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Quis globus, 0 cives, caligine volvitur atra?
Ferte citi ferrum, date tela, scandite muros.

Hostis adest, eja. Ingenti clamore per omnes 39. Omnes Teucri con- Condunt se Teucri portas, et mænia complent. dunt se ingenti clamore Namque ita discedens præceperat optimus armis

40 per portas 41. Intereà siqua dura

Æneas : si qua intereà fortuna fuisset ; fortuna fuisset

Ne struere auderent aciem, neu credere campo :
Castra modò, et tutos servarent aggere muros.
Ergò, etsi conferre manum pudor iraque monstrat,
Objiciunt portas tamen, et præcepta facessunt; 45
Armatique cavis exspectant turribus hostem.

Turnus, ut antevolars tardum præcesserat agmen,
Viginti lectis equitum comitatus, et urbi
Improvisus adest: maculis quem Thracius albis

Portat equus, cristâque tegit galea aurea rutrâ. 50 51. O juvenes, ecquis Ecquis erit mecum, juvenes, qui primus in hostem! vestrum erit

, qui primus En, ait ; et jaculum intorquens emittit in auras, irruet in hostem me- Principium pugnæ ; et campo sese arduus infert. cum!

Clamore excipiunt socii, fremituque sequuntur

Horrisono. Teucrûin mirantur inertia corda : 55 56. Viros non dare se Non æquo dare se campo, non obvia ferre æquo campo, non ferre arına obvia

Arina viros ; sed castra fovere. Huc turbidus atque huc 57. Turnus turbidus Lustrat equo muros, aditumque per avia quærit. lustrat

Ac veluti pleno lupus insidiatus ovili,

Cùm fremit ad caulas, ventos perpessus et imbres, 60 64. Rabies edendi col- Nocte super mediâ: tuti sub matribus agni lecta ex longo tempore Balatum exercent: ille asper et improbus irâ fatigat eum, et fauces siccă sanguine fatigant

Sævit in absentes : collecta fatigat edendi
Ex longo rabies, et siccæ sanguine fauces

eum

NOTES.

36. Globus: a troop, or multitude of sol- ceremony of throwing a javelin into the enediers. Quis: in the sense of quantus. Vole my's territory, as a signal of war. Princivitur: is approaching. Ruæus says, accedit pium : in the sense of inirium. ad nos.

But volvitur may be taken perhaps 54. Horrisono fremitu : with terrific shouts. in the sense of involvitur : is involved, or Excipiunt: they answer with acclamation concealed from us, in that thick cloud of dust. —they second, &c.

37. Ferrum: here, must mean arins in 55. Inerlia : cowardly-fearful. general.

56. Obvia : in the sense of adversa. 38. Per: in the sense of intra.

57. Fovere castra : to cherish or hug their 40. Optimus armis : most skilful in the camp-keep close to it. This is an opproart of war-most valiant in arms.

brious expression. It is a metaphor taken 41. Siqua fortuna : if there should be any from timorous mothers, who bug their childanger or hazard during his absence, he di. dren, and keep them close to their bosoms, rected that they should not, &c. If war when apprehensive of their being in danger. should break out while, &c.

Turbidus : in the sense of iratus. 43. Modò: only—they should attempt 58. Per aria : in the sense of per inace nothing more. Aggere : in the sense of cessa loca. Avia : of a priv. and via. munimentis.

60. Cùm fremit: giowls around the sheep44. Monstrat conferre : urges them to en- cotes. Perpessus : enduring-suffering. gage hand to hand-in close quarters, and 61. Super: until--as far as. Ruæus says, on equal terms, yet, &c.

sub mediam noctem. 48. Equitum: gen. plu. for equitibus, to 62. Ile asper : he fierce and outrageous agree with, lectis.

with anger, &c. Absentes : the lambs shut 49. Albis maculis : of white spots. The up in the fold, and out of his reach. Ererprep. è vel ex is understood.

cent: in the sense of emittunt. 52. Intorquens jaculum : brandishing his 63. Sævil : in the sense of furit. Eos is javelin, he threw it into the air, as the begin- understood. ning, &c. This is an allusion to the Roinan 64. Rabies edendi : a rage for eating

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Haud aliter Rutulo muros et castra tuenti
Ignescunt iræ : et duris dolor ossibus ardet;
Quâ tentet ratione aditus ; et quâ via clausos
Excutiat Teucros vallo, atque effundat in æquor.
Classem, quæ lateri castrorum adjuncta latebat,
Aggeribus septanı circùm et fluvialibus undis,
Invadit; sociosque incendia poscit ovantes,
Atque manum pinu flagranti fervidus implet.
Tum verò incumbunt. urget præsentia 'Turni,
Atque omnis facibus pubes accingitur atris.
Diripuêre focos: piceum fert fumida lumen
Tæda, et commixtam l'ulcanus ad astra favillam.

Quis Deus, ô Musæ, tam sæva incendia Teucris
Avertit ? tantos ratibus quis depulit ignes ?
Dicite. Prisca fides facto, sed fama perennis.

Tempore, quo primùm Phrygiâ formabat in Ida
Æneas classem, et pelagi petere alta parabat;
Ipsa Deùm fertur genitrix Berecynthia magnum

75

76. Et Vulcanus fert commixtam favillam ad astra.

79. Est prisca fides facto, sed fama ejus est

perennis. 80

82. Berecynthia ipsa genitrix Deûm fertur affata esse magnum Jovem

NOTES.

an

hunger. Edendi : in the sense of cibi. Fa- its being believed. But to put fides facto for tigat urges him on. Ruæus says, vexat. fuctum, though with the addition of belief, Sicca. • dry-thirsting for blood.

is harsh and singular. Heyne takes facto, 65. kutulo: to the Rutulian-to Turnus. in the sense of facti, which makes the sense 66. Dolor: indignation-anguish.

easier. The belief of the fact was ancient, 67. Qua ratione : in what way he may but the report or tradition will always conobtain access; and in what way he may tinne. Davidson renders the words : " dislodge the Trojans, shut up in their in- cient is the testimony of the fact, but imtrenchments, &c. It is much better to nortal is its fame.Valpy says, " the fact take via in the abl. than the nominative to was at first credited on good authority, bat the verb excutiat, with Heyne and Valpy. the tradition has been constant." This obscures the sense, while the former 80. T'emport, quo, &c. By some critics, renders it obvious. Ruæus and Davidson Virgil has been censured for this metamorread quâ via. Heyne, quæ via.

phosis of the ships of Æneas into sea-nymphs. 69. Adjuncta : adjoining-near to. Ru- Dr. Trapp has considered this matter at some æus says, admola.

length in a 'note upon this place. In con70. Circùm seplam : protected around. clusion he says: Virgil we know was not Ruæus says, defensam. Fluvialibus undis: the first who wrote of the coming of Æneby the waters of the river-simply, by the as into Italy : and, among other tradiriver Tiber.

tions of his country, it is probable he found 71. Poscit incendia : he demands flames the story coined to his hand, and could not of his joyous companions. He orders them omit it without disobliging those whom it to take fire, and assist him in burning the was his business to please. This appears ships. Verbs of commanding, &c. govern probable, if we consider the judgment of two accusatives.

this great poet, (who is not likely to be the 73. Incumbunt : they exert all their inventor of a story which exceeds all Ovid's strength--they spring to it earnestly. in improbability,) and also the hints which

75. Diripuere: they strip-plunder the he gives of his own disapprobation of it. bearths. Fert: in the sense of emitlit. However, he does all he can to cover its

76. Vulcanus: the god of fire, by meton. absurdity. and deludes us as much as possiput for fire itself. Tæda: a firebrand- ble. He invokes the muses afresh ; introtorch. Favillam : the sparks.

duces it as a thing scarcely credible: it is 78. Depulit : in the sense of avertit. dore by the greatest of the gods at the re

79. Prisca fides, &c. There have been quest of his mother. The story is short various conjectures upon the sense of this and elegant. But when all is said, the passage. Servius takes prisca in the sense faulty image is not covered. Upon the of obsolete. It was once believed, but now whole, I am satisfied that Virgil was forced is not; yet the report continues, and is like to insert it contrary to his judgment; or ly to be immortal. This Dr. Trapp ap- that he would have erased it, had he lived to proves. Some take prisca fides facto, sim- perfect the poem. Alta : spatia is understoo: ply for priscum factuin, with the addition of 82. Berecynthia : a name of Cybele, wł

nempe, lucus

Vocibus his affata Jovem : Da, nate, petenti,

Quod tua chara parens domito te poscit Olympo 85. Fuit in summâ Pinea sylva mihi multos dilecta per annos,

85 arce pinea sylva dilecta Lucus in arce fuit summa, quò sacra ferebant, mihi per multos annos, Nigranti piceâ trabibusque obscurus acernis.

88. Ego læta dedi has Has ego Dardanio juveni, cùm classis egeret, arbores

Læta dedi : nunc solicitanı timor anxius urget.

Solve metus, atque hoc precibus sine posse parentem, 90 91. Üt illæ naves ne Ne cursu quassate ullo, neu turbine venti vincantur quassatæ ullo Vincantur. Prosit nostris in montibus ortas. cursu, neu ullo turbine Filius huic contrà, torquet qui sidera mundi : venti : prosit iis eas ortas esse in

O genitrix, quò fata vocas ? aut quid petis istis ?
Mortaline manu factæ immortale carinæ

35 Fas habeant! certusque incerta pericula lustret

Æneas ? cui tanta Deo permissa potestas ? 98. Ubi defunctæ peri- Imò, ubi defunctæ finem, portusque tenebunt culis maris tenebunt Ausonios ; olim quæcunque evaserit undis,

Dardaniumque ducem Laurentia vexerit arva ; 100 101. Eripiam huic Mortalem eripiam formam, magnique jubebo mortalem

Æquoris esse Deas : qualis Nereïa Doto

Et Galatea secant spumantem pectore pontum. 104. Annuitque id ra- Dixerat: idque ratum, Stygii per flumina fratris, tum esse per flumina Per pice torrentes atrâque voragine ripas,

105 · 108. Cùm injuria Tur- Annuit : et toturn nutu tremefecit Olympum. ni adınonuit matrem Ergò aderat promissa dies, et tempora Parcæ Cybelen depellere tædas Debita complêrant; cùm Turni injuria matrem

NOTES.

is said to have been the mother of the gods. 91. Ullo cursu : in any voyage-course. See Æn. vi. 784.

Turbine venti : a storm, or gale of wind. 84. Olympo domito. Jupiter had dethroned 94. Vocas : in the sense of vertis. Fata: his father Saturn, and reduced all the gods the course-order of things. Istis : for those to his obedience. The mention of this cir- ships. Navibus is understood. cumstance is emphatical. For kings are 96. Immortale fas: an immortal privilege, must likely to grant favors on their first ac or right. Lustrei: surmount-pass through. cession to their thrones. And besides, it was Certus: safe-secure from harm. For luspeculiarly proper to be mentioned by her; tret, Ruæus says adibit. for it was by her means that he was so ad 100. Laurentia arva : Italy—the land of vanced. He had been preserved by her Laurentum. The prep. ad is understood. from Saturn; and for the undisturbed pos 102. Doto-Galatea : the names of two session of Olympus, he was indebted to his nymphs of the sea, the daughters of Nemother: Jovo could not therefore refuse reus and Doris. See Ecl. ii. 46. her prayer.

104. Annuitque id ratum : he assented it 86. Lucus : put, in apposition with pinea should be granted he bowed his head as a sylva. Ferebant : in the sense of offerebant. sign that it was granted to her. The gods Sacra : sacrifices.

were wont to swear by the infernal rivers, 87. Obscurus : darkened-shaded ; agree- particularly by Styx; and if they did not ing

with lucus. Arce summa: mount Ida, perform, they lost their divinity for an hunwhere Cybele was peculiarly worshipped. dred years. See Geor. 11. 551. This mountain was sacred to her. Trabibus 105. Torrentes : in the sense of fluentes. acernis : ash-trees. Trabs : the trunk, put Cybele had requested of Jove, that the by synec. for the whole tree.

ships of Æneas should not, under any cir88. Classis : gen. governed by egeret. cumstance, be overcome or destroyed. He

89. Urget : this is the common reading. intimates this to be a singular request. Davidson reads angi'.

Could ships built by mortal hands, enjoy 90. Solve metus : dismiss my fears. Fear the privilege of immortality? was it certain, may be considered as a yoke in which a that Æneas would escape the dangers of person is bound. Ruæus says, expelle. Posse his long and perilous voyage? what she dehoc: to obtain this by intreaties--to have manded was out of his power to grant unuficient intluence with you to obtain, &c. conditionally. But if any of them should

Admonuit sacris ratibus depellere tædas.
Hìc primùm nova lux oculis effulsit, et ingens 110
Visus ab Aurorâ cælum transcurrere ninibus,
Idæique chori : tum vox horrenda per auras

112. Idæique chori si-
Excidit, et Troüm Rutulorumque agmina complet: mul : tum
Ne trepidate meas, Teucri, defendere naves,
Neve armate manus : maria antè exurere Turno

115

115. Dabitur Turno Quàm sacras dabitur pinus. Vos ite solutæ,

exurere maria antequàm

has sacras pinus Ite, Deæ pelagi : genitrix jubet. Et sua quæque

116. Genitrix Deorum Continuò puppes abrumpunt vincula ripis;

jubet id. Delphinumque modo demersis æquora rostris Ima petunt. Hinc virgineæ, mirabile monstrum!

120

120. Hinc totidem vir Reddunt se totidem facies, pontoque feruntur,

gincæ facies
Quot priùs æratæ steterant ad litora proræ.
Obstupuere animis Rutuli : conterritus ipse
Turbatis Messapus equis : cunctatur et amnis
Rauca sonans ; revocatque pedem Tiberinus ab alto.
At non audaci cessit fiducia Turno.

126
Ultrò animos tollit dictis, atque increpat ultrò :
Trojanos hæc monstra petunt: his Jupiter ipse
Auxilium solitum eripuit: non tela, nec ignes
Expectant Rutulos. Ergò maria invia Teucris, 130 130. Ergo maria sunt
Nec spes ulla fugæ : rerum pars altera adempta est :

invia Terra autem in manibus nostris : tot millia gentes

133. Fatalia responsa Arma ferunt Italæ. Nil me fatalia terrent,

Deorum, si qua Phryges

jactant præ se Si qua Phryges præ se jactant, responsa Deorum

136. Et sunt mihi mea Sat fatis Venerique datum, tetigere quòd arva 135 fata contrà illa, nempe Fertilis Ausoniæ Troës. Sunt et mea contrà

exscindere

NOTES.

/

escape the dangers of the sea, and arrive after they had gone to the bottom, each one safe in Italy, he would grant to such, to be came up with a virgin face, and floated down come nymphs of the sea. This he promises the stream into the sea. in the inost soleinn manner, and ratifies it

124. T'urbatis : affrighted--alarmed. Cuncby the usual oath.

tatur: stopt-delayed. 109. Tædas : in the sense of flammas.

125. Raucà : an adj. neu. plu., taken as 110. Hic primùm, &c. This implies, that Cybele had before been unknown in Italy: from the deep.

an adv. Revocat pedem : recalls his current and now made her first appearance in that country, in favor of the Trojans. Oculis :

127. Tollit animos: he rouses the courage in the sense of visui. .

of his men (militum) by his words, and re 111. Vimbus : a bright cloud, or cloud of bukes their fears. glory, the vehicle of the goddess. Aurora :

128. Petunt : in the sense of spectant. the east.

130. Expectant: naves Trojanc is under112. Idæique chori : her Idæan choir. stood. These were the priests of Cybele, the Cory 131. Altera pars rerum: one part of the bantes, Cureles, or Dactyli. They made a world is taken from them, now their ships sound about the goddess on their brazen have left them; namely, the sea : and the cymbals, as she passed through the sky. land is in our possession. There is no way Horrenda: awful--inspiring dread.

for them to escape. 113. Excidit: in the sense of emittitur. 133. Arma: by meton. for the men who 114. Trepidate: in the sense of properate. bear them. Ferunt : bring to our aid. Ter

116. Vos ile solutæ : go, ye, free, go, god- rent nil, &c. This whole speech of Turnus, desses of the sea.

bespeaks him the soldier and intrepid com119. Modo: in the sense of more. De- mander. And to turn those very prodigies, mersis : sunkimmerged. Like dolphins, which encouraged and animated his enethey dive with their prows or beaks to the mies, against them, marks his undaunterl bottom of the sca.

spirit. He calls them Phrygians by way 121. Reddunt se, &c. The meaning is : contempt.

Fata mihi, forro sceleratam exscindere gentem,
Conjuge præreptå. Nec solos targit Atridas

Iste dolor; solisque licet capere arma Mycenis. 140. Sed dicetur, est Sed periisse semel satis est : peccare fuisset 140 satis eos periisse semel : Antè satìs, penitùs modò non genus omne perosos fuisset satìs eos peccare Fæmineum. Quibus hæc medii fiducia valli, antè, penitùs perosos esse non modò omne

Fossarumque moræ, leti discrimina parva,
Dant animos. At non viderunt menia Trojæ,
Neptuni fabricata manu, considere in ignes ?

145 146. Sed vos, O lecti Sed vos, ô lecti, ferro quis scindere vallum viri, quis vestrum appa- Apparat, et mecum invadit trepidantia castra ?

rat

Non armis mihi Vulcani, non mille carinis

Est opus in Teucros : addant se protinùs omnes 150. Ne timeant tene- Etrusci socios : tenebras et inertia furta

150 bras

Palladii, cæsis summæ custodibus arcis,
Ne timeant: nec equi cæcâ condemur in alvo.

Luce palam certum est igni circumdare muros. 154. Faxo ut haud Haud sibi cum Danais rem, faxo, et pube Pelasgå putent esse rem sibi cum Esse putent, decimum quos distulit Hector in annum. Danais Nunc adeò, melior quoniam pars acta diei;

15, Quod superest; læti benè gestis corpora rebus

NOTES.

138. Conjuge præreptå. Lavinia had been fications and ramparts, that these will save promised to Turnus in marriage: and he them from death, since their former treachealready considered her as his wife. She was ry was punished, when they were guardec taken (prærepta) from him, and transferred by much stronger munitions, even those to Eneas.

walls which were built by the hand of Nep139. Licetque Mycenis : nor is it lawful tune. Parva discrimina lethi: a small space, for Greece alone to take up arms. It is or feeble partition between them and death. lawful for us too, in a similar cause. It is Medii : intervening—between them and us. plain that the negation is to be continued, in 144. At: this is the reading of Heyne, this last member of the sentence.

and Valpy. The common reading is un. 140. Sed periisse semel, &c. This is a diffi 147. Trepidantia castra : trembling-in cult passage; and it is so rendered by its terror and consternation, now their leader conciseness. To make the sense, something is absent. must be supplied. There is a note in the 148. Non armis opus est : either that he Variorum edition upon this place, in these needed not arms made by Vulcan, such as words: Verùm dicent Trojani se luisse jam Achilles had; or that he would not use his Helenæ raptum. Respondet: desiissent ergò own sword, which was also the workmanpeccare : dedicissent odisse potiùs fæminas ship of the god of fire. See Æn. xii. 90. omnes, quàm vel unam rapere : quod quia in 151. Palladii, &c. Here is an allusion to Lavinia faciunt, iterum pereant. Ex quo the exploit of Diomede and Ulysses, who colligitur, quoties peccaverint, toties eos perire privately entered the temple of Minerva in debere. Upon the words penitùs modo non, Troy, and stole the Palladium, baving slain Dr. Trapp observes, the penitùs should be the guards. Hence, inertia furta : such connected with perosos : and the modo non, cowardly and unmanly conduct, Turnus he takes in the sense of propemodum, and disdains. joins them with omne genus, &c. That they 153. Luce palàm: I am resolved to surshould utterly hate alniost the whole female round, &c. Turnus promises the Trojans sex. They could not hate all women; their fair play, that he will not have recourse to mothers, sisters, and relations, must be ex those stratagems and arts, which the Greeks cepted. Ruæus makes the first clause an employed when before Troy. This bespeaks interrogation: which is incorrect. It is a a inanly and dignified spirit; one, truly besupposed objection, to which peccare fuisset, coming the hero. Luce palàm: openly&c. is the answer.

in the day. 112. Quibus hæc fiducia : to whom this 154. Foxo : I will do or cause that, &c. contidence of an intervening rampart, &c. 157. Rebus benè gestis. These words are give courage. The meaning of the passage to be taken absolutely. Things being favoris this: lot them not presume on their forti- ably begun. This is the sense, given by

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