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Spargitur : arva novâ Neptunia cæde rubescunt.

695 Regina in mediis patrio vocat agmina sistro.

696. In mediis partiNecdum etiam gerninos à tergo respicit angues.

bus clypei regina CleoOmnigenûmque Deûm monstra, et latrator Anubis,

palra vocat
Contra Neptunum et Venerern, contraque Minervam
Tela tenent. Sævit medio in certainine Mavors 700
Cælatus ferro, tristesque ex æthere Diræ ;

701. Tristesque Dire

sæviunt ex æthere,
Et scissâ gaudens vadit Discordia palla,
Quam cum sanguineo sequitur Bellona flagello.
Actius hæc cernens arcum intendebat Apollo
Desuper : omnis eo terrore Ægyptus, et Indi, 705
Omnis Arabs, omnes vertebant terga Sabæi.

710. Ignipotens fece

rat illam inter cædes, Ipsa videbatur ventis regina vocatis

pallentem futura morte Vela dare, et laxos jam jamque immittere funes.

ferri Illam inter cædes, pallentem morte futurâ,

711. Autem contra Fecerat Ignipotens undis et Iapyge ferri :

710 cælaverat Nilum magno Contrà autem magno mærentem corpore Nilum,

corpore mærentem, pan

dentemque suos sinus, et Pandenternque sinus, et totâ veste vocantem

tota veste expassâ voCæruleum in gremium, latebrosaque flumina victos. cantem victos

NOTES. board the enemy. Stuppea : an adj. from 702. Gaudens scissâ pallâ: discord rejoicstuppa. Telis volatile ferrum. It is not easy ing in her rent mantle. By the rent inantle, to come at the meaning of these words. If the poet very forcibly expresses the effect of we could take telis in the sense of machinis, discord in dividing the minds of men, and the engines with which the weapons were destroying the peace of society. thrown, there would be no difficulty. Heyne 704. Actius. Apollo is here called Actius, thinks this can hardly be done. He sug- from Actium, a prou nontory on the coast of gests the reading of teli in the gen. The Epirus, where he had a famous temple. The volatile steel of the dart is thrown. The whole coast was sacred to him. The word dat. is frequently used in the sense of the Actium is derived from a Greek word which gen. If it be in the present case, the mean- signifies the shore, or litus. ing will be: The volatile steel of (to) the darts is thrown; that is, the darts and mis

705. Indi : either the Bactrians, or the sive weapons themselves. Ferrum: the point

Æthiopians. These composed a part of the or barb of the dart, by synec. the whole forces of Antony. The inhabitants of any dart.

warm climate were sometiines called Indi, 695. Neptunia arva: a most beautiful ex

indiscriminately. Sabæi : the inhabitants of

Arabia Felic. These, also, were with Anpression for the sea. Nova cæde : with great-unusual slaughter.

tony. Eo terrore: with the fear of that, &c. 696. Sistro. The sistrum was a kind of 708. Immittere lazos funes: to give loose timbrel peculiar to the Egyptians, and used ropes--to let go the ropes that contracted by them in the worship of Isis. The epithet the sails. This is a metaphor taken from patrio is therefore very proper.

loosening the reins of a horse, to let him 697. Geminos angues. This is supposed go at full speed. to allude to the manner of her death. As 710. lapyge. This wind blew from Apushe was to die by the bite of asps, it is sup- lia, the most eastern part of Italy, and conposed that Vulcan engraved them behind sequently toward Egypt. It is called lapyt, her, to show what was to be her destiny, from the ancient name of Apulia. Fecerat: though she was not then apprehensive of it. had engraved-represented.

698. Omnigenům, &c. The Egyptians 711. Nilum. This personification of the were notorious for consecrating as gods the river Nile is extremely fine. The Nile is several kinds of animals. Cicero says of the largest river of Africa. Rising in the them : : omne ferè genus bestiarum Ægyptii mountains of Abyssinia, and running a northconsccrârunt. The deities, however, most erly course, fertilizing the country through honored, were Osiris, one their kings, which it passes, it falls the Meaiterraand Isis his wife. Also, Anubis. He was nean sea by seven mouths. Its inundations most probably their servant, and, for his are occasioned by the periodical rains, which fidelity, was consecrated. He was repre- fall within the tropics. Mærentem: in the sented with a dog's head, in allusion to his sense of dolentem. fidelity; the dog being the most faithful of 713. Latebrosa : winding-affording a safe animals. Virgil calls him latralor.

and secure retreat.

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At Cæsar, triplici invectus Romana triumpho
Mania, Dîs Italis votum immortale sacrabal,

715 716. Nempe tercentum Maxima ter centum totam delubra per urbem. Inaxima delubra

Lætitiâ, ludisque viæ plausuque freirebant : 718. Erat chorus ma- Omnibus in templis matrum chorus ; omnibus aræ : trum in omnibus temp- Ante aras terram cæsi stravêre juvenci. lis; erant are

720 720. Augustus ipse, Ipse, sedens niveo candentis limine Phoebi, sedens in niveo limine Dona recognoscit populorum, aptatque superbis candentis templi Postibus. Incedunt victæ longo ordine gentes,

Quàm variæ linguis, habitu tam vestis et amis. 724. Hic Mulciber Hìc Nomadum genus, et discinctos Mulciber Afros , finxerat genus

Hic Lelegas, Carasque, sagittiferosque Gelonos 725

Finxerat. Euphrates ibat jam mollior undis, 729. Æneas miratur Extremique hominurn Morini, Rhenusque bicornis, talia dona parentis Ve- Indomitique Dahæ, et pontem indignatus Araxes. neris

Talia, per clypeum Vulcani, dona parentis 730. Gaudetque imagine rerum, quarum est

Miratur : rerumque ignarus imagine gaudet, 730 adhuc ignarus

Attollens humero famamque et fata nepotum.

NOTES.

714. Triplici triumpho. Augustus obtain- a people to the south of Ionia, and to the ed three victories : one over the Illyrians, north of Doris. Gelonos. These were a another over Antony and Cleopatra, and a people of Scythia, or Thrace, skilful in third over Egypt, which was reduced to a throwing the arrow. Roman province. This was effected by the 7:26. Finxerat: in the sense of sculpserat. capture of Alexandria in the year of Rome 727. Morini. These were a people in724, and in the month Sextilis; which after- habiting the northern parts of Gaul over ward was called Augustus. Soon after this, against Britain; wbich the Romans consithe year was begun on the first day of Ja- dered the boundary of the worid to the nuary.

westward. Hence they are called extremi 716. Ter centum, &c. A definite number hominum: the most remote of men. Their is here used for an indefinite number. We capital was Tarranna. Caius Carinus triare informed that Augustus built several umphed over them, on the same day that suinptuous temples at Roine, ainong which Augustus obtained his first triumph. Rhewas one to Julius Cæsar, his adopted father. nus: the Rhine, a 'well-known river. It This was built on mount Palatine, of while arises in the Alps, and taking a northerly Parian marble. Hence the epithet canden- direction, unites with the Main from the east lis, verse 720, infra. Viæ : the streets of Hence it is called bicornis, two herned. It the city. · Fremebant : in the sense of reso- falls into the German sea by several mouths. nabant.

728 Dahæ. Where these people were 723. Linguis : language. Habitu: man- situated is uncertain. Stephanius thinks ner, or form of their apparel.

they were a nation of Scythia. Others place 724. Nomadum. The Nomadæ vel Numa- them in Asia, near the river Oxus, which were a people of Africa, situated to the falls into the Caspian sea, from the southwest of Carthage. Their capital city was east, separating Bactriana from Sogdiana. Cirta. They derived their name from a If this be correct, they were allies of AntoGreek word which signifies pasture; pas- ny. Araxes. This is a river, rising in Arturage being their chief business. Discinc- menia, taking an easterly direction, and fall. tos : the Africans are so called from the ing into the Caspian sea.

It carried away looseness of their apparel, or from their ge- the bridge which Alexander built over it. neral inactivity and aversion to labor. Mul- Hence it is said: indignutus pontem : it disciber : a naine of Vulcan.

dained a bridge. 725. Leltgas. The Lelegre were a people 730. Ignarus, &c. Although Æneas was of Asia Minor. Homer places them about delighted with these figures and representathe bay of Adramyllium. By some they tions upon his shield, he knew not what they are confounded with the Cares. These were were designed to represent and foreshow.

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QUESTIONS.

arms?

What is the subject of this book?

What are some of them ? At whose direction did Æneas go to the How inany men did he send with Æncas :: court of Evander ?

Who coinmanded thein ? Where was his city situated ?

What was the age of Pallas at that time? What was the name of it?

What was the state of the Tuscans ? Why was it called Pallanleum?

Where were they situated in respect to How was he received by the aged mo- the Tiber? narch?

What was the cause of their being in Of what country was he a native?

What was le doing at the tiine of the Was the throne of Tuscany at that time arrival of Æneas ?

vacant? Were Æneas and Evander in any way re- Had they made any offer of the crown to lated to each other?

Evander?
How was that relationship deduced ? Why did he decline it?
Who was their common ancestor ?

Who coinmanded the Tuscan troops ? Had Evander any acquaintance with An- What was the object of Æneas in visiting chises ?

the Tuscan camp? On what occasion had he seen him ?

Did the Tuscans willingly place themWhere is the island of Salamis situated ? selves under his command ? How came Priain to visit that island ? Had there been any prophetic declarations

What other places did he visit at the same upon this subject ? time!

What prince does Turnus endeavor to On what account were those sacred rites bring over to his interest ? instituted in honor of Hercules, in which In what part of Italy were his possesEvander was then engaged ?

sions? Who was Hercules?

What was the name of his city ?
What other names had he?

Who was Diomede?
On what occasion did lic visit Evander ? What did Venus in the mean time?
Who was Cacus?

Where were the forges of Vulcan?
Where had he his residence ?

Who were his workmen ? What had he done to bring the vengeance What were the names of the chief of of Hercules upon him?

them? In what way did he take these heifers to What were they doing at that time? his cave?

On the shield of Æneas was there any What was his object in doing this? carved work ? How was a discovery finally made ? Were there any events of the Roman hisWhere was the cave of Cacus situated ? tory there represented ?

On the approach of Hercules, what did What were some on those events? Cacus do?

How did Æneas receive this impenetraHow did the hero find admission into his ble shield ? den ?

Where was he at the time? What resistance did he make ?

Was this a very unexpected event to him? How did Hercules kill the inonster?

In what light may this book be consiDid Hercules perform any other distin- dered ? guished actions ?

Where is the scene laid ? What are some of them ?

What does Dr. Trapp observe of this To whoin was he made subject by Juno? book ?

How many actions did he perform at the What part, in particular, is the finest and command of that king?

most noble ? What itre they called by way of distinc- In what description does the poet appear tion and eminence ?

to have exerted all the powers of his mind? Wiat was the object of Æneas in going Where was that battle fought? to the court of Evander?

What was the consequence of that victoDid he furnish him with men and supplies ry to Augustus ? for the war?

What was the end of Antony? What was the character of Evander as a What was the end of Cleopatra? soldier:

In what manner did she die Had he performed, in his youth, any feats How does the book conclude ? of valor ?

LIBER NONUS.

In tnis book the war commences. Turnus, taking the advantage of the absence of

Æneas, assaults the Trojan camp; and attempts to set fire to their ships, when they are changed into sea-nymphs. In a state of consternation, they send Nisus and Euryalus to recall Æneas. This introduces the episode of their friendship, generosity, and the conclusion of their adventures: which extends from the 176th line to the 502d, and is onc of the finest pieces of the Æneid. The next morning, Turnus renews the assault, and performs prodigies of valor. At length, being informed that the Trojans had opened the gates, he repairs thither; when a most desperate conflict ensues. The Trojans take refuge within their gates. The hero enters along with them, and the gates are closed upon him. Juno assists him, and a great slaughter ensues. The Trojans fec in all directions before him. At last, however, they are rallied by Mnestheus and Sergestus, and renew the fight. Turnus retires before them, escapes from their entrench

ments, and returns in safety to his camp. This book is distinguished from the rest by the total absence of Æneas. It contains more

fighting than any of the other. Dr. Trapp considers the transformation of the ships into nymphs of the sea, as a blemish to the book.

ATQUE ea diversâ penitùs dum parte geruntur,
Irim de cælo misit Saturnia Juno
Audacem ad Turnúm. Luco tum fortè parentis
Pilumni Turnus sacratâ valle sedebat :
Ad quem sic roseo Thaumantias ore locuta est : 5
Turne, quod optanti Divûm promittere nemo
Auderet, volvenda dies en attulit ultrò!
Æneas, urbe, et sociis, et classe relictâ,

Sceptra Palatini sedemque petivit Evandri. 10. Nec est hoc satis; Nec satìs: extremas Corythi penetravit ad urbes : 10 penetravit

Lydorumque manum, collectos armat agrestes. 12. Nunc est tempus Quid dubitas ? nunc tempus equos, nunc poscere currus: poscere equos

Rumpe moras omnes, et turbata arripe castra.

Dixit: et in cælum paribus se sustulit alis;
Ingentemque fugâ secuit sub nubibus arcum.

15

NOTES.

1. Geruntur. This refers to what has the form of a city, with turrets, ramparts, becn related in the preceding book-the and gates. transactions at the court of Evander.

9. Evandri. Evander is here called Pa3. Parenlis. Pilumnus was not the im- latine, because lie dwelt on mount Pals ine, mediate parent of Turnus, but one of his or Palilinus, where Romulus afterward ancestors ; either his grandfather or great dwelt; and, also, the Roman emperors, down grandfather. Servius says Pilumnus was from Augustus. Sceptra: the realms. Rathe common name of the family.

æus says, regna.

Sedem : palace-city. 5. Thaumantias. Iris, the daughter of 10. Corythi. Corythus, a city of TuscaThaumas and Electra. See Æn. iv. 700. ny founded by Corytus, a Tuscan king, and

6. Oplanti: to you wishing so favorable called by his name. an opportunity.

11. Lydorum. The Tuscans are called 7. Dies volvenda : the time (that was) to Lydians, because they were a colony from be revolved—the time destined by the fates. Lydia in Asia Minor. Dise: in the sense of tempus.

15. Secuit arcum: she cut the mighty bow, 8. Urbe. This city of Æneas is sometimes &c. The rainbow was reckoned the chariot called a camp. It was a camp, fortified in of Iris; so that the meaning is: she cut

16. Juvenis Turnus agnovit eam

20

22. Quisquis Deorum vocas me in arma. Et sic effatus processit ad

undam Tibris 25

Agnovit juvenis, duplicesque ad sidera palmas
Sustulit

, ac tali fugientem est voce secutus :
Iri, decus cæli, quis te inihi nubibus actam
Detulit in terras ? unde hæc tam clara repentè
Tempestas? medium video discedere cælum,
Palantesque polo stellas Sequar omina tanta,
Quisquis in arma vocas. Et sic effatus, ad undam
Processit, summoque hausit de gurgite lymphas,
Multa Deos orans : oneravitque æthera votis.

Jamque omnis campis exercitus ibat apertis,
Dives equum, dives pictaï vestis, et auri.
Messapus primas acies, postrema coërcent
Tyrrheidæ juvenes: medio dux agmine Turnus
Vertitur arma tenens, et toto vertice suprà est.
Ceu septem surgens sedatis ainnibus altus
Per tacitum Ganges ; aut pingui Alumine Nilus,
Cùm refluit campis, et jam se condidit alveo.

Hic subitam nigro glomerari pulvere nubem
Prospiciunt Teucri, ac tenebras insurgere campis.
Primus ab adversâ conclamat mole Caïcus :

27. Messapus coërcet primas acies

29. Et est supra om30 nes alios toto vertice

31. Aut ceu Nilus pingui flumine fluit, cùm

35

NOTES.

her way through it, to mount up again into 29. Vertitur : in the sense of incedit. This heaven in that vehicle.

line is marked by Heyne as an interpola16. Palmas: properly, the palm of the tion. hand: by synec. the whole hand.

30. Ceu altus Ganges : as the deep Gan19. Unde hæc tam : whence this so glaring ges, rising silently from seven still streams, brightness, all on a sudden? Tempestas evi- iows on its course silent and still, so moves dently means, in this place, serenity, bright, the army of Turnus. This is a beautiful ness, or brilliancy. Detulit: in the sense of simile, and is intended to express the majesdemisit. Tempestas tam clara. Ruæus says, tic slowness and silence of their march : facies cæli tam splendida.

also, their order, after having been scattered 20. Video medium: I see heaven open in and dispersed; as those rivers glide within the must, and stars shooting across the sky. their channels, after having overflowed the When the lightning bursts through the country. An ellipsis here is necessary in clouds, the skies seem at times to be rent

order to make the sense clear, which I have asunder. We are to understand by stellas, filled. The Ganges is the largest river of the meteors, and other electric appearances, Asia, and divides India into two parts. that shoot across the skies like stars. Ser- After a course of about 2,000 miles, in which vius understands it of the stars themselves. it recieves the waters of a number of conThat they should ever appear in the day- siderable streams, it falls into the bay of tine is very extraordinary, but that they Bengal by several mouths. Like the Nile, should appear in the additional light brought it overflows its banks. By seplem sedatis by Iris, was inuch more so. This, therefore, amnibus, we are to understand the several confirmed Turnus in the opinion that it was rivers which flow into the Ganges, and augsoinething preternatural and divine. Sequar ment its waters. Hence the propriety of tanta omina, was therefore his immediate

surgens.

The natives worship the river as determination.

a god. 23. Lymphas: in the sense of aquam. Summo gurgite : from the surface of the

31. Per tacitum : taken adverbially, in the

sense of tacitè. streain.

24. Æthera : in the sense of cælum. 32. Cùm refluit: when it hath retired,

26. Piclaï the old genitive for pictæ : va- or flowed back from the plains, and confined riegated-embroidered.

itself to its channel. Pingui flumine : with 27. Coërcent : in the sense of inferant. its fertilizing waters. The fertility of Egypt Ruæus says, regunt. Postrema : the rear. is wholly owing to the overflowing of the Agmina is understood.

Nile. See Geor. iv. 293. and Æn. viii. 711. 28. Tyrrheidve: the sons of Tyrrheus, a

33. Glomerari : to be formed to ascend in patronymic noun. Tyrrheus was the shepherd of Latinus, whose eldest son was killed wreathy columns, like clouds of smoke. in the first skirmish. See Æn. vii.

35. Mole : rampart-tower.

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