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610

Inclusêre cavi, et nigrå nemus abiete cingunt.
600. Fama est veteres Sylvano fama est veteres sacrâsse Pelasgos,
Pelasgos, qui primi ali- Arvorum pecorisque Deo, lucumque diemque,
quando habuere Latinos Qui primi fines aliquando habuere Latinos.
fines sacrâsse lucumque,
diemque Sylvano

Haud procul hinc Tarcho et 'Tyrrheni tuta tenebant
Castra locis : celsoque omnis de colle videri
Jam poterat legio, et latis tendebat in arvis.
Huc pater Æneas et bello lecta juventus
Succedunt, fessique et equos et corpora curant.

At Venus, æthereos inter Dea candida nimbos,

Dona ferens aderat : natumque in valle reductâ 610. Utque vidit natum Ut procul egelido secretum flumine vidit ; secretum procul

Talibus affata est dictis, seque obtulit ultrò :
612. En munera per. En perfecta mei promissâ conjugis arte
fecta promissa

Munera ! ne mox, aut Laurentes, nate, superbos,
Aut acrem dubites in prælia poscere Turnum.
Dixit : et amplexus nati Cytherea petivit:
Arma sub adversâ posuit radiantia quercu..,
Ille, Deæ donis et tanto et lætus honore,
Expleri nequit, atque oculos per singula volvit ;
Miraturque ; interque manus et brachia versat

Terribilem cristis galeamn, flammasque vomentem,
622. Talem, qualis est
cærulea nubes, cùm in- Fatiferumque ensem,(loricam ex ære rigentem,
ardescit

Sanguineam, ingentem: qualis cùm cærula nubes 624. Tum versat ocreas Solis inardescit radiis, longèque refulget: leves ex electro.

Tum leves ocreas electro auroque recocto, 626. Ignipotens, haud ignarus vatum, inscius. Hastamque, et clypei non enarrabile textum. que venturi ævi fecerat

Illic res Italas, Romanorumque triumphos, illic

Haud vatum ignarus, venturique inscius ævi,

615

620

625

NOTES.

599. Cavi: in the sense of curvi : wind- and his arms. Miratur: he wonders at ing hills.

them. Ruæus says, stunet. 600. Pelasgos. These were a colony from 620. Galeam : the helmet vomiting out Æmonia, the ancient name of Thessaly. flames. He means only that the crest or They expelled the Etrusci, and settled in plume was of a fiery red color, and seemed their country. They, in turn, were expelled to rise out of his helmet like flames. by the Tyrrheni, a colony from Lydia, or 621. Fatiferum : mortal-causing death. Mæonia in the lesser Asia.

622. Cærula nubes : an azure cloud; such 605. Tendebat : pitched their tents in the an one as receives the tincture, and reflects open fields. Legio: troops in general. the various colors of the rainbow.

607. Curant : rest—refresh. Rumus says, 624. licnes : smooth-polished. Recocto : reficiunt.

doubly purified. Ruæus says, repurgato. 608. Nimbos : in the sense of nubes.

625. Non enarrabile textum : the inex 610. Flumine: near the cool river-on pressible texture of the shield. the banks of the cold stream. Secretum : 626. Italas res: the Italian history. retired-remote.

627. Haud ignarus, &c. We now come 612. Perfecta : made-finished.

to the conclusion of the book; and, cer613. Mox ne dubites : clad in this armor, tainly, there never was a book more nobly my son, you may not hesitate to challenge finished. Having given us the particulars of either the proud, &c. The epithet superbos, the arms and armor, the poet proceeds to refers to the outrage, which they had offer the description of the sculptures upon the ed to Æneas and his followers, mentioned shield. And by way of prophecy, he gives

us a very important piece of history in these 618. Expleri : to be satisfied in looking engravings, and by that means, makes them them.

one of the most important parts of the poem. Versat interque: he turns and shifts. It is imitated from Homer; but greatly imevery way, the less in his hands, proved. Vatum: in the sense of vaticinioin his arms--between his hands rum vel prædictionum. Valpy says, “ Of

118. supra.

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Fecerat Ignipotens : illic genus omne futuræ

628. Illic expresseral

omne genus
Stirpis ab Ascanio, pugnataque in ordine bella.
Fecerat et viridi fætam Mavortis in antro

630
Procubuisse lupam : geininos huic ubera circum

Ludere pendentes pueros, et larnbere inatrem
* Impavidos : illam tereti cervice reflexam wal's

ela
Mulcere alternos, et corpora fingere lingua.
Nec procul hinc Romam, et raptas sinè more Sabinas 635. Nec procul hinc
Concessu caveæ, magnis Circensibus actis,

addiderat Romam, et 636

Sabinas virgines raptas Addiderat : subitòque novum consurgere bellum

sinè more Romulidis, Tatioque seni, Curibusque severis.“

636. Circensibus ludis Pòst îdem, inter se posito certamine, reges

actis.
Armati, Jovis ante aras paterasque tenentes 640
Stabant; et cæsâ jungebant fædera porca.

Haud procul inde citæ Metium in diversa quadrigæ
Distulerant ; at tu dictis, Albane, maneres ! abdk
Raptabatque viri mendacis viscera Tullus

645. Et vepres sparsi Per sylvam ; et sparsi rorabant sanguine vepres. 645

sanguine rorabant. Nec Nec non Tarquinium ejectum Porsenna jubebat

non Porsenna jubebat Accipere, ingentique urbem obsidione premebat. Romanos accipere

(NOTES. what had been foretold,” by preceding pro- be called Curites, or Quirites, from Cures. phets. Davidson says of Vulcan : “ A pro- Sinè more: without regard to law or right. phet not unskilful,” taking ignarus vatum Servius says, absque exemplo, whom Ruæus in the sense of ignarus vates vel propheta. follows: without precedent, or example. Da

628. Ignipotens : a name of Vulcan ; of vidson thinks it should be taken in the sense ignis and potens. Fecerat : in the sense of of malo more : wickedly-atrociously. For, expresserat.

says he: Romulus, solatus earum mæstitiam, 630. Fetam: not pregnant, but in the docuit, non injuriâ sed connubii causâ, ipsas sense of enixam : having just brought forth raptas esse ; et demonstravit moren istum et her young. This description is thought to Græcum et antiquum esse. Ex Dionysio. have been taken from a statue of Romulus 636. Concessu caveæ : in the crowded circus and Remus sucking the wolf, that was in -in the asseinbly of the circus : when the the capitol in Virgil's time. See Æn. i. 274. great Circensian games were celebrated.

.635. Sabinas raptas. After Romulus had For caveæ, see Geor. ii. 381. founded his city, he became sensible that 638. Romulidis : dat. of Romulida, the a body of men could not long be kept to- Romans, so called from Romulus. Curibus gether, without soine common bond ; nor severis. Cures, was a city of the Sabines : by could his state continue long without meton. put for the inhabitants. These are

He therefore proposed alliances again put by synec. for the Sabines in gewith his neighbors, for the purpose of ob- neral. They were a people remarkable for taining wives for his subjects; but they re- their integrity and rigid virtue. Hence the fused any connexion with a band of ruffians. epithet severis. He then conceived the plan of taking them 640. Tenentes pateras : holding goblets by violence. For this purpose he instituted ready to offer libations on the altar. sports, which were then called Consuales, 642. Metium distulerant. The poet, senafterward Circenses. In these he invited his sible that the story of Metius might shock neighbors, especially the Sabines, from the the humanity of his reader, is careful to recity Cures, and upon a signal given, the Ro- mind him of the cause, for which the Romans were to rush upon the woinen, and man king was so terribly severe, both in convey them to their own homes. This they his apostrophe to the traitor, and in giving did, in violation of good faith, and every him the epithet of mendax, false or treacheprinciple of justice. War immediately en- See nom. prop. under Metius. sued between the two states, which however 645. Rorabant: in the sense of distillabant. was settled between Tatius king of the Sa- 646. Porsenna. He was king of the bines, and Romulus, upon these conditions : Etrusci, and took part with Tarquin after the Sabines should migrate to Rome; the his expulsion, and endeavored to restore government should be administered jointly him to his throne. And he came near efby the two kings; that Rome should re- fecting it. He took possession of Janicutain its name; but that the citizens should luin, on the western bank of the Tiber

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650

655

Æneadæ in ferrum pro libertate ruebant.
Illum indignanti similem, similemque minanti
Aspiceres, pontein auderet quòd vellere Cocles,

Et fluvium vinclis innaret Clælia ruptis.
652. In summo clypeo In summo custos 'Tarpeiæ Manlius arcis
Manlius, custos Stabat pro templo, et Capitolia celsa tenebat :

Romuleoque recens horrebat regia culmo.fiateh
Atque hic auratis volitans argenteus anser
Porticibus, Gallos in limine adesse canebat:
Galli

per dumos aderant, arcemque tenebant,

Defensi tenebris, et dono noctis opacæ. 659. Erat ollis aurea Aurea cæsaries

Virgatis lucent sagulis? tum lactea coila 662. Protecti quoad Gæsa manu, scutis protecti corpora longis.

Auro innectuntur; duo quisque Alpina coruscant corpora 663. Hic extuderat

Hic exsultantes Salios, nudosque Lupercos, exsultantes Salios Lanigerosque apices, et lapsa alicilia cælo,

660

NOTES.

access

over which a bridge was built to connect it the time the Gauls held possession of Rome, with the main city. This bridge was de- an attempt was made to seize upon the fended on the western end by Cocles, against capitol in the dead of the night. The only the Etruscan army, as they attempted to was by a narrow passage. The pass it, until the Romans on the eastern Gauls had succeeded in eluding the guards; shore broke it down. After which he cast and an alarm was given by the noise of a himself into the river, and swam to his flock of geese, which was near this private friends. By this means the city was saved. passage: and by that means the capitol was See nom. prop. under Tarquinius.

saved. The goose, afterward was held in 648. Æneadæ : the Romans, so called from high estimation. To this circunstance the Æneas.

poet here alludes. 649. Illum : Porsenna.

656. Canebat : in the sense of monebat, 651. Clelia. One of the conditions of vel indicabat. peace exacted by Porsenna of the Romans, 658. Dono : by the favor-assistance. was the surrender of their virgins to him as 659. Aurea cæsuries, &c. Here we have hostages. Among these hostages was Cle- a description of the Gauls, and an account lia. Under the pretence of bathing herself, of their armor. They are said by Livy and she eluded her guards, and with some others others to have had long yellow hair, and a mounted their horses, and swam over the remarkable white neck. Their hair, thereTiber. Porsenna demanded her, and she fore, the poet calls aurea, golden, and their was restored. But he set her at liberty with necks lactea, milk-white. such other of the hostages, as she thought 660. Sagulis. The sagulum was a cloak proper to name. The Romans presented her

or upper garment worn by the ancient with an equestrian statue.

Gauls. It was streaked or striped with 652. Manlius. In the year of Rome 364, different colors. Hence the epithet virthe Gauls, under Brennus, routed the Ro- gatis. man army at the river Allium, and pro- 661. Auro: in the sense of aureis moni

ceeded to Rome and took it. Marcus Man- libus. Ilius collected a body of men, threw himself 662. Gæsa. The gæsum was a long, but

into the capitol, and defended it. By this a light and slender spear, so that two of ineans the city was saved. See 347. supra. them could easily be carricd in one's hand.

654. Regia horrebat : the palace appeared They are here called Alpina, because pecu rough, and newly repaired with Romulian liar to the Gauls, who inhabited about the straw. This thatched palace of Romulus, Alps. which was built on mount Capitolinus, was 663. Salios. See 285. supra. Lupercos. repaired from time to time, as it fell to de. See 343. supra. cay. Virgil here represents it as standing 664. Lanigeros apices : woollen caps. Anin the time of Manlius, 327 years after the cilia. The ancile was a kind of oval shield, death of Romulus. It was held in great worn only by the priests of Mars on certain veneration, as a monument of their ancient days. One of them is said to have fallen frugality.

from heaven in the reign of Numa ; aliu 6:55. Argenteus anser. It is said that at to have portended that the city of Rome

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Extuderat : castæ ducebant sacra per urbem 665
Pilentis matres in mollibus. Hinc procul addit
Tartareas etiam sedes, alta ostia Ditis :
Et scelerum pænas: nt te, Catilina, minaci
Pendentem scopulo, Furiarumque ora trementem :
Secretosque pios: his dantem jura Catonein. 670

670. Piosque secretos Hæc inter tumidi latè maris ibat imago

ab impiis : et Catonem Aurea, sed fluctu spumabant cerula cano

672. Sed cærula æquo

ra spumabant cano fucEt circûm argento clari delphines in orbem Æquora verrebant caudis, æstumque secabant. In inedio classes æratas, Actia bella,

675 675. In medio marı Cernere erat: totumque instructo Marte videres Fervere Leucaten, auroque effulgere fluctus. Hinc Augustus agens Italos in prælia Cæsar, Cum patribus, populoque, Penatibus, et magnis Dis, Stans celsâ in puppi: geminas cui tempora flammas

tu

erat cernere

NOTES.

waves.

should become most powerful, and be ren- laws to those in Elysium, who are establishdered invinsible, so long as that remained ed in perfection and virtue? Perhaps by in it.

jura, we are to understand their rights or 665. Exluderat : had represented. Ruæus just rewards. This Cato was distinguished zays, sculpseral.

for his integrity and rigid virtue. 666. Pilentis, &c. In the war with the ceeds to the ever memorable victory which

671. Inler hæc, &c. The poet now proVeientes, Camillus vowed an offering of gold to Apollo of Delphi ; and not having it in Augustus obtained over Antony and Cleohis power to perforin it, the women of dis- patra on the shores of Epirus, near Actium, tinction brought together their jewels, and

in the year of Rome 723. Upon this, the presented them to him. Whereupon they poet exerts all the energy of his mind, with

à view to immortalize the name of his received the honor of being carried at the public shows, and other exhibitions, in light prince. The previous description of the

sea is a painting which nothing can surpass. coaches (pilentis mollibus) at the public ex

Imago ibat : the surface of the wide-swellpense.

ing sea was golden. Ibat: in the sense of 668. Catilina. L. Sergius Catiline was erat vel apparebat. of patrician rank, but of a very abandoned

672. Cærula. Maria is understood. This character. He twice sought the consulate, expresses the waters in general, without and was as often disappointed; which so en

any particular reference to color in this raged him, that he entered into a conspiracy place. Cano fluctu: with white silvered with some others to murder the consuls and burn the city. The whole plot was disco

673. Clari : shining in silver. vered by the vigilance of Cicero, and Ca- 674. Æslum: in the sense of fluctus vel tiline expelled from Rome. He afterward perished on the field of battle, about the mid

675. Aclia bella: the Actic fight. Actia: dle of December, 58 years before the Chris

an adj. from Actium, a promontory of EpiHis associates also perished, many rus, where Augustus gained a complete vicof them miserably, by the hand of the pub- tory over Antony and Cleopatra, in the lic executioner. Sallust has given a full year of Rome 723. This victory placed account of this most daring conspiracy, Augustus securely on the imperial throne. written in purely classic style.

Æratas : brazen beaked. 670. Catonem. Some understand Cato 676. Instructo marte: with the marshalled the Censor; but others, with more reason, fight. Leucaten. See Æn. iii. 274. perhaps, Cato Uticensis. La Cerda hicre 678. Hinc Augustus, &c. Here the poet censures Virgil very much in making Cato arranges the respective armies. On the one give laws in hell to gratify Augustus. But, side, Augustus, with his Italian forces, the it is to be observed, that Cato does not sus- fathers of his country, and its guardian tain that character in the place of the con- gods. On the other side, Antony, with his demned; but in the abodes of the blessed. foreign forces, and the gods of Egypt. Every Beside, it could not be a dishonor to Cato to line is beyond expression admirable. be ranked with Minos and Rhadamanthus, 680. Cui læla tempora : whose joyous those distinguished legislators. A question temples, &c. Cui: in the sense of cujus. may here arise: what is the use of giving Geminas flammas. Some refer this to bi

mare.

tian era.

Læta vomunt, patriumque aperitur vertice sidus. 681 682. In alia parte erat Parte aliâ, ventis et Dîs Agrippa secundis, Agrippa

Arduus, agmen agens: cui, belli insigne superbum, 683. Cui tempora ful

Tempora navali fulgent rostrata coronâ. gent, rostrata navali corona

Hinc ope barbaricâ variisque Antonius armis 685 685. Hinc victor An- Víctor, ab Auroræ populis et litore rubro tonius, barbaricâ ope, Ægyptum, viresque Orientis, et ultima secum variisque armis, vehit Bactra vehit: sequiturque, nefas! Ægyptia conjux. entis, et ultima Bactra Unà omnes ruere, ac totum spumare reductis secumn, usque ab populis Convulsum remis rostrisque tridentibus æquor. 690

689. Omnes videntur Alta petunt: pelago credas innare revulsas
ruere unà, ac totuin Cycladas, aut montes concurrere montibus altos :
æquor

Tantâ mole viri turritis puppibus instant.
Stuppea flamma manu, telisque volatile ferrum

NOTES.

crown.

helmet, the cone or tuft of which had red The same was the end of Cleopatra, who fiery plumes. Others, to his diadem, which died by the bite of asps, which she kept fur was set with sparkling gems.

that purpose.

The army of Antony was 681. Patrium sadus. This alludes to the made up chiefly of Asiatics. Hence popumanner in which he used to be represented lis Auroræ : from the nations of the mornin the Roman sculpture, having over his ing—of the east. Variis armis : with varihead the star into which his adopted father ous arms—with arms of various kingdoms Julius Cæsar was supposed to have been and nations. changed. Vomunt flammas. The poet here 686. Rubro litore : from the coast of the imitates Homer in his description of the Red sea. This sea separates Egypt from helmet of Diomede.

Arabia. Victor. This is mentioned with 682. Agrippa: a noble Roman, and high- reference to his victory and triumph over the ly honored by his prince. To his skill and Parthians. It is added to do honor to Auconduct, the victory at Actium was chiefly gustus in conquering so formidable an owing. He was the son-in-law of Augus- enemy. tus, and also his adopted son. He died in 688. Bactra: neu. plu.: a principal city the year of the city 742. Secundis: in the of Bactriana, a country lying to the southsense of propiliis.

east of the Caspian sea, put, by synec. for 684. Rostrata : adorned with the naval the whole country. The Romans, like the

This crown was bestowed on such Greeks before them, called all other nations as signalized themselves in an engagement barbarians. So here the forces of Antony at sea.

It was set around with figures like are called, barbarica opes. Ultima: the the beaks of ships.

farthest, or most remote part of the empire. 685. Antonius. Marcus Antonius was Ægyplia conjux : Cleopatra. the companion of Julius Cæsar in all his 690. Reduclis remis : with laboring oars. expeditions, and was magister equitum du- Reductis, shows the men laboring at the oar, ring his dictatorship. After the death of Cåe- and with all their might pulling home every sar, he was triumvir with Octavius (after- stroke. Tridentibus rostris : with trident ward Augustus) and Lepidus. He over- beaks. See Æn. v. 143. threw the army of Brutus and Cassius, and 692. Cycladas. The Cyclades were a cluswith thein the hopes of the republicans, on ter of islands in the Ægean sea. Delos, one the plains of Philippi. He performed many of them, was the birth-place of Apollo and noble deeds for his country, and triumphed Diana. The poet likens the ships, on acover the Parthians in the year of Rome count of their maguitude, to these islands 716. He put away his wife for the sake of floating on the sea, and to mountains enOctavia, the sister of Augustus. He put gaging with one another. The comparison her away in turn, and married Cleopatra, is of the noblest kind. queen of Egypt; whereupon he was decla- 693. Turritis puppibus. These were ships red an enemy by the Senate. War vas im- that had turrets or towers erected on their mediately declared against him. The two decks; from which the soldiers threw all armies, or rather feets, engaged at Actium, manner of weapons, as if they had been on a promontory of Epirus. Antony was dry land; and so engaged with the greatest vanquished, and Aed to Alexandria in Egypt, fury imaginable. Of so great size or bulk: which was soon besieged; and was taken tantâ mole. the following year. He killed himself, to 694. Stuppea flamma. These were bun. prevent falling into the hands of his enemies. dles of tow or hemp set on fire, and cast on

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