juvat nos

614. Est vobis vestis 615 picta

615. Desidiæ sunt vobis cordi:

618. Vobis assuetis huic sono.

621. Ascanius non tu620

lit Numanum jactantem, ac

NOTES. death—to screen yourselves behind your the covering of those parts as a mark of wall, and save yourselves from death. Heyne effeminacy. This is said by way of reproach. reads, Marte. The common reading is morti. 617. Overè Phrygia, &c. He here speaks

600. Nostra connubia: our brides. This by way of contempt, calling them not even is said in allusion to the case of Lavinia. Phrygian men, but Phrygian women. The

602. Fictor fandi : the dissembler of Phrygians were noted for their effeminacy speech. Fandi: in the sense of verborum. and luxury. See Æn. iv. 216.

603. Durum genus : but we are a hardy 618. Dindyma: neu. plu. sing. Dindymus, race from our origin.

a mountain in Phrygia, sacred to Cybele. 605. Venatu : for venatui. See Ecl. v. Hence she is sometimes called Dindymine. 29. Invigilant: are fond of–have a special Its name is of Greek origin, and signifies regard to. Fatigant sylvas : weary the woods double-topthaving two tops. Biforem. --the beasts or game in the woods, by meton. Some understand by this a pipe with only

606. Cornu : from the bow. Spicula: in two stops: others, two pipes with different the sense of sagittas.

stops, which, being played upon together, 608. Domat : in the sense of exercet. Qua- made very indifferent harmony. Biforem tit: in the sense of impugnat.

cantum : discordant music. Rueus says, 609. Ferro: with the sword; that is, in imparem.

619. Tympana: neu. plu.: timbrels. Bere610. Fatigamus terga: we strike the backs cynthia : an adj. from Berecynthus, a mounof our oxen, &c. So constant were they tain and castle in Phrygia, sacred to Cybele; in the use of their arms, that they did not who sometimes was called Berecynthia. even lay them aside when engaged in agri- Buxus: properly, the box-wood; by meton. culture. They used their spears, &c. to spur, a pipe made of the box-wood. This wood or urge on their oxen while in the plough. is supposed to have abounded on mount

611. Mutat: in the sense of pellit. Berecynthus.

612. Premimus, &c. By this we are to 620. Idææ : an adj. from Ida, a mountain understand that their old men had sufficient just back of Troy, sacred to Cybele, the vigor and strength of nerve, to bear arms. mother of the gods. Hence she is called 613. Rapto: the plunder.

sometimes Idææ. Sinite : in the sense of 615. Desidiæ cordi: sloth is to you for relinquite. pleasure and delight.

621. Canentem dira: uttering such indig616. Tunicæ habent : your vests have nities——such reproaches. Ruæus says, losleeves, and the ribbons of the mitre. Other quentem. nations, particularly the Romans, had their 622. Equino nervo: the string of his bow arms and necks naked, and looked upon was made of horse-hair.


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