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Ut vidi, ut perii, ut me malus abstulit error!
Incipe Mænalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.
Nunc scio quid sit amor. Duris in cotibus illum
Ismarus, aut Rhodope, aut extremi Garamantes,
Nec generis nostri puerum, nec sanguinis edunt.
Incipe Mænalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.
Sævus amor docuit natorum sanguine matrem
Commaculare manus: crudelis tu quoque, mater:
Crudelis mater magis, an puer improbus ille ?
Improbus ille puer, crudelis tu quoque mater.
Incipe Mænalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.
Nunc et oves ultrò fugiat lupus, aurea duræ
Mala ferant quercus, narcisso floreat alnus,
Pinguia corticibus sudent electra myricæ.
Certent et cycnis ululæ : sit Tityrus Orpheus :
Orpheus in sylvis ; inter delphinas Arion.
Incipe Mænalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.
Omnia vel medium fiant mare: vivite sylvæ.
Præceps aërii speculâ de montis in undas
Deferar: extremum hoc munus morientis habeto.

45 45. Edunt illum in

daris cotibus, puerum nec nostri generis, nec nostri sanguinis

48. Tu, O mater eras quoque crudelis: eras ne 50 mater magis crudelis, an

ille puer magis improbus! ille puer erat improbus; sed tu, O mater, quoque cras crudelis.


60. Habeto tu hoc extremum munus tui mo60 rientis amatoris

NOTES. 41. Ut vidi, ut, &c. How I gazed, how I the natural course of things may be changlanguished, how a fatal delusion carried me ed. The most unlikely and unnatural things away! Nothing can exceed this line in may take place, since a woman is found tenderness of expression. The me malus capable of such unfeeling and cruel conduct. abstulit error, represents him as snatched from himself, deprived of his reason and flower daffodil. See Ecl. ii. 46.

53. Alnus : the alder-tree. Narcisso: the judgment, and lost in wonder and admiration, while he surveyed her beauteous form,

54. Myricæ : shrubs,tamarisks. The and attractive charms. It also conveys to

word is sometimes taken for pastoral poetry. us a just idea of the nature of love, which Sudent : in the sense of stillent. Electra is often delusive, deceptive, and unsuccess- pinguia: rich amber. ful, as was the particular case of Damon. 55. Tityrus sit Orpheus, &c. May Tityrus Error: in the sense of insania, vel amor, become an Orpheus;-Orpheus in the woods, says Heyne. Malus : fatal—unhappy. and an Orion among the dolphins. Orion

44. Isinarus, &c. Ismarus and Rhodope was a fainous lyric poet of Lesbos, who, on were two very wild and rocky mountains in his return home from Italy with great Thrace. Garamantes. These were a savage wealth, was cast into the sea by the sailors people inhabiting the interior parts of Africa. for the sake of his money. A dolphin that Hence they are here called extremi.

had been charmed with his music, it is said, 45. Edunt: plainly for ederunt, by Enal- took him on his back, and carried him safe lage; and that in the sense of produxerunt to Tænarus, a town on the southern proor genuerunt.

montory of the Peloponnesus. For Orpheus, 47. Matrem. Medea, the daughter of see Ecl. iii. 46. Ætes, king of Colchis, a famous sorceress. 58. Omnia vel medium, &c. Let all things She fell in love with Jason, one of the Ar- become even the middle of the sea--the gonauts, and by her directions and assist- deep sea. Since I must perish, let all the ance, he obtained the golden fleece. She world be drowned. Vivile: elegantly put married him, and returned with him to for valete. Thessaly. He afterwards repudiated her, 59. Specula : the top, or summit. It proand inarried Creüsa, the daughter of the perly signifies any eminence which comking of Corinth. In revenge for which, she mands a prospect of the country around it, slew the children, whom she bore him, be- Aërii montis. This may allude to the fafore his eyes. See Ovid. Met. 7. Docuit: mous rock in Arcadia, called the lover's in the sense of impulit.

leap; from which, those, who threw them48. Commaculare: in the sense of polluere. selves into the sea, were cured of their love, 50. Improbus : wicked-impious.

60. Deserar. This appears to be used in 52. Nunc lupus ultrò, &c. Now may the the sense of the Greek middle voice, which wolf of his own accord flee from the sheep; generally hath a reflex signification: I will the hard oaks, &c. As if he had said: now throw myself.

* que

Desine Mænalios, jam desine, tibia, versus. 62. Damon dixit hæc: Hæc Damon : vos, quæ responderit Alphesibæus, vos, Pierides, dicite ea, Dicite, Pierides : non omnia possumus omnes. 63. Nos omnes non

Alp. Effer aquam, et molli cinge hæc altaria vittâ : possumus facere omnia Verbenasque adole pingues, et mascula thura, 65

Conjugis ut magicis sanos avertere sacris
Experiar sensus. Nihil hic nisi carmina desunt.
Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim.
Carmina vel cælo possunt deducere Lunam •
Carminibus Circe socios mutavit Ulyssei :

70 Frigidus in pratis cantando rumpitur anguis.

Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. 73. Primùm circumdo Terna tibi hæc primùm triplici diversa colore hæc terna licia tibi, di- Licia circumdo, terque hæc altaria circùm

Effigiem duco. Numero Deus impare gaudet. 75
Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim.

Necte tribus nodis ternos, Amarylli, colores ; 78. Neete eos modò: Necte, Amarylli, modò: et Veneris, dic, vincula necto. Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim.

80 81. Sic Daphnis emol

Limus ut hic durescit, et hæc ut cera liquescit, liatur nostro

Uno eodemque igni : sic nostro Daphnis amore. 83. Ego uro hanc Sparge molam, et fragiles incende bitumine lauros.



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63. Pierides: the Muses. They were so perfect of all numbers, having regard to the called from Pieria, where, it is said, they beginning, the middle, and the end. Diverwere born. See Ecl, iii, 60.

sa : diversified-various. 64. Efer aquam. Here Alphesibæus per 74. Circumdo : in the sense of circumligo. sonates some enchantress, who by charms 78. Veneris : in the sense of amoris. and magic rites endeavors to makc Daphnis Modò: in the sense of nunc. in love with her. The words are supposed 80. Ut hic Limus, &c. The sorceress to be addressed to her servant maid Ama- made two images or figures, one of mud ryllis, mentioned verse 78, infra.

(limus) to represent herself; the other of 65. Verbenas. A species of plant or herb wax (cera) to represent Daphnis. The called vervain, much used in magic opera- former would naturally harden, and the tions. It is sometimes taken for all kinds other melt in the same fire. It was the reof herbs used in such rites. Mascula. By ceived opinion that as the image inelted this we are to understand the strongest and and consumed, so did the person it reprebest kind of frankincense.

sented melt and dissolve into love, losing all 66. Ul experiar: that I may try to turn his cruelty and hardness of heart toward away the sound mind of my spouse: i. e. his mistress; while she, who was representthrow him into a violent passion for me, ed by the other figure, would grow harder, causing him to lose his reason and judg- and more indifferent to the object of her ment. Conjut, here means an intended or love. expected husband. By it we are to under 82. Sparge molam: break, or scatter the stand Daphnis, who it seems had left her salt-cake. The mola was a kind of cake for some other mistress. Sacris : rites, or much used in sacrifices. It was made of ceremonies.

the flour of grain that grew the same year, 67. Carmina: charms—a solemn form of highly seasoned with salt. It was placed words; to which the ancients attributed upon the forehead of the victim, and upon great efficacy.

the fire. Incende: burn the crackling lau70. Circe. The name of a famous sor rels with bitumen. The laurels were burnt See Æn. vii. 10.

to consume the flesh of Daphnis, on whose 71. Cantando : ger. in do, of the verb account these rites were performed. The canto. Ruæus says: dum incantatur: while cake was crumbled upon his image, or upon the incantations or inagic rites are per- the victims in sacrifices. Such was the naforming.

ture of these ridiculous rites. 73. Triplici colore: with triple color. The 83. Malus Daphnis: cruel Daphnis burns ancients had a great veneration for the me; I burn this laurel upon Daphnisupon number three. This was thought the most his image. By burning the effigy of a per.



Daphnis me malus urit, ego hanc in Daphnide laurum.
Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim.
Talis amor Daphnim, qualis, cùm fessa juvencum 85 85. Utinam talis amor
Per nemora, atque altos quærendo bucula lucos, occupet Daphnim, qua-
Propter aquæ rivum viridi procumbit in ulvâ

lis, cùm bucula fessa Perdita, nec seræ meminit decedere nocti:

quærendo juvencum per Talis amor teneat: nec sit mihi cura mederi.

nemoran atque altos lu. 89

cos, procumbit Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. 89. Teneat Daphnim Has olim exuvias mihi perfidus ille reliquit,

95. Meris ipse dedit

has herbas
Pignora chara sui : quæ nunc ego limine in ipso,
Terra, tibi mando: debent hæc pignora Daphnim.
Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim.
Has herbas, atque hæc Ponto mihi lecta venena 95
Ipse dedit Mæris, nascuntur plurima Ponto.

96. Enim plurima veHis ego sæpe lupum fieri, et se condere sylvis

nena nascuntur in PonMærin, sæpe animas imis excire sepulchris,

to. Ego vidi Mærin ip

sum sæpe fieri lupum Atque satas aliò vidi traducere messes.

his venenis, et condere se Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. sylvis ; vidi illum sæpe Fer cineres, Amarylli, foras : rivoque fluenti, Transque caput jace : ne respexeris. His ego Daphnim Aggrediar nihil ille Deos, nil carmina curat. Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim Aspice : corripuit tremulis altaria flammis.


101 excire


ine sea.


NOTES. son magically, it was thought that they burnt thought to be very efficacious in enchantthe person himself; or that some how or ments. Accordingly she lays much stress other, he was affected in a similar manner. upon them; she is sure they will bring him

85. Juvencum : the bull. Talis. Here home to her. One part of these magic rites is an ellipsis of the words, occupat juvencum, was to bury the clothes of the lover under or soine other of the like import, to make the threshold, to constrain him to return. the sense complete.

95. Ponio. Pontus, an extensive coun87. Ulva : a kind of sedge, or meadow. try in Asia Minor, bordering upon the Euxgrass. Some copies have herba.

It abounded in poisonous herbs. 88. Perdita : wretched —desperate; with. Mithridates, king of Pontus, rendered his out hope of finding the object of her search. country notorious by the long and bloody Nec seræ nocti, &c. She is so intent upon wars which he maintained against the Rothe object of her love, that she thinks of

He was, however, at last overcome nothing else-she thinks not of returning by Pompey the Great. Venena;. magic home, even though it be late at night. De plants. Those of a poisonous quality were cedere seræ nocti : to yield or give place to considered the most efficacious, and were the late night.

particularly sought for, and required in all 89. Mederi: to cure him.

enchantments. 91. Nie perfidus, &c. That perfidious 101. Fer cineres. The most powerful, (shepherd) formerly left these clothes with and usually the last efforts of the enchanter, me, as the dear pledges of himself. It ap were to throw the ashes of the magical sapears hence that Daphnis had pledged his crifice over the head backward into running love to her, but afterward violated his word. water. Servius says, this was done that the This justifies the use of the word conjux, as gods might catch the ashes without being applied to him, verse 66.

seen, as they were unwilling to show them. 92. In ipso limine : in the very threshold, selves, unless on extraordinary occasions. or entrance. Servius thinks we are to un 102. Ne respexeris: in the sense of ne derstand the entrance of the temple of respice. Vesta ; others, of Daphnis' own house. But 103. Aggrediar his, &c. With these ashes. it is better to understand it of her own house, I will assail Daphnis. Nihil and nil are for it appears that here she performed her often used as simple negatives, in the sense magic rites.

of non : he does not regard the gods, &c. 93. Mando : in the sense of committo. In other words, he does not regard his soHæc pignora : these pledges owe Daphnis to lemn promises made in the presence of the

The clothes that a person once wore, gods; he regards not my charms. or any thing that belonged to hire, were 105. Aspice. This and the following lino


106. Bonum omen

Sponte suâ, dum ferre moror, cinis ipse : bonum sit !
Nescio quid certè est : et Hylax in limine latrat.
Credimus? an, qui amant, ipsi sibi somnia fingunt ?
Parcite, ab urbe venit, jam parcite, carmina, Daphnis.

109. O mea carmina



to cinis ipse, were spoken by Amaryllis, as 107. Nescio quid, &c. As if she had said: appears from dum ferre moror: while I de some body is coming ; I know not certainly lay to carry them. If we attribute the who it is. Hylax. The name of a dog; from words to the enchantress, we must suppose a Greek word signifying to bark. her to do what she commands to be done. 108. Credimus? an qui, &c. Do I believe But beholding the ashes kindle the altar it? or, do those who love form dreams to into a trembling flame of its own accord, in themselves ? Yes, it is he. Cease, now a transport, she exclaims: may it be a good cease, my charms, Daphnis comes from the omen! The ancients considered the sudden city. blazing of fire to be a good omen.


How is this pastoral to be divided ?
What is the subject of it?

What is the meaning of the word Pharmaceulria, the title of the Eclogue ?

When was this Eclogue written?
Who were consuls ?
To whom was it probably dedicated?

Why do you suppose it to be dedicated to
Pollio rather than to Augustus?

When is the planet Venus called Lucifer:
When Hesperus?

Can you mention any line that has been noticed by commentators as extremely tender ?

Who was Medea ?
What is said of her?

Why are the Muses sometimes called



When Augustus divided the lands about Mantua among his soldiers, tho estate of Virgil

fell to Arius, a centurion. When he went to re-enter upon his estate, after it had been restored to him, he met with much severe treatment from the new possessor, and on one occasion, was near being killed. He saved his life by swimming over the river Mincius. In consequence of which, he returned to Rome to acquaint the Emperor of the matter. He left his steward, who is here called Meris, behind, and directed him to treat his new landlord with civility and respect. Mæris is going to him with a present of some kids, and meets Lycidas, who is supposed to be some Mantuan shepherd. Upon their meeting the pastoral opens. The scene is the road to the town. The evening is coming on: the air is tranquil and serene. The pastoral contains a complaint of Virgil's hard treatment under the character of Menalcas; a compliment to his friend Varus, and another to Julius Cæsar, and consequently to Augustus; together with several scraps of poetry artfully interwoven with the subject. The whole pastoral is elegant and beautiful.

1. O Meri, quò tui Lyc. Quò te, Mæri, pedes ? an, quò via ducit, in urpedes ducunt te ? an du

Ma. O Lycida, vivi pervenimus; advena nostri [bem ? cunt te in urbem, quò via ducit ?

(Quod nunquam veriti sumus) ut possessor agelli


2. Vim pervenimus : we living have come fy intrudingusurping, as well as foreign, to that condition or have lived to see the in the present case, it includes the idea of day, that, &c. Advena: a noun of common all of them. gender, here used as an adj. It may signi.

cere se


Diceret : Hæc mea sunt; veteres migrate coloni.

2. Nos vivi perveniNunc victi, tristes, quoniam fors omnia versat,


mus miseriæ, ut ad

· vena possessor Hos illi quod nec benè vertat) mittimus hædos.I •

4. Hæc arva sunt mea; Ly. dertè equidem audieram, quâ se subducere colles

vos, O veteres coloni, Incipiunt, mollique jugum demittere clivo,

7. Certè equidem au

dieram vestrum DomiUsque ad aquam et veteris jam fracta cacumina fagi, Omnia carminibus vestrum servâsse Menalcan. 10 num Menalcan servâsse

sibi omnia arva suis carMe.• Audieras, et fama fuit: sed carmina tantùm

minibus ab eo loco, quà Nostra valent, Lycida, tela inter Martia, quantùm colles incipiunt subduChaonias dicunt, aquilâ veniente, columbas, Quòd nisi me quâcumque novas incidere lites

11. Audieras illud, et Antè sinistra cavâ monuisset ab ilice cornix ;

talis fuit fama

13. Columbas valere Nec tuus hic Mæris, nec viveret ipse Menalcas.

14. Quòd nisi sinistra Ly. Heu! cadit in quemquam tantum scelus ? heu tua cornix monuisset Penè simul tecum solatia rapta, Menalca ! [nobis antè ab ilice cava inciQuis caneret Nymphas ? quis humum florentibus herbis dere

20 Spargeret ? aut viridi fontes induceret umbrâ ?

18. Heu tua solatia Vel

rapta sunt penè nobis quæ sublegi tacitus tibi carmina nuper,

simul tecum Cùm te ad delicias ferres Amaryllida nostras ?

21. Vel quis caneret Tityre, dum redeo, brevis est via, pasce capellas : carmina, quæ tacitus “ Et potum pastas age, Tityre, et inter agendum

23. Quorum versuum “ Occursare capro, cornu ferit ille, caveto.”


hoc est fragmentum : 0

Tityre, pasce Me. Immò hæc, quæ Varo, necdum perfecta, canebat.

26. Immo potius quis " Vare, tuum nomen (superet modò Mantua nobis, caneret hæccarmina, quæ

ille Menaleas

NOTES. 3. Agelli : a noun diminutive from ager : 14. Incidere novas lites, &c. To break off a little farm.

my new disputes in any way whatever. 5. Fors: in the sense of forluna. Lis, is properly an action or case at law. 6. Quod nec benè verlat : which (present 15. Sinistra : ill-boding. See Ecl. 1. 18.of the kids.) I wish may not turn out well 16. Hic tuus Meris. It appears from this to him. The usual inode of congratulation that the life of Virgil, who is here called upon receiving a favor was: Benè verlat, Menalcas, and that of Meris, had been in I wish you joy-may it turn out well to you. danger from the new landlord. nec benè verlat, therefore, was a kind of im 17. Heu, tantum scelus, &c. Alas! that so precation: may it prove a mischief to you. great wickedness should fall upon any one.

7. Subducere se : to decline-to fall. Or the words may be rendered thus; Alas!

8. Demillere jugum: to lower their ridge, that so great wickedness should come into or top, by an easy descent. Here we have any one's mind:—that any one should cona description of the farm of Virgil. It was ceive the idea of perpetrating the horrid bounded on one side by a sloping hill; in deed of murder. This is the usual sense other parts of its limits, were the broken given to the words. top of an old beech-tree, a inarsh, and the 18. Heu, tua solatia, &c. Alas, Menalcas, river Mincius.

your delight (the delight of your song,) was 9. Ad aquam : perhaps the river Mincius. almost snatched from us with yourself: and

13. Aquilâ veniente: the eagle coming upon if you had been quite slain, in that case, them-pursuing them. Here we have a who would have sung the nymphs, &c. Heyne beautiful circumlocution, expressing the in- observes that by solatia we are to underutility of his verses, and the charms of po- stand the song, carmina, or verses of Menaletry, amidst martial arms. Chaonias : an adj. froin Chaonia, a part of Epirus, where 21. Sublegi : I purloined from you. Ruwas the city Dodona, and a grove of the æus says, surripui. same name, famous for its oracular oaks. 22. Nostras delicias : for nostram amicam. Columbastwo doves endued with a pro- Deliciæ is used only in the plural; delightphetic spirit are said to have resided among darling: here a mistress. these oaks. Afterward one of them is said 24. Age pastas: drive them full fed to to have flown to the temple of Apollo at drink. Potum : sup. in um, to drink-take Delphi, and the other to the temple of Jupi. water. Inter agendum: in driving them ter Ammon in Africa. They are here put while driving them, beware, &c. for doves in general.

26. Varo: to Varus. See Ecl 6.7.


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