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Térribiles oculos, vultum, villosaque setis, m.img
Pectora semiferi, atque extinctos faucibus ignes.

267. Pectora semiferi Ex illo celebratus honos, lætique minores

Caci villosa Servavere diem ; primusque Potitius auctor,

268. Ex illo tempore

honos Herculis celebraEt domus Herculei custos Pinaria sacri,


tus est Hanc aram luco statuit ; quæ maxima semper

270. Et Pinaria doDicetur nobis, et erit que


mus, custos Herculei

sacri Quare agite, ô juvenes, tantarum in munere laudum,

Cingite fronde comas, et pocula pôrgite dextris ; The compu
Communemque vocate Deum, et date vina volentes. 275. Herculem com-
Dixerat. Herculeâ bicolor cùm populus umbrâ 276 munem Deum,
Velavitque comas, foliisque innexa pependit;
Et sacer implevit dextrain scyphus. Ocyùs omnes
In 'mensam læti libant, Divosque precantur. yanid

Devexo intereà propior fit vesper Olympo : 280
Jamque sacerdotes, primusque Potitius, ibant,
Pellibus in morem cincti, flammasque ferebant.
Instaurant epulas, et mensæ'grata secundæ Wa

235 Tum Salii evincti Dona ferunt, cumulanıque oneratis lancibus aras.

quoad tenipora populeis Tum Salii ad cantus, incensa altaria circum 285 ramis adsunt

more people are not NOTES. 269. Auctor : institutor-founder.

278. Scyphus : a large vessel or cup used 270. Domus : in the sense of familia. Sa- by Hercules, and sacred to that god. It is cri: in the sense of sacrificii, says Ruæus. of Greek origin. Custos: keeper--preserver. Ruæus inter 280. Vesper fit : the evening becomes prets it by ministra ; which implies that this nearer, the heaven being set—the day being family performed the offerings and sacrifices closed. This is said according to the notion to Hercules themselves. Davidson renders of those philosophers, who taught that the it : “ the depository of this institution sacred whole heavens revolve about the earth in to Hercules.”

the space of twenty-four hours. As the 271. Quæ dicetur: which shall always be henrisphere of day sets, that of the night called the greatest by us, &c. Dionysius arises. Devexo Olympo : the day drawing informs us that this was the altar on which toward a close. This is the better version. Hercules offered the tenth of his spoils. On For night had not yet arrived. It was only that account it became the object of their fast approaching-it was coming near. chief veneration; and was therefore called 282. Cincti : clad in skins according to maxima, to distinguish it from the numerous custom. This custom was founded on the altars, which that hero had in Italy.

habit of Hercules, which was the skin of a 273. Munere tantarum : in the celebration lion. of so great virtue, &c. Laudum : praisc 284. Cumulant aras : they heap the alworthy deeds. Munus, says Donatus, dici- tars with full chargers. La Cerda undertur cura cujusque rei perficiendæ imposita stands this of the incense, which, on solenn cum necessilate faciendi.

occasions, used to be offered on broad plates. 275. Communcm Deum. Those gods were This seems to agree best with the following called communes, or common, who were wor words: circum incensa altaria : around the shipped on account of their general good, altars burning with incense. Others refer it or utility. Such were Mars and Mercury. to the dona' secundæ mensæ; the fruits and Hercules was one of them. The Arcadians, other delicacies which used to be served up Trojans, and Italians, equally worshipped in the second course ; and, in the sacred them.

banquets, were first presented on the altar 276. Populus bicolor, &c. The poplar tree by way of consecration. The ancients diwas sacred to Hercules, because, in his de- vided their feasts into one, two, and somescent to hell, he made himself a crown of the times three courses, or tables : the first leaves of that tree. The part next his head course consisted of meats, which being reretained its color, while the outer part be- moved, a second course was brought on, came black with the smoke of the infernal consisting of fruits, deserts, wine, &c. They regions. Hence it is called bicolor : double were denominated prima mensa, secunda colored. Herculeå umbra : with its Hercu- mensa, &c. lean shade.

.285. Salii. These were a choir of twelve 277. Innexa : in the sense of implicata. men of patrician order, first instituted by

who detts

and curo


287. Hic est chorus Populeis adsunt evincti tempora ramis. juvenuın, ille est chorus Hic juvenum chorus, ille senum ; 'qui carmine laudes senuin ; qui 288. Ut premens ma

Herculeas et facta ferunt: ut prima novercæ nu eliserit prima mon

Monstra manu, geminosque preniens eliserit angues, stra novercæ Junonis, Ut bello egregias idem disjecerit urbes,

290 geminosque angries :

Trojamque, chaliamque ; ut duros mille labores 293. Tu, O invicte he- Rege sub Eurystheo, fatis Junonis iniquæ, ros, mactas bimembres

Pertulerit. nubigenas

Tu nubigenas, invicte, bimembres, 296. Cerberus janitor Hylæumque, Pholumque manu ; tu Cressia mactas Ocri, recubans cruento Prodigia, et vastum Nemeæ sub rupe leonem. 295 antro super semesa ossa, Te Stygii tremuere lacus : te janitor Orci, tremuit te : nec ulla fa- Ossa super recubans antro semesa cruento. cies terruerunt te 300. Lernæus anguis

Nec te ullæ facies, non terruit ipse Typhæus cum turba capitum cir. Arduus, arma tenens: non te rationis egentem cumstetit te non egen- Lernæus turbâ capitum circumstetit anguis.

300 tem rationis.

Salve, vera Jovis proles, decus addite Divis; 302. Tu dexter adi et Et nos, et tua dexter adi pede sacra secundo. nos et tua sacra


NOTES. Numa in honor of Mars. Virgil supposes imposed on him the severest labors, at the that Evander was the founder of it in ho- instance of Juno, with an intention to des. nor of Hercules, so called from salio. Evan- troy him. Juno was the bitter enemy of der divided his band into two choirs; the her stepson. Hence she is called inique one consisting of youths, the other of old men. Junonis. Fatis : by the order-destination.

286. Adsunt : in the sense of accedunt vel Per potestatem Junonis, says Ruæus. saltant. Cantus: music-song. Ruæus 293. Nubigenas : the cloud-born sons.says, inter cantus.

They were fabled to have been the sons of 288. Ferunt carmine : they celebrate in Icion and Nubes. Their upper part was song the praises of Hercules, and his heroic human, their lower part a horse. Hence deeds. The chief of these are ten, which they are called bimembres : double membered. are denominated labors. 1. When in his The truth of the fable is this : Mount Pe. cradle, he killed the two serpents that Juno lion was infested by a species of wild cattle sent to devour him; 2. He took Troy in the or bulls, that proved very troublesome to the reign of Laomedon, because he refused to inhabitants of the adjacent country. Ixion, pay the promised reward for delivering his king of Thessaly, offered a great reward to daughter Hesione from a whale; 3. He any who should destroy them. Whereupon, destroyed the city of Echalia, in Thessaly, the young men of a village called Nephele because Eurytus, its king, refused to give undertook it. For this purpose they mounthim his daughter after he had promised her ed on horseback, and attacked them with to him; 4. The servitude imposed upon him such success, that, in a short time, they were by Eurystheus, king of Mycenæ ; 5. His utterly destroyed. Hence the fable of their victory over the centaurs, a people of Thes- being begotten by lxion on a cloud, Nephele saly; 6. His victory over the bull that ra- being the Greek word for a cloud. They vaged Crete. This bull vomited or breath were called Centauri, from the circumstance ed flames. Some say he killed him, others of their killing these bulls. 7'u, inricte. that he carried him to Eurystheus ; 7. His This is a beautiful transition from the third victory over the lion in the Nemæan grove; person to the second. This figure, properly 8. His descent into hell ; 9. He assisted the used, renders composition animated and gods in the war against the giants; 10. le lively. killed the hydra of a hundred heads in the 294. Cressia prodigia : the bull that lake of Lerna. It is said he built a funeral breathed fire, and the hind with brazen feet. pile on mount @la, in Thessaly, on which Prodigia : monsters. he threw himself; and having become pu 296. Tremuëre: in the sense of timuerunt. rified from all mortal pollution, he ascended 299. Egentem rationis : wanting presence to heaven, and took a rat ainong the gods. of mind-reason. Circumstetit : surroundSee Lex. under Hercules. Ferunt : in the ed-assaulted on every side. sense of memorant vel celebrant.

301. Addile: added to the gods as an 289. Premens : grasping in his hand, he honor to their assembly. Addite: a part. killed the first monsters, &c. Ut : how. agreeing with vera proles, in the voc.

292 Eurystheo. Eurystheus was king of 302. Dexter : favorable-propitious. Adi: Mycne, to whom Hercules was made sub- approach-visit. Ruæus says, veni. Sejeoʻ. by the fates for a term of years. He cundo pede : with favorable omens signs.

Speluncam adjiciunt, spirantemque ignibus ipsum. the Elsa fare are

not a

ralia carminibus celebrant; super omnia Caci
Consonat omne nemus strepitu, collesque resultant. 305

Exin se cuncti divinis rebus ad urbem
Perfectis referunt. Ibat rex obsitus ævo ;
Et comitem Æneam juxtà natumque tenebat
Ingrediens, varioque viam sermone levabat.
Miratur, facilesque oculos fert omnia circum 310
Æneas, capiturque locis ; et singula lætus
Exquiritque auditque virûm monumenta priorum.
Tum rex Evandrus, Romanæ conditor arcis :

313. Conditor Roma. Hæc nemora indigenæ Fauni Nymphæque tenebant,

næ arcis inquit: Fauni, Gensque virûm truncis et duro robore nata :


Nymphæque indigenæ,

gensque virûm nata Queis neque mos, neque cultus erat; nec jungere tauros, Aut componere opeś norânt, aut parcere parto ; Sed rami, atque asper victu venatus alebat. yerdded there Primus ab æthereo venit Saturnus Olympo, Arma Jovis fugiens, et regnis exul ademptis. A. a 320 Is genus indocile ac dispersum montibus altis Composuit, legesque dedit: Latiumque vocari

322. Maiuitque regiMaluit, his quoniam latuisset tutus in oris.

vocari Latium, Aurea, quæ perhibent, illo sub


Sæcula ; sic placidâ populos in pace regebat. 325
Deterior donec paulatiin ac decolor ætas,
Et belli rabies, et amor successit habendi.
Tum manus Ausoniæ, et gernes venêre Sicanæ :
Sæpiùs et nomen posuit Saturnia tellus.

330 Tum reges, asperque irnmani corpore Tybris ;

330. Tum reges vene

runt; asperque Tybris A quo pòst Itali fluvium cognomine Tybrim

ex immani corpore renil, Diximus : amisit verum vetus Albula nomen.

à quo nos Itali pòst





303. Super omnia: above all-in addition tion of the state of the spot where Rome to all other things.

was afterward built, and its comparison 307.Obsitus avo: sown thick with age, with its state when the poet wrote, must with gray hairs, and other marks of age. have been highly gratifying to his countryThis is a metaphor taken from a field of men.

318. Asper: in the sense of durus. 210. Faciles oculos: his rolling eyes-his 329. Regnis ademptis : his possessions eyes cager to observe the various scenes that (kingdom) being taken from him-banished presented to his view.

from his throne and kingdom. 311. Capitur: is captivated—charmed. 322. Composuit: he united together-he

312. Singula: all-every one. This word formed into society a race, &c. signifies all taken singly-one by one.

326. Donec deterior: till, by little and lit313. Conditor Romanæ arcis. Evander's tle, a depraved and corrupt age, and a rage city Pallanteum was built upon the hil, for war, &c. Here is an allusion to the sil. afterward called mons Palatinus ; where ver, brass, and iron ages. See Ecl. iv. 6. Romulus laid the foundation of Rome. 327. Habendi : of possessing-getting

314. Indigenæ : properly, a sub. here used wealth. as an adj.: born in the place-native of the 329. Posuit nomen: changed its name country-not foreign.

laid it down. 315. Gens virûm nata: a race of men 330. Tybris. He was a king of the Tug sprung from the trunks of trees and hard cans, and, being slain near the river, gave oak. At first men inhabited the deserts and his name to it. Its original name was Alforests. Hence they were thought to have bula. Some derive its name froin Tiberinns, sprung from trees. Mos: in the sense of king of the Albans, who was drowned in seges. Cultus : civil institutions.

it. Isper : fierce. 317. Aut parcere parto : or to use frugal 332.Diximus : called. Apellavimus, says 9 what they had acquired. This descrip- Ruæus.

posuere locis :


Me pulsum patriâ, pelagique extrema sequentem,
Fortuna omnipotens et ineluctabile fatum

: matrisque egêre tremenda 335 336. Tremendaque mo- Carmentis Nymphæ monita, et Deus auctor Apollo. nita Carmentis Nymphe meæ matris, et

Vix ea dicta, dehinc proyressus, monstrat et aram, Apollo auctor egêre me

Et Carmentalem Romano nomine portam, huc.

Quam memorant Nymphæ priscum Carmentis honorem 337. Vix ea dicta fue- Vatis fatidicæ ; cecinit quæ prima futuros

3.10 runt, dehinc Erander Æneadas magnos, et nobile Pallanteum. progressus monstrat 339. Quain homines

Hinc lucum ingentem, quem Romulus acer asylum memorant fuisse priscum Rettulit, et gelidâ monstrat sub rupe Lupercal, honorem Nymphæ Car- Parrhasio dictum Panos de more Lycæi. mentis Necnon et sacri monstrat nemus Argileti :

345 342. Hinc monstrat in- Testaturque locum, et letum docet hospitis Argi. gentein 347. Hinc ducit Æne- Hinc ad Tarpeiam sedem et Capitolia ducit,

Aurea nunc, olim sylvestribus horrida dumis.

Jam tum relligio pavidos terrebat agrestes 351. Evander inquit: Dira loci; jam tum sylvam saxumque tremebant. 350 Deus (sed quis Deus, est incertum,) habitat hoc Hoc nemus, hunc, inquit, frondoso vertice collen, nemus, et hunc Quis Deus, incertum est, habitat Deus. Arcades ipsum

an ad




333. Sequentem: experiencing the dangers 345. Argileti. Argiletum was a place beof the sea. Ruæus says, quærentem ultima tween mount Aventinus and Capitolinus, so spatia maris. Heyne takes extrema pelagi, called because it belonged to Argus: or bein the sense of ultimum mare.

cause he chere hospitably entertained Evan3:36. Auctor. By this Servius understands der on his arrival in Italy; or, lastly, bethe author of oracles. Ruæus takes it in cause he was buried there. For some cause the sense of suasor: persuader, or adviser. or other, Argus was killed by the new This is the sense given to the word by Da comers, without the knowledge of Evanvidson.

der, who gave him a sumptuous burial. 337. Dehinc: in the sense of cùm.

346. Testatur locum: he calls the place to 340. Fatidicæ vatis : a prophetic prophet- witness, &c. On seeing the place, the re

Cecinit: in the sense of prædixit. membrance of his friend and host sensibly 342. Quem asylum: which Romulus ren affected him. He began immediately to dered an asylum-reduced or turned into an

make protestations of his innocence, and asylum. This was a place of safety to all call the place to witness that he was clean criminals who should take refuge in it. from the foul deed. Docet: he relates-he Multitudes fled thither from the neighbor- infornis Æneas of the death of his host. ing nations. By this means, Romulus increased the number of his subjects; which

347. Tarpeiam sedem: the Tarpeian rock.

This is so called by anticipation. It was was the object he had in view. But then they were desperate and abandoned charac

not given to the place till the time of Roters generally. Hinc: in the sense of deinde.

mulus. It was first called Saturnium, from 343. Lupercal. This was a place at the

a city built by Janus, in memory of his foot of Mount Polatine, where the Arcadians friendship and union with Saturn. Afterunder Evander built a temple to Pan, the lastly Capitolinum, because the head of a

wards called by Romulus Tarpeium, and god of Arcadia ; where he was worshipped as the protector of their flocks from wolves.

man (caput) was found there, when the Lupercal, from lupus, a wolf. Here the

foundations of the capitol were laid. young inen perforined their annual plays 349. Dira relligio : even then the awful naked, and were called Luperci. Some sup- sanctity of the place terrified the fearful ruspose Ronnulus to have instituted these spo:ls, tics. Dr. Trapp observes, there is somehecause, in that place, he was nourished by thing wonderfully grand and awful in this Lupa.

image, both as it is in itself, and as it is con344. Dictum de : so called from the Ar. nected with what follows; the .capitol is to cadian manner of Lycæan Pan. Parrhasio: be built upon it. A god had already chosun an adj. froin Parrhasia, a district and city it for his residence. Ruæus says, horrida of Arcadia. Lycæi : an adj. from Lycæus,

sanctitas. a mountain in Arcadia, where Pan was par 350. Tremebant: they feared cven then ticularly worshipped.

the grove, &c.

Ut ventuin

Credunt se vidisse Jovem ; cùm sæpe nigrantem
Ægida concuteret dextrâ, nimbosque cieret. arzona tha
Hæc duo prætereà disjectis oppida muris,

355 355. Pratcrcà vidcs Relliquias veterumque vides monumenta virorum.

hæc duo oppida Hanc Janus pater, hanc Saturnus condidit urbem: Janiculum huic, illi fuerat Saturnia nomen.

353, Janiculum fuerat Talibus inter se dictis ad tecta subibant

nomen huic, Saturnia Pauperis Evandri; passimque armienta videbant 360 fuerat nomen illi. Romanoque foro et lautis mugire Carinis.

361. Mugire in loco, ad sedes : Hæc, inquit, limina victor

deinde dictoque Romano

foro, et lautis Carinis. Alcides subiit; hæc illum regia cepit. Passion

Aude, hospes, contemnere opes, ct te quoque dignum In Finge Deo, rebusque veni non asper egenis.

365 Dixit: et angusti subter fastigia tecti i installe Ingentem Æneam duxit; stratisque locavit,

367. Locavitque eum Effulturn foliis et pelle Litystidis ursæ.

stratis, effultum foliis Nox ruit, et fuscis tellurem amplectitur, alis. At Venus haud animo nequicquam exterrita mater, 370

370. At Venus mater

Ænec hau? nequicquam Laurentûmque minis et duro mota tumultu,

exterrita animo, mota. Vulcanın alloquitur ; thalamoque hæc conjugis aureo

que Incipit, et dictis divinum aspirat amorem :

372. Incipitque hæc Dum bello Argolici vastabant Pergama reges

verba in aureo Bebita, casurasque inimicis ignibus arces ;

375 Non ullum auxilium miseris, non arma rogavi

376. Non rogavi ullum CArtis opisque tuæ : nec te, charissime conjux,

auxilium iniseris TrojaIncassùmve tuos volui exercere labores ;

nis, non rogavi ulla arma

tuæ artis opisque Quamvis et Priami deberem plurima natis, Et durum Æneæ flevissem sæpè laborem ;

380 Nunc Jovis imperiis Rutulorum constitit oris : Ergò eadem supplex venio, et sanctum mihi numen



354. Agida : acc. sing. of ægis, a shield 370. At Venus. This is a fine episode. made of goat skin, from a Greek word It consists, properly, of threc parts: the consignifying a goat. Nimbos : nimbus pro- versation between Venus and her husband perly signifies thuse deep and black clouds, the casting and forging of the arms by which brew storms, thunder, and lightning the Cyclops, with a description of the place -the tempest itself.

-the sculpture upon the shield of Ænvas, 355. Muris disjectis : their walls being &c. The whole is in imitation of the Iliad, demolished-thrown down.

lib. 18. where Thetis entrcats Vulcan to 361. Carinis. Carino was the name of make arms for her son. But Virgil is supea magnificent street in Romne, where Pom- rior to Horner in dignity of sentiment. pey had his house.

373. Aspirat. Some copies have inspirat. 362. Ad sedes : to the palace of Evander. The sense is the same in either case. She Ventum : est is understood: in thu sense of inspires into her husband a divine love, by venerunt.

her endearing words. 364. Aude : be not afraid to despise. 375. Debita : destined-doomed to deDavidson says,

“have greatness of mind to struction, in consequence of the perjury of undervalue magnificence,” &c.

Laomedon. After which, Neptune and 365. Finge te quoque : manifest yourself Apollo became the enemies of Troy. See worthy of a god. By Deo, some under. Geor. i. 502. stand Hercules, whom Evander would have 379. Deberem: I owed very much to the Æneas to initate. But the quoque seems to

sons of Priam. determine it to be taken in a general sense : 382. Eadem venio: I, the same affectionas Hercules acted worthy of a god, so do ate wife, who have always been so tender you.

Veni non asper : come not displeased of your honor, and sn loth to give you with our poverty. Finge: Ruæus says, os trouble, come to you a suppliant, and as? tende. Asper : for offensus.

of your divinity, sacred to me, arms

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