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383. Thetis filia Nerei Arma rogo, genitrix nato. Te filia Nerei, potuit flectere te, et Ti: Te potuit lachrymis Tithonia flectere conjux. thonia conjux potuit flectere te suis lachry
Aspice, qui coëant populi, quæ mænia clausis mis
Ferrum acuant portis, in metexcidiumque meorum.
hinc Diva lacertis 388. Fovet Deum Cunctantem amplexu mollitovet: ille repentè
am- Accepit solitam flammam à notusque medullas plexu.
Intravit calor, et Tabefacta per ossa cucurrit :
Ignea rima micans percurrit lumine nimbos. 393 Conjux ejus læta Sensit lætă dolis, et formæ conscia conjux. dolis, et conscia forme
Tum pater æterno fatur devinctus amore: suæ sensit id
Quid causas petis ex alto ? 'fiducia cessit
si bellare paras, atque hæc tibi mens est :
Quantùm ignes animæque valent: absiste precando aniinæque valent, pro
Viribus indubitare tuis. Ea verba locutus, mitto id:
Optatos dedit amplexus: placidumque petivit
Inde, ubi prima quies medio jam noctis abactæ
mother for a son. Verbs of asking, &c. go 395. Quid causas petis : why do you seek vern two accusatives.
reasons from far?
Instead of coming to 383. Filiu Nerei : the daughter of Ne- the point at once, you have recourse to far
—Thetis, the reputed mother of Achil- fetched arguments. les. See Ecl. iv. 37.
398. Nec pater. It hath been observed by 384. Tithonia conjux: Aurora.
commentators, upon this and similar pas385. Mænia : cities—fortified towns. Here sages of Virgil, that though the fates could put for the inhabitants, by meton. Acuant: not be changed, they might be deferred. But sharpen-prepare.
Mr. Dryden hath made it appear, that this 386. In me: against me. Venus here very deferring is in consequence of a decree. identifies herself with Æneas and the Trojans. In this sense these words of Vulcan are to
338. Cunctantem : hesitating-loth to un be understood. Troy did fall at such a dertake the business.
time; but it was not necessary it should. 391. Alque : in the sense of quàm. Olim: The fates would have permitted me to defer sometimes. This word signifies time past, its doom for ten years longer; and I would future, and indefinite. This last is the have done it, if you had desired it : but I meaning here.
could have done it no longer-it being then 392. Ignea rima, Ruæus says, flammeus destined to be destroyed. hiatw, apertus fuigenli fulmine. Nimbos : 401. Curæ : skill. in the sense of nubes. Servius, whom Dr. 402. Liquido electro. A composition of Trapp follows, takes corusco, for darted or gold and silver is called electrum. Plody brandished. Ruæus interprets it by ful- makes the proportion to be four fifths of genti, shining. The former is the best, in- silver, and one fifth of gold. Here put for asmuch as thunder does not shine; it is the metals in general: the species for the genus. lightning alone thai becomes visible. There 403. Animæ : the wind or breath of the may be reference here to the darting of the bellows. Absiste : cease to distrust your thunderbolt of Jove. It pierces the cloud, power at entreaty. and disengages the lightning, which, let 406. Infusus gremio: and resting on the loose, runs across the heavens in forked bosom of his spouse, he sought soft sleep, light. Ignea rima, very beautifully ex &c. Ruæus says, jacens. presses a stream of fire, bursting through a 407. Medio curriculo noctis jam : in the rived cloud-lightning.
middle course of night, now being past. 394. Pater : Vulcan is meant,
This marks the time to be just after mid
Cui tolerare colo vitam tenuigues citat ignes,l!e 2.13.410 leraren
Curriculo expulerat somnum; cùm fæmina, primum 408. Cùm fæmina, cui
est primum officium to
lcrare vitam colo Impositum cinerem Noctem addens operi, famulasque ad lumina longo
7 * * *Exercet penso ; castum ut servare cubile
418. Subter quam spe. Antra Ætnæa tonant, validique incudibus ictus
cus, et Etnæa antra ex. Auditi referunt gemitum, striduntque cavernis
420 esa caminis Cyclopum Stricturæ Chalybum, et fornacibus ignis anhelat; Vulcani domus, et Vulcania nomine tellus.
422. Hæc est domus
Vulcani, et tellus dicta Huc tunc ignipotens cælo descendit ab alto.
est Vulcania, ejus noFerrum exercebant vasto Cyclopes in antro,
mine. Brontesque, Steropesque, et nudus membra Pyracmon. 426. Erat his in maHis informatum manibus jam parte politâ
426 nibus fulmen informaFulmen erat; toto genitor quæ plurima cælo
tum ex illis, quæ pluri
ma genitor Deorum deDejicit in terras ; pars imperfecta manebat.
jicit toto cælo in terras, Tres imbris torti radios, tres nubis aquosæ
parte jam polità:
NOTES. night. Rest is here said to expel sleep, be- earth. As the eruptions of Ætna are matcause, when we have taken rest, sleep be- ters of fact, the poet, with much judgment, comes unnecessary. Curriculo: circle- places the forge of the Cyclops in the neighcourse. Ruæus says, spatio.
borhood of that mountain. The whole de409. Tenui Minerra. This may mean scription is of the noblest kind. Brontes, handycraft in general, or spinstry in parti- Steropes, and Pyracmon, were his principal cular. Or, perhaps, it is better to under- assistants. All of Greek derivation. stand it of the works of the loom.
418. Exesa: excavated-hollowed out by 410. Suscitat impositum, &c. Virgil here the forges of the Cyclops. connects the same verb with two substan 421. Strictura : bars of iron or steel. tives, when it can properly be used with one Chalybum. The Chalybes were a people of of thein only. This is frequent with him, Spain ; or, according to some, of Pontus, and is a beauty which our language will not celebrated for their iron works. Here, by admit. Cinerem impositum is, doubtless, the meton. put for iron and steel. ashes that cover the fire, which she first re 426. Informatum : unfinished. A part only moves; and then she kindles or awakes the was polished, the rest remaining in an imdormant fire (sopitos ignes) into a flame. perfect state. See Æn. vii. 431.
429. Tres radios torti imbris. By the torti 411. Addens noctem : adding the night to imbris, the wreathed shower, commentators her work-working in the night, before the understand hail. The torti expresses the approach of day.
violence with which hail in a storm is hurled 412. Castum: chaste-undefiled. Here or darted. Radios. These are the forks or the poet gives us a fine description of do- spikes with which lightning is painted or mestic industry, on the part of the mistress described. The form of thunder, to which of the house.
Virgil here seems to allude, is known from 414. Ignipotens : a name of Vulcan. Nec medals. It consisted of twelve wreathed segnior: nor less active--industrious than she. spikes or darts, extended like the radii of a
415. Ad fabrilia opera : to his mechanic circle, three and three together, with wings labors.
spread out in the middle. The wings de416. Insula erigitur, &c. Between Sicily note the lightning's rapid motion, and the and the Italian coast there are seven islands, spikes or darts, its per etrating quality. By called Æolidæ, from Æolus, who reigned the four different kin.is of spikes, Servius there; and Vulcaniæ, from Vulcanus, whose understands the four seasons of the year. forge was fabled to have been in one of them. According to him, the tres imbris torii ruThis is imitated from Homer. He, how- dios, or the three spikes of hail, denote the ever, places Vulcan's forge in heaven; Vir winter season, when hail-storms abound. gil, with more propriety, places it on the The tres nubis aquosæ radios, or the thre
Addiderant, rutili tres ignis et alitis Austri.
430 Fulgores nunc terrificos, sonitumque, metumque Miscebant operi, flammisque sequacibus iras.
Parte aliá Marti currumque rotasque volucres 434. Quibus ille exci- Instabant, quibus ille viros, quibus excitat urbcs . tat viros, quibus excitat Ægidaque horriferam, turbatæ Palladis arma, 435 urbes ad arma : 436. Certatimque po
Certatim squamis serpentum auroque polìbant ; libant horriferam Ægida, Connexosque angues, ipsamque in pectore Divæ arma turbatæ Palladis Gorgona, desecto vertentem lumina collo. squamis
Tollite cuncta, inquit, cæptosque auferte labores, 438. Gorgonaque ip- Ætnæi Cyclopes, et huc advertite mentem.
440 sam in pectore Dive
Arma acri facienda viro : nunc viribus usus, 439. Vulcanus inquit, Nunc manibus rapidis, omni nunc arte magistrâ : Vos, 0 Ætnæi Cyclopes, Præcipitate moras. Nec plura effatus. At illi tollite cuncta hæc Ocyùs incubuêre omnes, pariterque laborem 441. Nunc est usus Sortiti. Fluit æs rivis, aurique metallum ;
Vulnificusque chalybs vastå fornace liquescit.
Tela Latinorum ; septenosque orbibus orbes
Illi inter sese multâ vi brachia tollunt
455 volucrum sub culmine
Et matutini volucrum sub culmine cantus. suscilant Evandrum ex humili teclo, aima lux Consurgit senior, tunicâque inducitur artus, suscitat eum.
Et Tyrrhena pedum circundat vincula plantis.
spikes of a watery cloud, denote the spring Æn. ii. 616. Desecto collo : her neck being season, which is called imbriferum ver, be cut off. cause rain then abounds. The tres rutuli 444. Incubuêre: they applied vigorously-ignis radios, or the three spikes of sparkling they set about it in earnest. fire, denote the suminer season, when light 445. Sorlili : having distributed by lotning is most frequent. The tres alilis Aue having assigned to each one his.part. stri radios, or the three spikes of winged 446. Chalybs : steel. See 421, supra.wind, denote the autumual season, when also, Geor. i. 58. Unum: alonc sufficient. storms of wind are frequent and violent. 449. Impediunt: they involve or infold
430. Addiderant. This part they had seven orbs in orbs. Riæus says, conneccoinpleted; therefore he uses the plu. perf. tunt. Alii accipiunt : simply, some blow tense: they had done with it. But in the the bellows, others put, &c. following line, he says, nunc miscebant: they 451. Lacu :'the trough. were now iningling with the work, the ter 452. Ili tollunt brachia. In the very turn rific lightning, &c. This distinction of tense of the verse, we see them lifting up, and is worthy of notice.
letting fall their hammers alternately, and 432. Sequacibus: persecuting-avenging. kecping tinie with one another. In nume
433. Horriferam. Pierius informs us that in regular motion-keeping stroke this is the true reading of all the ancient with one another. manuscripts. Heyne reads, horriferam. Da 454. Lemnius pater : Vulcan. He was vidson reads the same. Valpy and Rureus banished from heaven to Lemnos, an island have horrificam. Turbatæ : in the sense of in the Ægean sea, not far from the Hellesiratæ.
pont. See Geor. i. 295. 436. Squamis serpentum auroque : with 457. Inducitur: in the sense of induit the scales of serpents and gold; by hend. vel vestit. for anreis squamis serpentum. Polibant: in 458. Tyrrhena vincula: he binds his Tusthe sense of ornabani.
can sandals to the bottom of his feet. Thoso 438. Gorgona: acc. sing. of Gorgon. See sandals were of wood, about four inches
Tum lateri atque humeris Tegeæum subligat ensem, Danet:
Demissa ab lævå pantheræ terga retorquens.
460. Retorquens in Necnon et gemini custodes limine ab alto
destran terga panthere Procedunt, gressumque canes comitantur herilem. Hospitis Æneæ sedem et secreta petebat, Sernionum memor et promissi muneris, heros. hi iary, vorige Nec minùs Æneas se matutinus agebat. is con sunt 465 Filius huic Pallas, olli comes ibat Achates.
466. Pallas filius ibat
huic Evandro ; Congressi jungunt dextras, mediisque residunt
Achates ibat comes olli Ædibus, et licito tandem sermone fruuntur.
470 Res equidem Trojæ victas aut regna fatebor.
471. Nunquam equi
dem fatebor res Trojæ Nobis ad belli auxilium pro nonine tanto
victas esse, aut regna Exiguæ vires. Hinc 'Tusco claudimur amni;
Sunt nobis Hinc Rutulus premit, et murum circumnsonat armis. exiguæe Sed tibi ego ingentes populos, opulenta que regnis 475 474. Premit nos, et Jungere castra paro, quam fors inopina salutem
circumsonat nostrum Ostentat : fatis huc te poscentibus affers.
480 Hanc multos florentem annos' rex deinde superbo
481. Deinde rex Me
zentius tenuit hanc urImperio et sævis tenuit Mezentius armis.
bem florentem multos Quid memorem imandas cædes ? quid facta tyranni Effera ? Dî capiti ipsius generique reservent !
484. Dî reservent talia Mortua quin etiam jungebat corpora vivis,
485 capiti ipsius, generique. Componens manibusque manus atque oribus ora,
broad, and fastened to the feet with gilded which bounded his territory on the west, and thongs. The poet here makes a very hap- divided it from the Tuscans. py transition from the smoke, fire, and noise 476. Paro: Ruæus says, meditor. of Vulcan's cavern, to the sweet air of the
478. Fundata: structa antiquis lapidimorning, and the charming music of birds. 459. Tegeæum : an adj. from Tegea, a
bus, says Ruæus. city of Arcadia, where Pan was especially 479. Agyllinæ : an adj. from Agylla, a worshipped: Arcadian.
city of Etruria or Tuscany. It was planted 460. Retorquens terga, &c. This panther's by a Lydian colony. It was afterward callskin was cast or thrown back over the righted Cerè. Hodie, Cerveteri. Lydia : an ex. shoulder, passed around, and hung down tensive country of Asia Minor: here used over the left. Terga : in the sense of pels as an adjective. Part of it was called Mælem.
onia. 461. Gemini canes, &c. These two dogs,
480. Etruscis jugis : on the Tuscan mounthat are all the guard Evander has, gives us
tains. a lively image of the poverty and simplicity
482. Mesentius tenuit, &c. This story is of that good monarch.
of importance to the subject, and very pro463. Secrela : private apartments, which perly introduced in this place. For, without Æneas occupied.
the auxiliary forces of the Tuscans, Æncas 464. Muneris : aid-assistance.
could not have carried on the war. The 465. Agebat : in the sense of movebat.
tyranny of Mezentius gives an air of proba468. Licito : free-unrestrained.
bility to the whole. 471. Res Trojæ : the power of Troy. 485. Quin etiam jungebat : moreover he
472. Pro tanlo nomine : for, or in propor- joined dead bodies to the living, putting, &c. tion to, the greatness of the Trojan namne; The invention of this cruel kind of punishor the greatness of the cause in which he ment, is ascribed, by Cicero and others, to was about to engage.
Virgil takes occasion hence 473. Exiguæ vires: small ability, or means to form a character of uncommon barbarity to support, &c. Tusco amni: the Tiber, in one of his personages.
487. Genus tormenti! Tormenti genus ! et sanie taboque fluentes, et sic necabat homines Complexu in misero, longá sic morte necabat. fluentes sanie taboque, At fessi tandem cives infandà furentem in hoc misero
Armati circumsistunt, ipsumque, domumque : 490 491. Jactant ignem Obtruncant socios, ignem ad fastigia jactant. ad fastigia ejus regiæ. Ille inter cædes Rutulorum elapsus in agros
493. Cæpit confugere Confugere, et Turni defendier hospitis armis. et defendier armis
Ergò omnis furiis surrexit Etruria justis,
Sau 498. Retinet eos: di- Signaque ferre jubent. Retinet longævus aruspex, cens, O delecta juventus, Fata canens: 0 Mæoniæ delecta juventus,
499 Flos veterum virtusque virûm ; quos justus in hostem 501. Et quos Mezen-Fert dolor, et merită accendit Mezentius irâ li hai merezi tius accendit merita irâ ; Nulli fas Italo tantam subjungere gentem : est fas nulli Italo
Externos optate duces. Tum Etrusca resedit
Hoc acies campo, monitis exterrita Divům. 505. Tarchon ipse mi- Ipse oratores ad me regnique coronam
505 Cum sceptro misit, mandatque insignia, Tarchon : 507. Rogans ut suc- Succedam castris, Tyrrhenaque regna capessam. cedam
509. Viresque jam ni. Sed mihi tarda gelu, sæclisque effæta, senectus mis seræ ad fortia facta
Invidet imperium, seræque ad fortia vires. invident mihi. Exhor- Natum exhortarer, ni, mixtus matre Sabella 510 tarer meum natum fucere Hinc partem patriæ traheret. Tu, cujus et annis
Et generi fatum indulget, quem numina poscunt, 515. Adjungam hunc Hunc tibi prætereà, spes et solatia nostrî,
Ingredere, Ô Teucrûm atque Italûm fortissime ductor. meum filium Pallanta tibi, spes, et solatia nosPallanta adjungam. Sub te tolerare magistro
515 trî; ut sub te magistro Militiam, et grave Martis opus, tua cernere facta
487. Genus tormenti : 0 horrid kind of 501. Dolor: in the sense of indignatio torture! This is the sense of Ruæus and Fert: in the sense of impellit. Valpy. But Heyne and Davidson take them 502. Subjungere : to subduc. not as an exclamation. Fluentes : wasting 503. Resedit : sat down. Acies : troops -pining away:
in general. Optate : choose ye. 489. Infandà : an adj. neu. plu. taken as
504. Monitis : admonitions—prophetic an adverb, in imitation of the Greeks : in declarations. Ruæus says, oraculo. The the sense of immaniter..
same with fata, verse 499. 490. Circumsistunt : in the sense of obsident.
506. Mandatque: and commits the en
These 491. Socios : his friends—those who ad- signs (or badges) of royalty to me. hered to the king. Their houses were co
were the crown and sceptre just mentioned. vered with straw, cven the palaces of kings ;
508. Tarda gelu: benumbed by the frost which was the reason of their throwing fire of age. This is highly metaphorical. Sæon the roof of Mezentius's palace.
clis. Sæculum properly signifies the space 493. Defendier : by paragoge,
of thirty years; in which the old actors are 497. Puppes : the ships, by meton. for the already gone off the stage, and new ones
Thus Nestor is troops in them. Fremunt: impatient for the have arisen in their room.
said to have lived three ages, or ninety 498. Ferre signa : to bear forward the years, as Plutarch explains it. Sæclis : by standards—to march. A military phrase. syn. for sæculis : here used in the sense of
499. Mæonia. Mæonia is a country of annis. Effæta : worn out-enfeebled. Lydia, in Asia Minor, wherce a colony re 510. Sabellâ matre: his Sabine mother moved to Tuscany, and sctled. They built by her, he became heir to a part of her na. the city Agylla. Lyrica and Mæonia are tive country. It was therefore inconsistent used, however, some cines indiscriininately with his duty to his people, to accept of the for the same country.