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Ad juga cogit equos ; clypeumque, auroque trilicem 639. Induiturquo cly Loricam induitur, fidoque accingitur ense.

640 peum, loricamque trili. Pandite nunc Helicona, Deæ, cantusque movete :

641. O Dev Musa, Qui bello exciti reges : quæ quemque secutæ

pandite Complêrint campos acies : quibus Itala jam tum

642. Qui reges exciti Floruerit terra alma viris, quibus arserit armis.

fuerint ; quæ acies Et meministis enim, Divæ, et memorare potestis : 645

643. Quibus viris jam

tum Itala, alma terra Ad nos vix tenuis famæ perlabitur aura. Primus init bellum Tyrrhenis asper ab oris

648. Asper Mezentius, Contemptor Divûm Mezentius, agıninaque armat. contemptor Divûin, priFilius huic juxtà Lausus ; quo pulchrior alter

mus init

649. Huic filius Lau. Non fuit, excepto Laurentis corpore Turni : 650

sus sequitur juxtà, quo Lausus equum domitor, debellatorque ferarum,

652. Ducit mille viros Ducit Agyllinå vequicquam ex urbe secutos

secutos eum nequicquam Mille viros ; dignus patriis qui lætior esset Imperiis, et cui pater haud Mezentius esset. Post hos, insignem palmâ per gramina currum,

655. Post hos pulcher 655

Aventinus, satus pulVictoresque ostentat equos, satus Hercule pulchro cbro Hercule, ostentat Pulcher Aventinus; clypeoque insigne paternum, currum insignem palinâ Centum anyues, cinctamque gerit serpentibus hydram : 657. Clypeoque gerit Collis Aventini sylvâ quem Rhea sacerdos

paternum insigne, nempe

660 Furtivum partu sub luminis edidit oras,

659. Quem Rhea sa

cerdos, mulier nixta Mixta Deo mulier : postquam Laurentia victor,

Deo, partu edidit furtiGeryone extincto, Tirynthius attigit arva,

vuin sub oras luminis

NOTES. to the chariots. Chariots were anciently 653. Dignus, &c. This line is somewhat used in war by all distinguished persons. perplexed. The usual ordo is, dignus qui

640. Induitur: in the sense of induit. esset lætior, &c. It would be easier by trans

641. Helicona : a Greek acc.: a mountain position thus : qui esset dignus (fuisse) lolior, in Beotia sacred to the muses. The poet &c.: who was worthy to have been happier here imitates the Iliad. lib. ii. both in this in his father's authority. It was in obediinvocation, and in the enumeration of the ence to his father that he came to the war. forces of the Italian princes. But, in seve If he had not been constrained, he would ral particulars, he has improved upon his have tarried at home, shunned the toils and model.

dangers of the war, and by that means have 646. Tenuis aura: a small breath of fame, saved his life. He was worthy to have &c.-scarcely a slender thread of tradition lived. Ruæus interprets imperiis by regno, hath extended down to us.

implying that he deserved to be happier in 647. Asper: fierce-cruel.

his father's kingdom-to have remained at 648. Mesentins. We are told that he home, and, by that means, saved his life. commanded his subjects to pay him a tax of Cui: to whom Mezentius ought not to have the first fruits, and the firstlings of heir been a father; who could have iinposed flocks; which before were given to the gods. such commands upon a son. On this account, he was considered an athe 657. Pulcher. Dr. Trapp thinks this canist, contemptor dirûm. The poet here gives not here mean beautiful; but rather stout, us a list of the troops engaged on the part of illustrious, renowned; as the same word is Turnus.

applied to Hercules, his father. Paternum 649. Huic. The dative of the personal insigne : his father's ensign, or impress. pronouns is often used in the sense of the This was the figure of the conquered hydra, genitive. Huic: in the sense of hujus. shooting up into a hundred heads.

650. Corpore Turni : a Grecism, for Tur 660. Edidit partu: brought forth at a nus himself.

birth into life, &c. 652. Argyllina : an adj. from Argylla, a 661. Mixta : uniting-mingling withcity of Tuscany, near the confines of Lati- having intercourse with. Hercules, after he

It was founded by a colony of Thes- had slain Geryon, the king of Spain, and salians. Nequicquam : in vain, because he taken his herds, returned with thein through was to be slain in the war with his troops: Italy. It was at this time, that the priestess or, because he could not prevent thereby Rhea conceived Aventinus, and afterward the purposes of the gods concerning the bore him to that hero. Trojans.

662. Tirynthius : a game of Hercules,

um.

Tyrrhenoque boves in flumine lavit Iberas. 664. Ejus milites ge- Pila manu, sævosque gerunt in bella dolones : runt

Et tereti pugnant mucrone, veruque Sabello. 665
Ipse pedes, tegmen torquens immane leonis,
Terribili impexum setâ, cum dentibus albis,
Indutus capiti : sic regia tecta subibat

Horridus, Herculeoque humeros innexus amictu. 670. Tum gemini fra

Tum gemini fratres Tiburtia mania linquunt, 670 tres, Catillusque, acer- Fratris Tiburti dictam cognomine gentem, que Coras, Argiva ju- Catillusque, acerque Coras, Argiva juventus : ventus, linquunt

Et primam ante aciem densa inter tela feruntur.
Ceu duo nubigenæ cùm vertice montis ab alto
Descendunt Centauri, Omolen Othrynque nivalem 675
Linquentes cursu rapido : dat euntibus ingens

Sylva locum, et magno cedunt virgulta fragore.
678. Nec Cæculus fun Nec Prænestinæ fundator defuit urbis ;
dator Prænestinæ urbis Vulcano genitum pecora inter agrestia regem,
defuit ;
omnis ætas credidit ge-
quemdidiem. Inventumque focis, omnis quem credidit ætas,

680 nitum esse

Cæculus. Hunc legio latè comitatur agrestis : 682. Quique viri co- Quique altum Præneste viri, quique arva Gabinæ lunt altum Præneste, Junonis. gelidumque Anienem, et roscida rivis quique colunt,

Hernica saxa colunt: quos, dives Anagnia, pascis; 685. Quos tu pascis, O pater Amasene. Arma Quos, Amasene pater. Non illis omnibus arma, 685 non sunt omnibus Nec clypei currusve sonant : pars maxima glandes

NOTES. from Tyrins, a city near Argos, where he had very small eyes, as his name implies. was brought up.

He was very ambitious, and was the found. 663. Tyrrheno flumine: the river Tiber, er of a colony. He pretended that he was which divided Tuscany or Etruria from La- the son of Vulcan, and that the brightness tium. Iberas boves : his Spanish herds. Ibe- of his father's fire had injured his sight. ras : an adj. from Iberus, a river of Spain. He built the city Præneste, situated on a Hodie, Ebro.

mountain. Hence called altum Preneste, 664. Dolones. These were long poles or about 24 miles from Rome. battoons, with bayonets enclosed at the end, 680. Inventum focis : found upon the which were hardly to be observed. Hence hearth. He was therefore reputed the son they were called dolones, from dolus, being of Vulcan. The verb esse vel fuisse is una kind of deceitful weapon.

derstood. 665. Veru. This was a kind of dart used

682. Gabinæ Junonis. Gabina : an adj. by the Sabines and Samnites. Hence the from Gabii, a town of the Volsci, between epithet Sabello, that is, Sabino vel Samnitico.

Rome and Præneste. Here Juno had a 668. Indutus capiti : he put it (the shaggy splendid temple. Hence she is called Ga

binian Juno. lion skin) upon his head. Cinctus circa

683. Gelidum Anienem : the river Anien, caput, says Ruæus.

which empties into the Tiber from the north669. Innecus: covered, as to his shoul

east. Its water was very cold. Hence the .ders, with the garment of Hercules, his fa- epithet gelidum. ther. This was the hide of the Nemæan

684. Hernica sara: the towns of the lion.

Hernici. They were a people between the 673. Feruntur : in the sense of incedunt. Æqui, the Marsi, and the Volsci. Their Ante primam : before the first line-in the

country was very mountainous. Hence front of the battle.

their towns were called saxa, being built 674. Nubigenæ : cloud-born sons. These amongst rocks. Their chief town were the Centaurs, whom Ixion begat, it is Anagnia. Roscida rivis : watered with rills said, upon a cloud. They were a people of or streams. Thessaly, and celebrated for horsemanship. 685. Amasene. The river Amasenus, Ixion was their king.

which watered the country about Anngnia. 675. Omolen-Othryn. These were moun The epithet pater is common to all the river tains of Thessaly, where the Centaurs re- gods. Hodie, Toppia, sided.

686. Glandes plumbi: balls of lead. Spar 678. Fundator, &c. Cæculus, we are told, git: throws.

was

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690

692. Quem neque erut fas cuique sternere

Liventis plumbi spargit; pars spicula gestat
Bina manu, fulvosque lupi de pelle galeros
Tegmen habet capiti: vestigia nuda sinistri
Instituêre pedis ; crudus tegit altera pero.

At Messapus equûm domitor, Neptunia proles,
Quem neque fas igni cuiquam nec sternere ferro,
Jampridem resides populos, desuetaque bello
Agmina, in arma vocat subitò, ferrumque retractat.
Hi Fescenninas acies, æquosque Faliscos;
Hi Soractis habent arces, Flaviniaque arva,
Et Cimini cum monte lacum, lucosque Capenos.
Ibant æquati numero, regemque canebant :
Ceu quondam nivei liquida inter nubila cycni
Cùm sese è pastu referunt, et longa canoros
Dant per colla modos : sonat amnis, et Asia longè
Pulsa palus.
Nec quisquam æratas acies ex agmine tanto
Misceri putet, aëriam sed gurgite ab alto

695 695. Hi ducunt Frs

cenninas

700

NOTES.

688. Fulvos galeros : tawny caps of the chief. The plu, may be used for the sing. wolf's skin, &c.

by way of aggrandizement, as is common 689. Vestigia nuda: they formed the prints to all languages. Or the hi must refer to or tracks of the left foot naked-their left the subordinate officers and commanders of foot was naked. Crudus pero : unwrought Messapus. This seems to be the opinion of leather covers the other. Vestigia is un- Ruæus, who has: hi duces Messapi. derstood. The pero was a kind of high 696. Soractis. Soracte was the name of a shoe, made of raw hide, and worn by rustics mountain in the country of the Falisci. Arprincipally. Instituêre : in the sense of po ces : the towers or strong places built upon suere.

it. Flavinia arya.

Little is known of this 691. Messapus. By birth he was a Greek. place, nor is its situation exactly ascertained. After his arrival in Italy, he occupied the eastern part, which was from him called in the western part of Etruria. It had a

697. Cimini. Ciminus was a mountain Messapia, afterward Calabria. He was a skilful navigator; and hence called Nep

lake and a grove. Capenos : an adj. of Calunia proles: the offspring of Neptune. Vir- pena, a city on the banks of the Tiber. Here gil places his dominions in the eastern part ed Messapus to the war.

was a grove and temple. All these followof Etruria, not far from the place where Rome was afterward built.

698. Ibant æquati : they marched with 693. Populos jampridem: his people, a equal steps, and uniform motion. By numelong time inactive, and disengaged from the ro, we are to understand a kind of harmony pursuits of war.

and keeping time with their music. Or, 695. Fescenninas acies : the Fescennine ther, the order of their march-rank and

file. troops. These were from the city Fescennia, or Fescenniuin, a town of Etruria, a 699. Ceu quondam, &c. This simile is little below the confluence of the Nar and taken from the Iliad, lib. ii, and is very fineTiber. Acies, properly, an army drawn up

ly expressed. in order of battle. Here, troops in general. 701. Amnis et Asia: the river and the Æquosque Faliscos. These were a people Asian lake, struck from afar, resound. The situated a little below Fescennium. Their Amnis is the Caüstrus. See Geor. i. 383. city was Faliscum. Servius says, they were Modos : in the sense of roces. called Æquos, because the Romans borrow 702. Nec quisquam putet: nor would any ed from them their jura fecialia, or laws of one (who heard their music only) have arins: also, a supplement to the laws of the thought them armed troops of so great numtwelve tables. Others make Æqui the name bers, united and joined together ; but an of a people, called, also, Æquicolæ, and aërial cloud of sonorous fowls, &c. The read, Æquosque Faliscosque. The hi in this words, who heard their music only, are ne. and the following line, appears to refer to cessary to make the sense complete. For Messapus, within whose territories all these the poet could not intend that those who cities and people were, here mentioned; and, saw them, would have taken them for a consequently, he was their commander in flock of birds..

Urgeri volucrum raucarum ad litora nubem.

705 Ecce, Sabinorum prisco de sauguine, magnum Agmen agens Clausus, magnique ipse agminis instar,

Claudia nunc à quo diffunditur et tribus et gens 710. Unà cum eo ibant

Per Latium, postquam in partem data Roma Sabinis. ingens Amiterna cohors,

Unà ingens Amiterna cohors, priscique Quirites, 710 priscique

Ereti inanus omnis, oliviferæque Mutuscæ : 712. Ili quoque ibant Qui Nomentum urbem, qui rosea rura Velini : qui colunt urbem No- Qui Tetricæ horrentes rupes, monteinque Severum, mentum, qui colunt ro- Casperiamque colunt, Forulosque et flumen Himellæ. sea rura Velini; qui colunt

Qui Tybriin Fabarimque bibunt : quos frigida misit 715 715. Illi ibant

quoque,

Nursia; et Hortinæ classes, populique Latini : quos frigida Nursia ni- Quosque secans infaustum interluit Allia nomien. sit

Quàm multi Libyco volvuntur inarmore fluctus, 717. Illi que, quos

Allia, infaustum nomen,

Sævus ubi Orion hybernis conditur undis ; secans interluit, ibuni Vel quàm Sole novo densæ torrentur aristä, 720 unà cum eo.

Aut Hermi campo, aut Lyciæ faventibus arvis.

NOTES.

707. Clausus. After the expulsion of the dure all the year. The neighboring mounkings, Alla Clausus removed with his fami- tains are covered with them; and, by reason ly, and about five thousand clients and of their height, are more exposed to dews friends, from Regillum, a city of the Sa- and drizzling rains than the adjacent parts. bines, to Rome. After which he took the Some copies have roscida.

Dr. Trapp pre. name of Appius. He was admitted into the fers rosea, and takes it for a patronymic adpatrician order. The poet makes the Clau- jective; and observes it should be written sus here named, to have been one of his an with a capital R. Heyne writes it with a cestors. Instar agminis : himself like a capital. Tetrica-Severum. The names of mighty army-a match for.

two mountains, so called from their wild 708. Diffunditur: in the sense of propa- aspect and barrenness. Their situation is gat!ır, vel spargitur.

uncertain. 709. In parlem Sabiris. The poet here 714. Casperiam. Casperia was a town alludes to the union of the Sabines and Ro not far from Cures. Hodie, Aspera. Forumans, which put an end to the wars between los. Foruli was a town in the neighborhood the two nations. These were the conditions of Amiternum. Himella. This was a small of the compact. The Sabines were to re river falling into the Tiber, a little below move to Roine, which was to retain its name. Cures. Hodie, Aia. The citizens were to take the name of Qui 716. Nursia. This city was situated riles, from Cures, a city of the Sabines; and among the Apennines, and much exposed to the government was to be jointly adminis- frost. Hence the cpithet, frigida. Hodie, tored by Tatius and Romulus.

Norica. Hortinæ : an adj. from Hortanum 710. Amiterna cohors. The poet here or Horta, a city at the confluence of the eruumerates various places, all belonging to Nar and Tiber. Classes. It is plain that the Sabines. Amiterna : an adj. from Amin classes here means land forces, or troops in ternum, a town situated among the Apen- general. Heyne says, copiæ. nines. Quiriles were the inhabitants of 717. Allia. A river that runs into the Cures, whence the Romans were afterward Tiber a little below Eretum. Here the Ro. soinetimes called Quirites. Eretum was a mans were completely defeated by the Galli village near the confluence of the rivers Senones, under Brennus, their king: on Allia and Tiber. Hodie, Monte Rotundo, which account, Virgil calls it infaustum noMutuscæ : a village beyond the Palus Rea an inauspicious naine. Secans: in tina, to the north. Hodie, Monle. Leone. the sense of dividens. Nomentuin, was a town near Eretum on the 719. Orion: a constellation much dreaded east. Hlodie, Nomentano.

by mariners; hence called sævus: stormy. 712. Rosca rura. Part of the country of 720. Novo sole. By this interpreters unReatina, according to Pliny, was called ro derstand the sun in the beginning of the sea, from ros, dew; which, falling copiously, summer. But perhaps the sun is called fertilized that part of the country,

Mr.

new, not in respect of the year; but of the Addison observes, that the river Velinus is arisiæ, the ears of corn. Hermi. Hermus shaded by a green forest inade up of seve was a river of Lydia, a most fertile count:y. ral kinds of trees, which preserve their ver. Lycice. This was a country on the south of

men :

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Scuta sonant, pulsuque pedum tremit excita tellus.

Hinc Agamemnonius, Trojani nominis hostis,
Curru jungit Halesus equos, Turnoque feroces
Mille rapit populos. Vertunt felicia Baccho 725 725. Rapit mille fero-
Massica qui rastris : et quos de collibus altis

ces populos in auxiliun

Turno. Illi veniunt qui Aurunci misêre patres, Sidicinaque juxta

vertunt rastris Massica Æquora : quique Cales linquunt; amnisque vadosi

arva felicia Baccho; et Accola Vulturni; pariterque Saticulus asper,

illi veniunt quos AurunOscorumque manus. Teretes sunt aclides illis 730 ci patres, Sidicinaque Tela ; sed hæc lento mos est aptare flagello:

juxta æquora misêre

732. Cetra tegit lævas Lævas cetra tegit : falcati cominùs enses.

falcati Nec tu carininibus nostris indictus abibis,

sunt illis ad pugnandum Chale; quem generâsse Telon Sebethide Nymphå cominùs. Nec tu, o Fertur, Teleboûm Capreas cùm reyna teneret 735 paler Ebale, abibis in

dictus
Jam senior: patriis sed non et filius arvis
Contentus, latè jam tum ditione premebat

739. Veniuntque, qui Sarrastes populos, et quæ rigat æquora Sarnus :

tenent Quique Rufas, Batulumque tenent, atque arva Celennæ : 740. Et illi quos meEt quos maliferæ despectant mænia Abellæ :

740 nia

manus ;

cnses

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NOTES.

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Asia Minor, abounding in corn. Torrentur: Manus Oscorum, The Osci, were a people dried—ripened.

descended from the ancient Ausones, and in722. Excita : in the sense of commota. habited the city Capua. All these troops 723. Hinc : in the next place, Halesus, &c. were under the coinmand of Halesus.

724. Halesus. Either the natural son of 730. Teretes aclides. The aclis was a kind Agamemnon, or an illegitimate one. Or of missive weapon, with a sharp point at perhaps by Agamemnonius, we are to under- each end. It had a string fastened to it, stand simply his being a Greek by birth. by which the owner drew it back after a Curru for currui.

throw. These in close fight were formida726. Massica. The poet here inentions ble weapons. It is probable they bound several nations and places in Campania. them about the wrist with a cord, (flagello,) Massica : an adj. agreeing with arva under or string, by way of security. stood. Massicus was a mountain in Cam 732. Falcnti: in the sense of curvi. pania near the sea, in the confines of La 733. Indictus : unsung-unmentioned. tium, very fertile in vines. Aurunci patres. 734. Telon: acc. of Greek ending. Sebe The Aurunci, or Ausones, were the most thide : the nymph Sebethis. ancient inhabitants of Italy, and therefore 735. Capreas : Caprea, an island over styled Patres. They were between Campa- against the Surrentinum Promontorium. The uia and the Volsci. Sidicina : plu. of Sidi- Teleboi, a colony from Epirus, possessed it. cinum, a tract of country to the eastward Hodie, Capri. of the Aurunci, bordering upon the sea. 737. Premebat dirione : held in bondage-Cales : plu. a town built upon the mountain in subjection. Massicuus. Hodie, Calri.

738. Sarnus. A river Howing through 729. Accola : the inhabitants of the forda- Campania, into the Sinus Neapolitanus. ble river Vulturnus—those who live near Sarrastes. These were the inhabitants of the river, &c. came also to the war. Mr. the promontory Surrentinum, in that part of Davidson observes that vadosus must be Italy called Campania. Æquora : in the used here metaphorically, to signify danger- sense of campi vel arva. Æquor, properly ous; or it must refer to those parts of the signifies any plane, or level surface, whether river near the mouth, where it spreads and land or water runs with a gentle course, and consequently 739. Rufas: Rufæ, or Rufræ, was a city is shoal. The Vulturnus is a river of Cam. farther to the east. Hodie, Rufo. The pania, noted for its rapidity. Vadosus : situation of Datulum and Celennce is unfrom rndum, a shoal or sand-bank. This known. river takes its rise in the Apenninec, and 740. Abella: Abella a town to the north after a very circuitous course falls into the of Sarnus, in the confines of Campania and sea not far from the ancient Cuma. Salicu- the Harpini. It was celebrated for that sort lus: an inhabitant of Saticula, or Satricula, a of nuts, called nuces avellane, or filbert-nuts, town to the east of Vulturnus, and Capuæ. Hodie, Avella. It was built on an elevated

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