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Damonis Musam dicemus et Alphesibæi.
5 est ; quorum carmine Tu mihi, seu magni superas jam saxa Timavi ;
lynces stupefactæ sunt;
et flumina mutata quoad Sive oram Illyrici legis æquoris : en erit unquam
suos cursus requierunt: Ille dies, mihi cùm liceat tua dicere facta !
dicemus, inquam, musam En erit, ut liceat totum mihi ferre
6. Tu, Ö Pollio, fave Sola Sophocleo tua carmina digna cothurno !
10 mihi, seu A te principium : tibi desinet: accipe jussis
8. En ille dies erit,
cùm liceat mihi Carmina cæpta tuis, atque hanc sine tempora circùm
11. Principium meoInter victrices hederam tibi serpere lauros.
rum laborum erat à te : Frigida vix cælo noctis decesserat umbra,
meus labor desinet tibi Cùm ros in tenerâ pecori gratissimus herbâ est : 15 12. Sine hanc hedeIncumbens tereti Damon sic cæpit olivæ.
17. O Lucifer, nasDa. Nascere, præque diem veniens age, Lucifer, al
cere, præveniensque age Conjugis indigno Nisæ deceptus amore
(mum: almum diem : dum ego Dum queror, et divos (quanquam nil testibus illis deceptus indigno amore Profeci) extremâ moriens tamen alloquor horâ. 20
5. Dicemus : in the sense of narrabimus. covered his lands, and so had an occasion
6. Tu mihi, &c. It is generally thought given him for writing; and further, that that the poet addresses himself to Pollio, poets promise many things, which they do who, about this time, returned to Rome in not perform. triumph, having overcome the Partheni, a
12. Sine hanc, &c. "Permit this ivy to people of Illyricum. The verb fave, or adsis, creep around thy temples amidst thy vicmust be supplied, to make the sense com
torious laurels-permit me to crown thee plete. Ellipses of this kind are frequent, with ivy, while others crown thee with lauparticularly among the poets. Timavi. rel. This is a very delicate verse.
The See Æn, i. 244.
poet here entreats his patron to permit his 7. Sive legis, &c. Whether you coast ivy to entwine about his temples among his along the shore of the Illyrian sea. Illyric victorious laurels; in other words, to accept cum was a very extensive country lying on these his verses, in the midst of his victhe right of the Adriatic sea, or gulf of tories. The poetic crown was originally Venice, including the ancient Liburnia and made of ivy exclusively, afterwards, someDalmatia. Æquoris. Æquor properly sig- times it was made of laurel : but the trinifies any plain or level surface, whether umphal crown was always made of laurel. land or water. Erit: in the sense of aderit. Victrices lauros : alluding to the triumph
10. Cothurno. The cothurnus was pro- with which he was honored for his victory perly a high-heeled shoe, worn by the tra
over the Partheni. gedians to make them appear taller; by
16. Tereti olivæ : leaning against a tapermeton. put for tragedy, or the tragic style. Sophocleo : an adj.
from Sophocles, an Athe-ing olive, Damon thus began. nian, the prince of tragic poetry. He was
17. Præveniens. The parts of the vert cotemporary with Pericles. Tua carmina are separated for the sake of the verse, by sola, &c. Your verses alone worthy of the Tmesis. This figure is frequent among the buskin-worthy of being introduced upon poets. Lucifer: the morning star, or Venus the stage. The cothurnus is here called It is called Lucifer when going before the Sophoclean, because Sophocles introduced sun; Hesperus, when following after him. it upon the stage. Pollio was not only a
There is a fitness and propriety in Damon's statesman, but a poet, and a distinguished calling upon the star, or planet Venus to writer of tragedy. See Ecl. iv. 12. arise, as if to listen to his complaint, since
11. Principium, &c. This line is elliptical. it was a love affair. Age: in the sense of The ellipsis is supplied in the ordo: the be- advehe. ginning of my labors was from thee; my
18. Conjugis. Conjux here is a betrothed labors shall end with thee. From this or expected wife. Indigno amore: may circumstance, some have been led to think mean immoderate love; or a love ill-requithat the poet alludes to Augustus, and not
ted-a love of which Nisa was unworthy. to Pollio. He wrote his first Eclogue, it is 20. Profeci : I have gained, or profited true, to compliment the generosity of his nothing. Illis testibus. It would scern that prince, and the Æneid to flatter his vanity. Nisa had pledged her faith to Damon, and But we are to remember, it was through the called the gods to witness it; yet she viointerest and friendship of Pollio, that he re- lated her promises.
Incipe Mænalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.
Mænalus argutumque nemus pinosque loquentes
Incipe Mænalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.
Incipe Mænalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.
Hirsutumque supercilium, prolixaque barba : barba sunt tibi odio.
Nec curare Deûm credis mortalia quemquam.
Sepibus in nostris parvam te roscida mala,
Jam fragiles poteram à terrâ contingere ramos.
21. Mænalios versus : Mænalean, or pas- eastward, would observe the stars retiring toral verses—such as used to be sung on or settling behind it. Hence, as it respected mount Menalus in Arcadia. It was sacred them, the expression is the same as saying, to Pan. By reason of its pleasant groves, the evening star is setting, and conscquently and whispering pines, it was much frequent. the evening somewhat advanced; which ed by shepherds, where they sang their would not be an unpleasant circumstance loves. The poet personifies the mountain, to the new-married couple. and makes it listen to the songs of shep- 34. Hirsutum supercilium: my rough, or ds.
shaggy eyebrows. ere could be no ground 22. Loquentes : whispering—tuneful. of complaint against Nisa for not loving
24. Qui primus : who first, &c. See Ecl. these, and his long beard. These surely ü. 31. Inertes : in the sense of inutiles. possess no charms. But as Dr. Trapp ob
27. Gryphes: griffons. They were fa- serves, the ground of his complaint lay in bulous animals, having the body of a lion, this : that her cruelty and scorn had so disand the wings and beak of an eagle. heartened him, as to render him negligent of
28. Damce timidi : the timid deer. Ad his outward appearance. pocula : in the sense of ad aquam, vel potum; 35. Mortalia : things done by mortals. by meton.
This line is both beautiful and pathetic. 29. Incide faces. It was a custom among 37. In nostris sepibus : in our enclosures the Romans to lead the bride to the house - gardens, fields. This and the four folof her husband with lighted torches before lowing lines are extremely delicate, and her. These torches were pieces of pine, or show the hand of a master. The circumsome unctuous wood, which were cut to a stances here enumerated, the age of the point, that they might be lighted the easier. young shepherd, nis being just able to reach It was usual to have five of these torches. the boughs, his officiousness in helping the Hence ducere uxorem, came to signify, to girl and her mother gather the fruit, and marry a wife; it is said of the husband: nu- his falling in love with her at the same bere viro, to marry a husband; this is said time, are so well chosen, and happily exof the wife.
pressed, that we may consider this passage 30. Sparge nuces : scatter nuts. It was as one of those happy and delicate touches a custom among the Romans at nuptials, which characterize the writings of Virgil. for the husband to throw nuts, &c. upon the Roscida. By this we are to understand, floor, that the boys and the rest of the com- Heyne observes, that the apples were wet pany might divert themselves in gathering with the dew of the morning. This will them. Hesperus deserit Oetam tib : the determine the time of the day, when they evening star is leaving Oeta for you. Oeta took their walk into the orchard. was a mountain, or rather range of moun- 39. Alter annus, &c. Lit. another year tains, of great height, in Thessaly. The in- after the eleventh had just then taken men habitants of Attica and Beotia being to the I had just entered my twelfth year.
Ut vidi, ut perii, ut me malus abstulit error!
45 45. Edunt illum in
daris cotibus, puerum nec nostri generis, nec nostri sanguinis
48. Tu, O mater eras quoque crudelis: eras ne 50 mater magis crudelis, an
ille puer magis improbus! ille puer erat improbus; sed tu, O mater, quoque cras crudelis.
60. Habeto tu hoc extremum munus tui mo60 rientis amatoris
NOTES. 41. Ut vidi, ut, &c. How I gazed, how I the natural course of things may be changlanguished, how a fatal delusion carried me ed. The most unlikely and unnatural things away! Nothing can exceed this line in may take place, since a woman is found tenderness of expression. The me malus capable of such unfeeling and cruel conduct. abstulit error, represents him as snatched from himself, deprived of his reason and flower daffodil. See Ecl. ii. 46.
53. Alnus : the alder-tree. Narcisso: the judgment, and lost in wonder and admiration, while he surveyed her beauteous form,
54. Myricæ : shrubs,tamarisks. The and attractive charms. It also conveys to
word is sometimes taken for pastoral poetry. us a just idea of the nature of love, which Sudent : in the sense of stillent. Electra is often delusive, deceptive, and unsuccess- pinguia: rich amber. ful, as was the particular case of Damon. 55. Tityrus sit Orpheus, &c. May Tityrus Error: in the sense of insania, vel amor, become an Orpheus;-Orpheus in the woods, says Heyne. Malus : fatal—unhappy. and an Orion among the dolphins. Orion
44. Isinarus, &c. Ismarus and Rhodope was a fainous lyric poet of Lesbos, who, on were two very wild and rocky mountains in his return home from Italy with great Thrace. Garamantes. These were a savage wealth, was cast into the sea by the sailors people inhabiting the interior parts of Africa. for the sake of his money. A dolphin that Hence they are here called extremi.
had been charmed with his music, it is said, 45. Edunt: plainly for ederunt, by Enal- took him on his back, and carried him safe lage; and that in the sense of produxerunt to Tænarus, a town on the southern proor genuerunt.
montory of the Peloponnesus. For Orpheus, 47. Matrem. Medea, the daughter of see Ecl. iii. 46. Ætes, king of Colchis, a famous sorceress. 58. Omnia vel medium, &c. Let all things She fell in love with Jason, one of the Ar- become even the middle of the sea--the gonauts, and by her directions and assist- deep sea. Since I must perish, let all the ance, he obtained the golden fleece. She world be drowned. Vivile: elegantly put married him, and returned with him to for valete. Thessaly. He afterwards repudiated her, 59. Specula : the top, or summit. It proand inarried Creüsa, the daughter of the perly signifies any eminence which comking of Corinth. In revenge for which, she mands a prospect of the country around it, slew the children, whom she bore him, be- Aërii montis. This may allude to the fafore his eyes. See Ovid. Met. 7. Docuit: mous rock in Arcadia, called the lover's in the sense of impulit.
leap; from which, those, who threw them48. Commaculare: in the sense of polluere. selves into the sea, were cured of their love, 50. Improbus : wicked-impious.
60. Deserar. This appears to be used in 52. Nunc lupus ultrò, &c. Now may the the sense of the Greek middle voice, which wolf of his own accord flee from the sheep; generally hath a reflex signification: I will the hard oaks, &c. As if he had said: now throw myself.
Desine Mænalios, jam desine, tibia, versus. 62. Damon dixit hæc: Hæc Damon : vos, quæ responderit Alphesibæus, vos, Pierides, dicite ea, Dicite, Pierides : non omnia possumus omnes. 63. Nos omnes non
Alp. Effer aquam, et molli cinge hæc altaria vittâ : possumus facere omnia Verbenasque adole pingues, et mascula thura, 65
Conjugis ut magicis sanos avertere sacris
70 Frigidus in pratis cantando rumpitur anguis.
Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. 73. Primùm circumdo Terna tibi hæc primùm triplici diversa colore hæc terna licia tibi, di- Licia circumdo, terque hæc altaria circùm
Effigiem duco. Numero Deus impare gaudet. 75
Necte tribus nodis ternos, Amarylli, colores ; 78. Neete eos modò: Necte, Amarylli, modò: et Veneris, dic, vincula necto. Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim.
80 81. Sic Daphnis emol
Limus ut hic durescit, et hæc ut cera liquescit, liatur nostro
Uno eodemque igni : sic nostro Daphnis amore. 83. Ego uro hanc Sparge molam, et fragiles incende bitumine lauros.
63. Pierides: the Muses. They were so perfect of all numbers, having regard to the called from Pieria, where, it is said, they beginning, the middle, and the end. Diverwere born. See Ecl, iii, 60.
sa : diversified-various. 64. Efer aquam. Here Alphesibæus per- 74. Circumdo : in the sense of circumligo. sonates some enchantress, who by charms 78. Veneris : in the sense of amoris. and magic rites endeavors to makc Daphnis Modò: in the sense of nunc. in love with her. The words are supposed 80. Ut hic Limus, &c. The sorceress to be addressed to her servant maid Ama- made two images or figures, one of mud ryllis, mentioned verse 78, infra.
(limus) to represent herself; the other of 65. Verbenas. A species of plant or herb wax (cera) to represent Daphnis. The called vervain, much used in magic opera- former would naturally harden, and the tions. It is sometimes taken for all kinds other melt in the same fire. It was the reof herbs used in such rites. Mascula. By ceived opinion that as the image inelted this we are to understand the strongest and and consumed, so did the person it reprebest kind of frankincense.
sented melt and dissolve into love, losing all 66. Ul experiar: that I may try to turn his cruelty and hardness of heart toward away the sound mind of my spouse: i. e. his mistress; while she, who was representthrow him into a violent passion for me, ed by the other figure, would grow harder, causing him to lose his reason and judg- and more indifferent to the object of her ment. Conjut, here means an intended or love. expected husband. By it we are to under- 82. Sparge molam: break, or scatter the stand Daphnis, who it seems had left her salt-cake. The mola was a kind of cake for some other mistress. Sacris : rites, or much used in sacrifices. It was made of ceremonies.
the flour of grain that grew the same year, 67. Carmina: charms—a solemn form of highly seasoned with salt. It was placed words; to which the ancients attributed upon the forehead of the victim, and upon great efficacy.
the fire. Incende: burn the crackling lau70. Circe. The name of a famous sor- rels with bitumen. The laurels were burnt See Æn. vii. 10.
to consume the flesh of Daphnis, on whose 71. Cantando : ger. in do, of the verb account these rites were performed. The canto. Ruæus says: dum incantatur: while cake was crumbled upon his image, or upon the incantations or inagic rites are per- the victims in sacrifices. Such was the naforming.
ture of these ridiculous rites. 73. Triplici colore: with triple color. The 83. Malus Daphnis: cruel Daphnis burns ancients had a great veneration for the me; I burn this laurel upon Daphnisupon number three. This was thought the most his image. By burning the effigy of a per.
Daphnis me malus urit, ego hanc in Daphnide laurum.
lis, cùm bucula fessa Perdita, nec seræ meminit decedere nocti:
quærendo juvencum per Talis amor teneat: nec sit mihi cura mederi.
nemoran atque altos lu. 89
cos, procumbit Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. 89. Teneat Daphnim Has olim exuvias mihi perfidus ille reliquit,
95. Meris ipse dedit
96. Enim plurima veHis ego sæpe lupum fieri, et se condere sylvis
nena nascuntur in PonMærin, sæpe animas imis excire sepulchris,
to. Ego vidi Mærin ip
sum sæpe fieri lupum Atque satas aliò vidi traducere messes.
his venenis, et condere se Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. sylvis ; vidi illum sæpe Fer cineres, Amarylli, foras : rivoque fluenti, Transque caput jace : ne respexeris. His ego Daphnim Aggrediar nihil ille Deos, nil carmina curat. Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim Aspice : corripuit tremulis altaria flammis.
NOTES. son magically, it was thought that they burnt thought to be very efficacious in enchantthe person himself; or that some how or ments. Accordingly she lays much stress other, he was affected in a similar manner. upon them; she is sure they will bring him
85. Juvencum : the bull. Talis. Here home to her. One part of these magic rites is an ellipsis of the words, occupat juvencum, was to bury the clothes of the lover under or soine other of the like import, to make the threshold, to constrain him to return. the sense complete.
95. Ponio. Pontus, an extensive coun87. Ulva : a kind of sedge, or meadow. try in Asia Minor, bordering upon the Euxgrass. Some copies have herba.
It abounded in poisonous herbs. 88. Perdita : wretched —desperate; with. Mithridates, king of Pontus, rendered his out hope of finding the object of her search. country notorious by the long and bloody Nec seræ nocti, &c. She is so intent upon wars which he maintained against the Rothe object of her love, that she thinks of
He was, however, at last overcome nothing else-she thinks not of returning by Pompey the Great. Venena;. magic home, even though it be late at night. De plants. Those of a poisonous quality were cedere seræ nocti : to yield or give place to considered the most efficacious, and were the late night.
particularly sought for, and required in all 89. Mederi: to cure him.
enchantments. 91. Nie perfidus, &c. That perfidious 101. Fer cineres. The most powerful, (shepherd) formerly left these clothes with and usually the last efforts of the enchanter, me, as the dear pledges of himself. It ap- were to throw the ashes of the magical sapears hence that Daphnis had pledged his crifice over the head backward into running love to her, but afterward violated his word. water. Servius says, this was done that the This justifies the use of the word conjux, as gods might catch the ashes without being applied to him, verse 66.
seen, as they were unwilling to show them. 92. In ipso limine : in the very threshold, selves, unless on extraordinary occasions. or entrance. Servius thinks we are to un- 102. Ne respexeris: in the sense of ne derstand the entrance of the temple of respice. Vesta ; others, of Daphnis' own house. But 103. Aggrediar his, &c. With these ashes. it is better to understand it of her own house, I will assail Daphnis. Nihil and nil are for it appears that here she performed her often used as simple negatives, in the sense magic rites.
of non : he does not regard the gods, &c. 93. Mando : in the sense of committo. In other words, he does not regard his soHæc pignora : these pledges owe Daphnis to lemn promises made in the presence of the
The clothes that a person once wore, gods; he regards not my charms. or any thing that belonged to hire, were 105. Aspice. This and the following lino